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Live Table of Contents of Froude's History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth

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Chapter 1 Social Condition of England in the Sixteenth Century Character of Mediaeval Civilization; Population in the Sixteenth CenturySlowness of the Rate of IncreaseEncouragement of ManufacturesThe great "Sin of Idleness"Decline of TownsThe Feudal SystemRegiments of LabourDistribution of PropertySumptuary LawsProsperity of the PeopleWages and PricesPrinciple of State InterferenceGeneral Prosperity of LabourLabour and CapitalManagement of LandThe Commercial SpiritAbsorption of Lands for PasturageThe State InterferesIncomes of the Higher ClassesCost of the Royal EstablishmentThe Country Gentlemen and the ClergyCountry Houses in EnglandThe "Glory of Hospitality"Habits of Country Gentlemen The Clergy and the Laity. EducationOrganization of TradeThe London CompaniesEducation of the PoorIllustrative Statutes .The Handloom WeaversThe System DecaysThe ChangeMilitary TrainingArchery PracticeAmusements of the PeopleRise of the English DramaEnglish Dramatic ExhibitionsIllustrationsA Masque at GreenwichNeglect of Duty by the Religious HousesEnglish Poor LawsOrganization of CharityAct of 1531Act of 1536Conclusion
Chapter II The Last Years of the Administration of Wolsey Struggles between the Clergy and LaityCondition of the Church; The Warnings; Intended Reformation by WolseyThe one Resident Bishop; The Supplication of the Beggars; First Agitation of the Divorce; The Law of Succession; The Divorce of Catherine of Arragon; The Succession; Recollections of the Wars of the RosesPossible Claimants for the Crown; Marriage of Henry and Catherine; Henry's Motives; Henry's own FeelingsThe Spanish AlliancePolicy of WolseyWolsey's Scheme of Church ReformWolsey 's Visionary SchemesThe "Divorce" submitted to the PopeThe Papal Jurisdiction on its TrialThe Pope's DifficultiesConduct of CharlesDerangement of CommerceProposals of Campeggio; Attitude of Catherine; Public Acknowledgment of Anne BoleynPremature IntriguesThe Emperor's Influence destroyedThe Pope's PromiseWolsey's ProtestThe CrisisFall of WolseyThe Third EstatePersecutionParties in EnglandEarly Character of Henry VIII.Early History of Anne Boleyn.
Chapter III The Parliament of 1529 The Gathering of ParliamentThe Consistory CourtsThe Discipline of the ClergyTemper of LondonParliament meetsSpeech of Sir Thomas MoreThe Business of the Session commencesComposition of the House of CommonsPetition of the CommonsReply of the BishopsCharacter of the DefenceProceedings of ParliamentClergy Discipline ActStatute against PluralitiesFailure of the OppositionHumiliation of the BishopsProrogation of ParliamentThe Appeal to the UniversitiesCharles the Fifth at BolognaClement the SeventhThe European Powers and the PapacyMission of the Earl of WiltshireThe Reply of the EmperorAttitude of the PopeThe Opinions of the UniversitiesBribery and IntimidationThe University of ParisOxford and CambridgeA Sunday at WindsorResults of the Collection of OpinionsThe King's Book.
Chapter IV Church and State The Clergy allowed a RespiteChange in the Position of the ClergyProsecution of WolseyThe Statutes of ProvisorsThe Clergy in the PremunireThe Bishop of RochesterAttempt to poison himPunishment of a PoisonerTemper of the CountryAct against the GipsiesPopular SuperstitionsThe Nun of KentThe House of Lords address the PopeThe Address of the LordsThe King leaves Catherine; The Party of InsurrectionThe Levy of the Fine upon the ClergyScene in St. Paul's Chapter HouseBurning of Tracy's BodyBenefit of ClergyReform of the Court of ArchesEvasion of the Mortmain ActPayment of AnnatesThe Clergy PetitionThe Annates ActFinal Surrender of ConvocationFeeling of the CountryResignation of the Seals by MoreProtest and Death of Archbishop Warham.
Chapter V Marriage of Henry and Anne Boleyn Liberty of OpinionGeneral Espionage; Informations forwarded to the GovernmentThe Greenwich ObservantsThe Religious Orders in EnglandPosition of Parties in EuropePapal Diplomacy Meeting of the KingsThe Interview at CalaisThe Return of Henry to EnglandThe Pope in DifficultiesInterview between the Emperor and PopeThe Bologna ConferenceThe King marriesRecapitulationFrancis falls to the PopeIsolation of HenryThe Parliament meetsEconomic Legislation Act of ApparelThe Act of AppealsThe Cause laid before ConvocationCranmer applies for Licence to proceedThe King's ReplyThe Meaning of that ReplyThe Court at DunstableCranmer's SentenceUnsatisfactory Character of itPreparations for the CoronationThe Queen is brought to the TowerThe Coronation PageantThe QueenThe CoronationLetter to the EmperorThe Emperor's ReplyProspects in EnglandThe Princess DowagerThe Princess MaryRoyal ProclamationCatherine at AmpthillCatherine and the Royal CommissionersQueen Catherine's ConductLetter of Archbishop CranmerMartyrdom of Frith and HewettRetribution.
