Byron's wife. They were married in 1815 and separated the next year after the birth of Byron's only natural child, Augusta Ada. Lady Byron was by all accounts a grave and learnéd woman whose interests included both religion and mathamatics. She was also highly intolerant of Byron's flamboyance and completely unwilling to put up with his sexual promiscuity. After their separation she learned of Byron's earlier affair with his half-sister, Augusta, and afterwards never considered reconciliation.
Byron's antipathy towards his wife and towards the institution of marriage is a minor theme of Don Juan. Don Juan's, mother, Donna Inez, has many characteristics of Lady Byron, and the relationship of Donna Inez and Don Jóse in Canto I is modeled on the Byron marriage.
The separation was well publicized and created serious social problems for Byron. His affairs with Lady Carolyn Lamb and with his half-sister became public knowledge. He was for the most part shunned by "polite society". He left England in the spring of 1816 and never returned.
An Irish-born Catholic who became a fashionable poet during the Regency. He is best remembered now for lyrics like "Believe Me, If All Those Endearing Young Charms", and "The Harp That Once Through Tara's Halls". Moore also translated Anacreon's Odes, to which Byron makes reference in Canto 1.
Byron's early verse was heavily influenced by Moore, and Moore was a close friend of Byron from 1812 until Byron's death.
Southcote claimed to be a virgin and to be with child with the new Messiah, "Shiloh". She retained a large fanatic following during the years she remained "pregnant". Doctors of the time diagnosed her actual condition as dropsy.
One of her followers was Parson Tozer.
British poet, biographer and critic. Poet laureate 1813-1843. Southey was one of the "Lake Poets ", and has long been a target of satire. The poem "You Are Old, Father William" in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is a spoof on a Southey lyric. Here is the Norton Anthology article on Southey:
Time has dealt harshly with Robert Southey, for he is remembered mainly for his close association with poets greater than himself and for Byron's brilliant lampoons in Don Juan and The Vision of Judgment. He attended Oxford, was for a short time a fervent supporter of the French Revolution, and wrote an epic and two dramas inspired by that event. With Coleridge (who became his brother-in-law) he planned the frustrated "Pantisocracy" on the banks of the Susquehanna and collaborated on several poems. In 1803 he settled at Keswick in the Lake Country, within long walking distance of his friend Wordsworth; and with advancing age, he settled into a Tory viewpoint more conservative than either Wordsworth's or Coleridge's. All his life a learned and hard-working writer, he produced thousands of pages of epic and shorter poems, history, essays, biographies and anything else for which there was a market; he was awarded the laureateship in 1813.
The only Southey writings still widely read are a few lyrics, a beautifully lucid short Life of Nelson (1813), and -- a piece so widely loved and often retold that it has lost its connection with its author and acquired the status of an anonymous "fairy tale" -- the story of The Three Bears.
Southey was an extreme Tory, but had been a bit of a radical in his youth. Along with Coleridge and others, he had planned an ideal society to be established in America based on a set of principles they called Pantisocracy. He was embarrassed when an idealistic play he wrote on the subject of Wat Tyler was resurrected and published (without his consent) in 1817. It was very popular.
Byron held all the Lake Poets culpable, but especially Southey, for their slide from youthful idealism into mean-spirited Toryism.
O Time! the beautifier of the dead,
Adorner of the ruin, comforter
And only healer when the heart hath bled—
Time! the corrector where our judgments err,
The test of truth, love,—sole philosopher.
For all besides are sophists, from thy thrift
Which never loses though it doth defer—
Time, the avenger! unto thee I lift
My hands, and eyes, and heart, and crave of thee a gift.