Chapter VI The Protestants The LollardsPresentation to Religious Benefices in the Fourteenth CenturyStatutes of ProvisorsRise of the LollardsJohn WycliffeTheory of PropertyInsurrection of Wat TylerWycliffe's Influence declinesDeath of WycliffeInsurrection of Oldcastle — i Close of the Lollard MovementNew Birth of ProtestantismThe Christian BrothersLutherMultiplication of TestamentsWilliam TyndalThe Antwerp Printing-PressThe Christian BrothersWolsey's PersecutionsStory of Anthony DalaberEscape of GarretPerplexity of the AuthoritiesThe Ports are set for Garret's CaptureGarret goes to Bristol, and is takenThe Investigation at OxfordDoctor London's IntercessionThe Bishop of LincolnOxford is PurgedTemper of the ProtestantsThe Fall of Wolsey brings no ReliefSir Thomas More as ChancellorContrast between Wolsey and MoreMartyrdom of BilneyMartyrdom of James BainhamFeelings of the PeoplePavier the Town Clerk .The Worship of RelicsHoods and RelicsThe Rood of DovercourtThe PaladinsEarly Life of LatimerHe goes to CambridgeLatimer's EducationHis Fame as a PreacherHe is appointed Chaplain to the KingHis Defence of the ProtestantsHe is cited before the BishopsLatimer before the BishopsThomas CromwellWill of Thomas Cromwell.
Chapter VII The Last Efforts of Diplomacy Mary of HungaryThe King is cited to RomeClement refuses further DelayIsolation of England Henry urgent against the InterviewHe appeals to a CouncilTerms of the AppealLegal Value of the AppealCranmer's Sentence known at Rome Measures of the ConsistoryMeasures of the ConsistoryHenry again calls on FrancisHe will not surrender his MarriageHe will not repeal his LegislationHe urges the Rupture of the InterviewRecal of the EmbassyEngland and GermanyBirth of ElizabethClement arrives at MarseillesThe InterviewBonner at MarseillesBonner and the PopeThe Pope rejects the AppealProposal for a Court to sit at CambrayFrancis implores Henry to consentHenry refuses to revoke the Laws against the PapacyState of EnglandThe Princess MaryQueen CatherineThe Nun of KentState of Feeling in EnglandProposed Marriage of the Princess MaryThe Nun of KentDisgrace of MaryThe Countess of SalisburyThe NevillesGeneral SuperstitionProposals for a Protestant League used as a Menace to FrancisThe Protestant LeagueThe Court of BrusselsMeeting of ParliamentPerils of the ReformationCromwellOpening MeasuresThe Congé d'élireAbolition of ExactionsClosing ProtestApology of Sir Thomas More accepted by the KingObstinate Defence of FisherThe Bill proceedsExecution of the NunHer last WordsThe Act of SuccessionThe first Oath of AllegianceClement gives final Sentence against the KingObscurity of the Pope's ConductMission of the Duke of GuiseThe French Fleet watch the ChannelThe Commission sits to receive the OathMore and FisherMore before the CommissionHe refuses to SwearDebate in CouncilThe Government are peremptoryConcession not possibleRoyal ProclamationCircular to the SheriffsDeath of Clement VII..
Chapter VIII The Irish Rebellion State of IrelandThe Norman Conquest AbsenteesThe Norman IrishWeakness of the English RuleDistribution of the Irish ClansThe Irish ReactionCondition of the PeopleEnglish and Irish EstimatesIreland for the IrishCoyne and LiveryThe Geraldines of KildareDeputation of Lord SurreyReturn of KildareForeign IntriguesDesmond intrigues with the EmperorGeraldine ConspiracyKildare sent to the TowerThe Irish RiseThe Duke of Richmond ViceroyThird Deputation to KildareIreland in its Ideal StateNew Aspects of Irish RebellionIreland and the PapacyKildare is sent to the TowerDesmond and the EmperorCorny O'BrienThe Holy War of the GeraldinesGeneral RebellionSiege of DublinMurder of Archbishop AllenFitzgerald writes to the PopeDublin saved by the Earl of OrmondA Truce agreed toDelay of the English DeputyOrmond again saves DublinThe Deputy sails from BeaumarisMismanagement of SkeffingtonDelay and IncapacityBurning of Trim and DunboyneSkeffington will not moveGeneral DespondencyDisorganization of the English Army ....The Campaign opensSiege of MaynoothStorming of the CastleThe Pardon of MaynoothThe Rebellion collapsesLord Leonard GreyFitzgerald surrendersDilemma of the GovernmentExecution of FitzgeraldEnd of the Rebellion.
Chapter IX The Catholic Martyrs State of England in 1534Temper of the ClergyOrder for Preaching — Secret Disaffection among the Clergy312 The ConfessionalTreasonable IntriguesCatholic TreasonsPersecuting Laws against the CatholicsThe Act of SupremacyThe Oath of AllegianceElection of Paul the ThirdAnxiety of the EmperorProposals for a Catholic CoalitionCounter-Overtures of Francis to HenryAttitude of HenryDistrust of FranceEngland and the PapacyThe Penal LawsThe Battle of the FaithsThe Charterhouse MonksThe Anabaptist MartyrsFisher and MoreFisher named CardinalThe Pope condescends to FalsehoodFisher Tried and SentencedExecution of FisherSir Thomas MoreEffect upon EuropeLetter to Cassalis Reply of the PopeBull of DepositionIntrigues of Francis in GermanyEngland and Germany.
Chapter X The Visitation of the Monasteries Visitation of the MonasteriesThe Abbey of St. AlbansCommission of 1535The Visitors at OxfordProgress of the VisitorsVisit to Langden AbbeyFountains AbbeyThe Monks at FordhamThe Monks of PershoreRules to be observed in all AbbeysThe Black Book in ParliamentDiscussion in ParliamentConflicting OpinionsSmaller Houses suppressedThe Protestant BishopsState of LondonThe Vagrant ActRemission of FirstfruitsDissolution of ParliamentThe Work accomplished by Parliament.
Chapter XI Trial and Death of Anne Boleyn Death of Queen CatherineAnne BoleynAnne Boleyn committed to the TowerThe TowerCranmer's Letter to the KingCranmer's PostscriptPreparations for the TrialTrue Bills found by the Grand JuriesThe IndictmentThe TrialsThe opposite ProbabilitiesExecution of the five GentlemenThe DivorceThe ExecutionThe SuccessionThe King's Third MarriageOpinions of Foreign CourtsMeeting of ParliamentSpeech of the Lord ChancellorSecond Act of Succession.
Chapter XII Foreign and Domestic Aspects of the Reformation in England Spain and EnglandAnimosity of the EmperorMission of Cardinal GranvelleThe Milan TemptationFrancis will join the Papal LeagueThe Triple CordEffect of the Death of CatherineOvertures to EnglandReply to the Spanish AmbassadorThe French invade ItalyThe Emperor's ProtestSpeech in the ConsistoryInvasion of ProvenceAttitude of EnglandExpectations formed at RomePaul's Message to HenryLetter of Sir Gregory CassalisHistory of Reginald PoleThe King's Favour towards himResidence AbroadThe Book of the ChurchOpposes ConciliationEngland seen from withinConvocation of 1536Latimer's SermonSpirit of the ClergyComplaints against the Growth of HeresyProtestant HeresiesPeculiar Disposition of the KingFirst Articles of ReligionJudgment on General CouncilsInjunctions of the Vicar-GeneralThe English Bible
Chapter XIII The Pilgrimage of Grace Causes of Popular DisaffectionDiscontent in the House of LordsThe Statute of UsesEnclosures of CommonsEncroachment upon Local JurisdictionThe Three CommissionsFantastic Rumours .Rising in LincolnshireThe First of October at LouthThe Rebellion in MotionThe Articles of the RebellionThe Rebels occupy LincolnLord HusseyThe Duke of SuffolkThe King's Answer to the PetitionScene in the Chapter-house at LincolnThe Gentlemen separate from the CommonsThe Great InsurrectionAccount of Robert AskeThe Rising of the NorthScene at BeverleyLord DarcyThe Rendezvous at WeightonAske enters YorkLord Darcy in PomfretSurrender of PomfretThe Siege of HullSkipton CastleAdvance of the Duke of NorfolkHenry's Instructions to NorfolkLancaster Herald at PomfretLord NorthumberlandDoncasterThe Doncaster ArticlesThe Conference on Doncaster BridgeThe Advice of the CouncilDespatch of HeraldsState of the NorthProposal to betray AskeRebel Council at YorkThe Council of PomfretThe King's Second CommissionResolutions of the KingThe Council of YorkAske goes to LondonFresh Danger
Chapter XIV The Commission of Cardinal Pole James the FifthReginald Pole made a CardinalThe Mission into FlandersThe CredentialsState of the North of EnglandSir Francis BigodSecond InsurrectionFailures at Scarborough and HullArrival of the Duke of NorfolkThe Rebels attack CarlisleMartial LawPole arrives in FranceHe is dismissed into the NetherlandsHe retires to LiegeArrests in EnglandAske, Darcy, and ConstableTrials of the PrisonersExecutionsAske and ConstableDeath of AskeThe Children of BenjaminPole at LiegeMichael ThrogmortonLetter of Cromwell to Michael ThrogmortonIllustrative Sketches of the TimeThe SacramentsThe Bishop's BookAddress of the KingState of the NavyPiracy in the ChannelBattle in Falmouth HarbourOutrages of Foreign CruisersEquipment of a FleetAction in the DownsEnglish SuccessesSurvey of the CoastsThe RevenueIll-health of the KingBirth of the Prince of WalesDeath of the QueenAnxiety for the PrinceCreation of PeersProposal of a New Marriage
Chapter XV The Exeter Conspiracy The European PowersEngland and the EmpireMission of Sir Thomas WyattThe Princess MaryThe Duchess of MilanInterchange of AllianceDoubts and WarningsThe Pacification of NiceDoctor BonnerThe Religious HousesVoluntary SurrendersImages and BeliesFriar ForestNovel Law of HeresyOderfel GadernThe ShrinesSt. Thomas of CanterburyThe King's MarriageThe Pope issues the CensuresPole's Second MissionEngland and FlandersPole's ApologyIrish Overtures to the PapacyContemplated Invasion of IrelandThe English LordsRenewed AgitationsThe Marquis of ExeterThe Banner of St KevernThe Cornish ConspiracyArrest of HollandThe PolesLady SalisburyCircular to the Justices of the PeaceWestminster HallLord MontagueSir Edward NevilleExecutions for TreasonTestimony of EventsEngland and the LutheransThe Landgrave of HesseProsecution of LambertLambert dies at the StakeCromwell's Opinion of the SentenceReginald Pole in SpainRumour of the intended InvasionThe Flemish FleetReports from SpainThe King at DoverThe UncertaintyThe Fleet in Flanders dispersesDespair of PoleHe is alarmed for the EmperorThe Muster in London
Chapter XVI The Six Articles Religious ToleranceSpirit of PersecutionState of PartiesThe Privy CouncilThe Prospects of CromwellAppeal of the King to his SubjectsGeneral PardonDifficulties of ProtestantismMarriage of the ClergyAn Execution at IpswichGeneral ElectionMeeting of ParliamentReligious DifferencesProposals for UnionAttainder of the PolesThe Six ArticlesAct of ProclamationsRoyal AddressDissolution of the MonasteriesExtension of the EpiscopateApprobation of EnglandProtest of MelancthonModeration of the KingDevelopment of the StatuteSecond PardonThe Vicar of StepneyHenry and Prince EdwardThe English Criminal LawThe Welsh MarchesAddress to the Justices of the PeaceIssue of Special CommissionsThe Three AbbotsThe Abbot of Glastonbury
Chapter XVII Anne of Cleves, and the Fall of Cromwell Anne of Cleves .Cromwell and the PeersPosition of CromwellCromwell and GardinerCromwell and the BishopsThe ProtestantsProsecution of Dr. WattsThe Emperor comes to ParisReginald PoleThe Emperor at ParisAn English TraitorInterview with Sir Thomas WyattAnne of Cleves lands in EnglandThe King's SensationsArrival of Anne at GreenwichReluctance of Henry Completion of the MarriageProtestant ControversyAttitude of the EmperorFailure of Cromwell's Foreign PolicyApproach of the Crisis — $ Meeting of ParliamentCromwell's Opening SpeechThe Calm before the StormProgress of ordinary LegislationA Subsidy BillAttainders of RomanistsThe King's MarriageHints of a Divorce .The Fall of CromwellIntercession of CranmerThe AttainderThe Six ArticlesThe King's StatementJudgment of Convocation — S Communication with the DukeOpinion of Foreign PowersCommittee of ReligionThe Calais ConspiratorsAttainder of three ProtestantsParliament is DissolvedThe Fall of CromwellHis Prayer on the ScaffoldCharacter of Cromwell
Chapter XVIII Scotland and Ireland Outlines of Scottish CharacterEnglish Failures in Attempts at ConquestRivalry of the Two NationsEffects of FloddenThe Duke of AlbanyFeuds of the NoblesThe Queen-MotherRenewed War with EnglandOvertures of HenryEnglish and French FactionsAlbany returns from FranceWar on the BordersCowardice of the RegentFinal Departure of AlbanyIntrigues of MargaretReturn of the Earl of AngusConspiracies among the LordsProfligacy of the Queen-MotherAngus in EdinburghDanger of Civil WarCompromise of PartiesThe English TreatyAnarchyOverthrow of AngusCharacter of James the FifthHe inclines to the Papacy, and quarrels with EnglandSuggestion of an Interview between the KingsWeakness of the KingThe intended Interview is relinquishedJames marries a French PrincessJames returns to ScotlandPersecution of the DouglasesMary of GuiseThe Catholic CoalitionMission of Sir Ralph SadlerThe Scotch ProtestantsThe Birth of John KnoxPatrick HamiltonAlexander FerrierPersecutionState of IrelandDeath of Sir William SkeffingtonUnfavourable ProspectsExpedition into the WestO'Brien's BridgeCarrigogonnellThe Deputy and the CouncilPretensions of the Irish ConvocationAdmonitions of the King .Archbishop BrownErrors of the DeputyDespatch of CommissionersAn Irish OutrageJudgment of Sir John AllenReports of the CommissionersIrish Leanings of the DeputyQuarrels among the Bishops Recover}' of the Irish FactionRemonstrances of OrmondLady Eleanor FitzgeraldThe Deputy visits ConnaughtContradictory Accounts of itThe King's RebukeOutward ReconciliationRising of the ClansDefeat of O'NeilFresh DissensionsThe Deputy becomes IrishHe is sent to the TowerThe IndictmentThe Five PointsExecution of GreyA New Deputy
Chapter XIX Solway Moss Effect of the Death of CromwellThe King marries Catherine HowardEngland, France, and the EmpireEnglish Refugees on the ContinentDisputes with FranceThe Treaty of Moor ParkIntricate Money ClaimsThe Milan DifficultyWallop and Wyatt accused of TreasonThey are acquittedRising of Sir John NevilleThe Countess of SalisburyLordDacresThe Progress into YorkshireCatherine HowardOpening of ParliamentThe Chancellor's SpeechProsecution of the Queen Petition of the Houses to the King.The Queen is attaintedExecution of the QueenSymmetry of MisfortuneAct against WitchcraftSanctuary LawsQuestion of PrivilegeCase of FerrarsCondition of EnglandFrance and TurkeyProbabilities of WarExpedition against AlgiersSurprise of MaranoFrance and VeniceEngland and the EmpireThe Orleans MarriageThe Debt of EnglandPiracy in the ChannelFrench Overtures to EnglandThe two Alliances, and their respective AdvantagesExpectation of WarDebt and RepudiationInvasion of the Low CountriesSupposed Irritation of the Emperor against the PopeFailures of the FrenchDefeat of Ferdinand by the TurksScottish DifficultiesHalydon RiggFrance and EnglandEnglish ManifestoWar with ScotlandIntrigue of Beton against the LordsThe Gathering of LochmabenInvasion of CumberlandSolway MossMurder of an English HeraldDeath of James the Fifth
Chapter XX The French War The European PowersEffects of the Defeat at SolwayThe Scots sue for PeaceImprisonment of BetonProspect of Union with EnglandThe Murder of Somerset HeraldOvertures of HenryReturn of the Solway PrisonersAgitation in FrancePreparations to maintain the CardinalRegency of the Earl of ArranObjections to the English ConditionsArran and BetonCharacter of BetonMeeting of the Scottish ParliamentTerms on which they will consent to UnionToleration of the ProtestantsThird Mission of Sir Ralph SadlerTemper of PartiesMary of GuiseRelease of BetonDiplomatic RefinementsDisposition of the RegentFaction and UncertaintyPropositions of EnglandGathering of the War PartyStruggles of the Two PartiesSecond Message from EnglandEfforts of the Peace PartyTerms of the TreatiesA French Fleet on the Coast of ScotlandMenaces of the ClergyDefeat of the French FleetThe Queen is carried offDespair of Sir Ralph SadlerThe Treaties are ratifiedThe Regent joins BetonThe French Faction triumphRupture with EnglandA Legate arrives from RomeConduct of the Scottish LordsProgress of ReactionMessage of Henry the Eighth to the Scottish ParliamentRival Factions in London and ParisThe Earl of SurreyPiracy in the ChannelLeague with the EmpireEffect upon EuropeAlarm of FrancisOvertures to EnglandAttitude of GermanyInterview of the Emperor -with the PopeEnglish Demands on FranceAssistance is sent to the RegentA Passage at ArmsProgress of the WarConfusion of PartiesThe Emperor enters Germany, and summons Duren Panic in GueldresSubmission of the Duke of ClevesThe Emperor repairs to Flanders, and joins the Army Operations before LandrecyRetreat of the FrenchPlans for the ensuing YearIntended Invasion of France
Chapter XXI The Peace of Crêpy The English BibleIntrigue against CranmerPersecution at WindsorDispleasure of the KingRevision of the- Persecuting ActExpectations from the EmperorMoney is voted for the WarAct of SuccessionThe Scottish LineAdministration of BetonPersecution at PerthThe Protestants of PerthParties among the LordsThe Earl of LennoxPreparations for InvasionAttitude of the EmperorIntentions of HenryLeague with the LordsDistrust of AngusInstructions to Lord HertfordConspiracies against BetonInvasion of ScotlandBurning of EdinburghThe English retireFrench Attempts to break the LeaguePreparations for the WarMeeting of the Gorman DietOpening of the SessionThe Catholics and ProtestantsMediation of the EmperorProtest of the CatholicsHenry's Plan of a CampaignNot accepted by the EmperorRemonstrances of HenryNecessity for the Reduction of Boulogne and MonatreulTreachery of LandenbergThe Campaign opensSiege of St. DizierFrench IntriguesThe Emperor and his MinisterPerplexity of HenrySurrender of St DizierSecret Overtures to the EmperorMission of the Bishop of ArrasFall of BoulogneThe Emperor makes PeaceConjectural Interpretations of the Emperor's ConductThe Pope's WarningProbable Effect on the EmperorThe Siege of Monstreul is raisedDanger of BoulogneNight AttackThe French retreatThe Conference at CalaisThe Conference dissolves ineffectuallyDemands upon »he EmperorEmbassy to BrusselsCorrespondence with GermanyLetter of Gardiner to ArrasThe Ambassadors visit CharlesInterview of the Ambassadors with the EmperorEngland and Germany
Chapter XXII The Invasion Expenses of the WarA BenevolenceAlderman ReedEnergy in FranceSiege of BoulogneDefeat of De BiezAncram MuirDifferences with the EmpireRights of NeutralsDistrust of the EmperorProspects of the German LeagueOpposition of the ElectorIsolation and Danger of EnglandPaget goes to BrusselsInterview with the EmperorMystery and DuplicityLamentations of PagetThe Council of TrentThe Diet of WormA Franciscan SermonThe German League again failsPreparations for the WarThe Fleet at PortsmouthDemonstrations of LoyaltyThe Gathering at SpitheadThe InvasionThe French at St Helen'sLoss of the Mary RoseThe French land 'in the Isle of WightCouncil of WarProposal to occupy the Isle of WightSkirmish at ShanklinLetter of Lord Lisle to the KingProposal to run down the FrenchAction off ShorehamThe Plague in the French FleetAttack on TreportInroads into ScotlandAttack on the Calais PaleEngland and the EmpireProtests of the English CouncilArrests and ReprisalsChange of ToneThe Emperor desires ReconciliationMeditated TreacheryProspects of PeaceConference at BrusselsThe Protestants at CalaisBruno and SturmiasSecret ProposalsFemale IntriguesHow the French Terms originatedSir William PagetRenewal of the WarVacillation of the German!The Closing ConferenceConditions of PeaceFinancial Position of EnglandPaget urges the Acceptance of TermsPeace is concludedGeorge WishartMisgivings of BetonMurder of BetonEffect of his Death-
Chapter XXIII The Death of Henry VIII. Effect of the War on EnglandProgress of Internal ReformationPublication of the LitanyAn English Prayer BookDissatisfaction of the FanaticsThe Dissolution of ChantriesA fresh Attempt at a Heresy Bill — The King's last Speech in Parliament .449 Measures of the Persecutors — ? The Inquisition in LondonExamination of LatimerLegend of the Attack upon the QueenAnne AscueTendencies of the KingFresh Offers to the GermansFinal Decay of the King's HealthProspects of the KingdomThe Earl of SurreyDepositions of WitnessesObjects of the ConspiracyThe Duke of NorfolkDeath of the KingThe Will of Henry the EighthConcluding SummaryCharacter of Henry the Eighth
Chapter XXIV The Protectorate Last Directions of HenryThe Ambition of the Earl of HertfordThe Council in Session at the TowerHertford is made ProtectorProposal for an Increase of the PeerageThe Peers to be createdThe Crown DebtsThe Bishops take fresh OathsTroubles of the Lord ChancellorThe Protector enlarges his PowerAnd forms large SchemesState of EuropeThe Council of TrentThe Council opens The Holy LeagueWar in GermanyDissensions among the ProtestantsDeath of Henry VIIIThe Emperor will not invade EnglandThe Councils breaks upOpinions of Paget on the State of EuropeChances of War with FranceFortifications at BoulogneEngland, Scotland, and FranceThe Castle of St. AndrewsViews of Somerset on ScotlandProgress of ProtestantismThe Advice of GardinerProtestant ExcessesThe Purification of the ChurchesGeneral VisitationThe Battle of MuhlbergThe Fall of St AndrewsWar with ScotlandProjected InvasionThe CommissariatThe Rising of ScotlandSomerset crosses the BorderThe March to MusselburghSkirmish at MusselburghBattle of Pinkie CleughResults of the VictoryThe Ecclesiastical VisitationImprisonment of BonnerGardiner remonstrates before the CouncilGardiner is imprisoned, and appeals to the ProtectorMeeting of ParliamentRepeal of despotic StatutesLegislation for the ChurchPetition of the ConvocationMarriage of the ClergyVagrancy ActChantries and Colleges Act
Chapter XXV The Protectorate The Protector appeals to ScotlandAlliance of France and ScotlandRelations between France and EnglandA French Army goes to ScotlandThe Convention of HaddingtonSiege of HaddingtonDifferences between the French and ScotsAssault of HaddingtonRepulse of the FrenchAdventurers of the WestPerils of EnglandDiet of AugsburgPetition to the PopeState of ItalyBreach between the Pope and the EmperorThe InterimThe Protestant PreachersChange of Opinion in EnglandLetter of Calvin to the ProtectorThe Protector must avoid ModerationComplaints against GardinerHe is required to preach before the CourtThe Sermon is deliveredGardiner is sent to the TowerSomerset HouseThe Social RevolutionThe CurrencyDistress of the PoorThe Creed of the ProtestantsMoral Consequences of the ReformationLandlord and TenantLuxury and MiseryThe Enclosures CommissionPetition of the CommonsLord Seymour of SudleyeMarriage with Catherine ParrIntrigues with the LordsThe Pirates of the ChannelThe Prayer-BookParliament meetsThe Fasts and the FisheriesThe Real PresenceDebate on the Real PresenceLord Seymour
Chapter XXVI Fall of the Protector General Waste and ExtravaganceSocial DisorderFrench IntriguesPerils of the NationGrowth of HeresyThe Humours and the Schemes of the ProtectorThe Protector's CommissionsHeresy CommissionEnclosures RiotsThe Rising of the WestThe Barns of CreditonThe Villagers of ClystThe Council and the ProtectorThe Protector's DifficultyDemands of the RebelsEmbarrassment of the ProtectorAdvice of PagetThe Protector will not act upon itPersecution of BonnerLord Grey in OxfordshireSiege of ExeterSkirmish at Fenington BridgeAdvance of Lord RussellSt. Mary's ClystDefeat of the RebelsRelief of ExeterSampford CourtenayAction at Sampford CourtenayMartial LawThe Provost Marshal in CornwallThe Vicar of St. Thomas'sThe Rising in NorfolkMousehold HillThe Council offer PardonDefeat of NorthamptonThe Earl of WarwickDanger of WarwickDuffindaleEnd of the RebellionsThe Council of TrentFrance and the EmpireBoulogne in DangerThe French attack BoulogneLosses of the EnglishResults of the Administration of SomersetThe Protector's ErrorsThe Council resolve to protestLetter to the EmperorThe Protector and the CouncilLetter of Russell and HerbertCharacter of SomersetHe meditates FlightClose of the ProtectorateThe Expenses of the RebellionThe Currency
Chapter XXVII The Reformed Administration Bonner and GardinerExpectations of a ChangeAppeal of GardinerMeasures of the SessionEcclesiastical DisciplineTreatment of SomersetThe French WarsNegotiations for PeaceThe French TermsRestoration of BoulogneThe Gospel in EnglandEffects of the ReformationPublic CorruptionFraudulent ManufacturesSermon of Latimer on the State of EnglandLever on the State of EnglandSigns of better TimesFinancial DifficultiesThe CurrencyArtificial PricesJoan BocherPersecution and TolerationDeath of Paul the ThirdElection of a PopeElection of Julius the ThirdCharles the Fifth and GermanyThe Edict in the Low CountriesRefugees in EnglandThe Princess Mary's MassPerils of the NationDifferences with FranceThe Archbishop of GlasgowAnimosity of the French CourtPersecution of GardinerOpinion of the Council on the Honour due to the DeadThe Vestment ControversyMenaces of the EmperorMary's Entry into LondonDanger of WarThe Point of ConscienceEdward and the BishopsState of ItalyFrance and the EmpireExcommunication of Octavio ParneseWar in Italy
Chapter XXVIII The Execution of the Duke of Somerset Anglo-French AllianceBetrothal of Edward to a French PrincessDr. Wotton and the EmperorThe Emperor and the Lady MaryMenace of War with the EmpireThe Currency and the Rise of PricesThe Coin is called downFresh Issue of Base MoneySecond Fall of the CoinProclamation of PricesIssue of a Pure CoinThe Sweating SicknessAdmonition to RepentanceSuppression of BishopricsReligion not GodlinessThe Lady MaryIntrigues of SomersetSomerset's PlotPalmer's EvidenceAlarm of SomersetTrial of SomersetConduct of NorthumberlandExecution of SomersetConduct of CranmerThe LiturgyThe London HospitalsMeasures of Social ReformStatute of UsuryReform of the Treason LawState of GermanyThe Exile of the PreachersDuke MauriceThe Council of TrentThe Peace of PassauState of IrelandSir Anthony St. LegerIreland and the ReformationSir Edward BellinghamEffects of Bellingham's GovernmentDeath of BellinghamReturn of St. LegerThe Irish MintSt. Leger and ReligionSt. Leger and BreretonSouthern SurveySir James CroftsThe Irish CurrencyIrish Council of TradeCouncil of Trade at DublinArtificial Famine
Chapter XXIX Northumberland's Conspiracy Effects of the Reformation .Character of EdwardOpinions of Edward on the State of EnglandEfforts of CranmerChurch DisciplineThe State of EnglandThe Antwerp LoansThe Debts of the CrownState of EuropeProbability of War between England and FranceCharles the FifthStukley's Story disclaimedFresh Spoils of the ChurchAudit of the Public Accounts. . . . . .Ways and MeansParliament to meetGeneral ElectionConvention of the NotablesDistribution of Property during Edward's MinorityThe Council and the Crown LandsThe Merchant AdventurersThe Fellowship of Merchants and the Merchant AdventurersSir Thomas GreshamA SubsidyJohn Knox and NorthumberlandDissolution of ParliamentPosition of NorthumberlandThe King grows worseSiege of MetzCharles dangerously 111Proposed Mediation of EnglandNorthumberland's HesitationFrance and the EmpireThe King's Death is expectedPopular Feeling towards MaryProspects of NorthumberlandThe SuccessionViews of FranceFrench Ambassadors at GreenwichThree MarriagesNorthumberland matures his PlansHe finds DifficultiesHe persuades EdwardThe King's "Device"Opposition of the Council, and of the JudgesThe Judges and the Letters PatentThe Letters Patent are drawn and signedConduct of CranmerCranmer signs at Edward's EntreatyFeatures in the King's DiseaseDoubtful Humour of the PeopleMary is warned to fly to NorfolkThe King dies
Chapter XXX Queen Jane and Queen Mary Flight of Mary, contrary to the Advice of RenardThe King's Death is concealedLady Jane GreyLady Jane at Sion HouseThe Council accept her as QueenEdward's Death is acknowledgedNews from Mary, who writes to the LordsLetter of MaryAgitation in the TowerGuilford Dudley and the CrownMary is required to submit — Mary's Friends show themselves SO The Duke's DilemmaTroops to be sent against Mary, which the Duke must leadThe Duke leaves LondonLord PembrokeRevolt of the Fleet and the ArmySunday during the CrisisSandys preaches at CambridgeThe Country and the Ultra-ProtestantsThe French are invited to EnglandThe Council meet at Baynard's CastlePembroke declares for MaryLady Jane Grey in the TowerProclamation of MaryArrest of the Duke and of Dr. SandysBurial of EdwardThe Queen's MarriageThe Emperor and the Queen's MarriageThe Emperor advises CautionGardiner returns to the CouncilConspirators sent to the TowerThe Queen and RenardIntentions of MaryMary enters LondonAdvice of RenardElizabethRestoration of the Catholic BishopsGeneral good IntentionThe Hot GospellerThe First MassQuarrel among the CouncilSermon at Paul's CrossNorthumberland's TrialThe TrialsNorthumberland under SentenceThe RecantationNorthumberland pleads for MercyThe ExecutionsThe ReactionThe Queen recovers her InfluenceThe Purging of ConvocationArrest of LatimerConduct of CranmerArrest of CranmerReginald PoleVisit of Commendone to EnglandEngland and the PapacyPhilip is proposed for MaryParties in EnglandHumours of the CouncilElizabeth and the MassLord CourtenayThe CoronationThe Spanish MarriageComposition of ParliamentThe Opening of the SessionPreliminary DiscussionsDisposition of ParliamentDebate in ConvocationOpinion of GardinerOpinion of PagetImpending Fate of CranmerPetition of the CommonsThe Queen's ReplyThe SuccessionMenace of RebellionThe Queen is treacherousHer Fear of Elizabeth
Chapter XXXI The Spanish Marriage Conflict of PartiesAdvice of PoleThe Marriage ArticlesThe Queen in HasteRenard hesitatesThe Queen is resoluteArrival of EgmontConclusion of the TreatyAlarm of FranceConspiracy of the OppositionPlans of the ConfederatesDisaffection in DevonshireCarew at ExeterOrder for Carew's ArrestWyatt raises KentMary and PhilipFlight of SuffolkThe Duke of Norfolk sent to RochesterThe Ambassador's DespatchesNorfolk at RochesterThe Londoners desertStorming of Cowling CastleDanger of the CourtThe Queen's Message to WyattCount Egmont departsThe Queen at the GuildhallThe Duke of SuffolkState of CoventrySuffolk and his Brother are taken PrisonersWyatt at SouthwarkDistractions among the CouncilWyatt crosses the ThamesWyatt marches on LondonThe Night at WhitehallWyatt at St. James'sWyatt and the Train-BandsSkirmish at Charing CrossWyatt is takenThe Queen's RevengeLady Jane GreyDeath of SuffolkElizabethFactions in the CouncilThe Proxy MarriageExpectations of the CatholicsIntended Scenes at OxfordGardiner and the ProtestantsCreation of Catholic PeersThe Refugees in FrancePerils of ElizabethElizabeth and the TowerElizabeth writes to the QueenLetter of Elizabeth to the QueenElizabeth is sent to the TowerProtest of the LordsRenard and QueenMeeting of ParliamentThe Marriage BillElizabeth in the TowerExecution of WyattAcquittal of ThrogmortonThe SuccessionHeresy BillsGardiner presses the passing of the Heresy BillsThe Heresy Bill is lostQuarrels in the CouncilLord Howard and ChappelleMary's TroublesArrival of PhilipArrival of Philip at SouthamptonThe Wet Bide to WinchesterThe MarriageWar in BelgiumThe Emperor at Namur
Chapter XXXII Reconciliation with Rome Reconciliation with RomeReginald PoleThe Entry into LondonThe Spaniards in LondonPhilip desires to leave EnglandBonner's ArticlesWeakness of the OppositionApproaching ParliamentThe ElectionsThe Roman QuestionPole's ReturnThe JourneyThe SalutationThe ConceptionThe ReunionSpeech of PoleParliament will accept ReconciliationSt. Andrew's DayThe PetitionThe AbsolutionLetter to the PopeExultation at RomePetition of the ClergyThe Act of ReconciliationThe Heresy Statutes are passedThe Regency BillDissolution of ParliamentThe Catholic ReactionThe PersecutionThe Legate's InjunctionsTrial and Sentence of Hooper and RogersRogers is taken to SmithfieldHooper is sent to GloucesterHooper at GloucesterMartyrdom of HooperHooper's Letter to his FriendsEffect on the PeopleA feeble ConspiracyAdvice of Renard to PhilipAdvice of Renard
Chapter XXXIII The Martyrs Fresh MartyrdomMartyrdom of Hunter Ferrars, Bishop of St. David'sPause in the PersecutionProspects of PeaceThe Queen's ConfinementLitanies and ProcessionsThe PapacySchemes of the SpaniardsThe Queen's ConditionThe PersecutionBurning of CardmakerThe Child is not bornProspect of the CountryRelease of ElizabethMary and ElizabethIntended Abdication of the EmperorPhilip leaves EnglandNews of PhilipTrial of CranmerRidley and LatimerThe new PopeDeath of GardinerMeeting of ParliamentThe Restoration of First-fruitsThe Crown and the AnnatesThe House of CommonsThe Queen's DisappointmentDissolution of ParliamentThe Queen's DespondencyCorrespondence with PhilipArchbishop CranmerThe Legate's LetterThe RecantationSt, Mary's ChurchThe MartyrdomThe Stake
Chapter XXXIV Calais A Rendezvous for MalcontentsThe Dudley ConspiracyThe Queen and the PeopleThe PersecutionThe Queen and the LordsThe RefugeesWar in ItalyDesigns on CalaisThe Harvest again failsThe Legate's AdmonitionCommission for the PersecutionBucer and FagiusSpirit of the ProtestantsPhilip in EnglandThe Attempt at ScarboroughPaul IV. and PoleSt QuentinPeace with the PapacyA forced LoanParliament again to meetCalaisGuisnesConsultation of ParliamentParliament grants MoneyDefences of the CountryNational DespondencyPestilenceThe MartyrsBattle of GravelinesProspects of General PeaceThe Calais DifficultyMission of De FeriaElizabethDeath of MaryCharacter of MaryResults of the ReignCharacter of PoleCauses of the PersecutionThe Persecution and its Effects
The Reign of Elizabeth
Chapter I   Accession of Queen ElizabethPopular Unanimity Death of Cardinal PoleCondition of the FinancesSocial ChangesState of PartiesEffect on the Nation of the Marian PersecutionCreed of ElizabethMission of the Count de FeriaSir William CecilThe Privy Council at HatfieldAddress of the QueenThe Court removes to LondonChanges in the CouncilProposals for Ecclesiastical Reform submitted to CecilOpinion of GoodrichFinal ResolutionRevision of Edward's Prayer-bookAnxiety of the Spanish AmbassadorThe Queen's MarriageThe Conference at CercampProposal for a Secret Peace with FrancePhilip offers his Hand to ElizabethThe CoronationOpening of ParliamentElizabeth's StatesmenSpeech from the ThroneThe SubsidyThe Commons request the Queen to marryAnswer of ElizabethThe Supremacy BillProtest of Convocation against the Alteration of ReligionSpeech of the Archbishop of YorkElizabeth declines to marry PhilipNational Defences and State of the NavyCalaisPeace concluded with FranceSpeeches in Parliament on the Supremacy BillReports of De FeriaLady Catherine GreyTheological Controversy at WestminsterThe Supremacy is reannexed to the CrownDe Feria and PhilipThe Church of EnglandRestoration of the English Prayer-bookEmbarrassment of PhilipDe Feria leaves EnglandLord Robert Dudley
Chapter II   The Clergy and the ReformationThe Bishops refuse the Oath of SupremacyAlvarez de Quadra, Bishop of Aquila, comes to England in the Place of De Feria .Letter of De Quadra to PhilipThe Queen's SuitorsRemonstrances of PhilipRelations with ScotlandThe Scotch ReformationJohn KnoxBurning of Walter MilneMary Stuart assumes the English Arms and StyleOutbreak at PerthKnox preaches at St. Andrew'sDestruction of the AbbeysThe Scots apply to England for HelpProposed Marriage of the Earl of Arran and Elizabeth Cecil encourages the ScotsDeath of the King of FranceDesigns of France upon the English CrownDilemma of ElizabethLetter of KnoxThe Scotch Protestants are dispersedAdvice of Cecil to themArguments for and against Interference in ScotlandSir Ralph Sadler is sent to the Border with MoneyThe Earl of Arran in EnglandTemper of the ScotsElizabeth, to humour the Spaniards, gives Hopes that she will marry the Archduke Charles of AustriaElizabeth and De QuadraThe Crucifix is replaced in the Royal ChapelDe Quadra's Opinion of the QueenThe English Nobility in Favour of the Austrian MarriageArran returns to ScotlandElizabeth threatens FrancePreparations for WarWeakness of the Scotch ProtestantsDebate in the English CouncilPlan for a Union of the Crowns of England and ScotlandOpinions of the Spanish Minister as to Elizabeth's ProspectsUncertainty in EnglandSir Nicholas Bacon declares against InterferenceElizabeth determines to persevere, and the English Fleet sails for the ForthLetters of De QuadraConsecration of Archbishop Parker
Chapter III   Difficulties of the Court of SpainElizabeth again hesitatesD'Oysel with the French Army invades FifeInfluence of CecilA French Fleet, going with Reinforcements to Leith, is lost in a StormAdmiral Winter arrives in the ForthThe French Transports on the Coast of Fife are destroyedEscape of D'OyselPhilip proposes to send a Spanish Force into ScotlandConference at BerwickFresh Alliance between Elizabeth and the Scotch ProtestantsNaval Preparations of EnglandDespair of the CatholicsDe Quadra urges Philip to interfere in EnglandThe Conspiracy of AmboiseUncertain Humour of the Northern English Counties Mission of the Bishop of ValenceThe English Army enters ScotlandTheir cold ReceptionSkirmish at LeithAn Armistice and fresh Efforts of DiplomacyMenaces of PhilipElizabeth refuses to recall her TroopsDistrust of the ScotsSituation of the FrenchSiege of LeithFrauds in the English ArmyUnsuccessful Assault of LeithDespondency of ElizabethReligious Disturbances in FranceDistress of the Garrison in LeithCecil goes to ScotlandElizabeth and a Papal NuncioDeath of Mary of LorraineConference at EdinburghThe Treaty of Leith and the Departure of the FrenchGeneral Results of the WarPosition of the King of Spain
Chapter IV   Return of Cecil to the CourtEcclesiastical Character of the Reformation in ScotlandThe Confession of Faith .Dissatisfaction in EnglandThe Scotch Estates request Elizabeth in Form to marry the Earl of ArranCecil is out of Favour with Elizabeth He proposes to retire from the Public ServiceRelations between the Queen and Lord Robert Dudley Communication of Cecil to De QuadraDeath of Lady DudleyInquest at CumnorSuspicion of Foul PlaySubsequent Declaration of Lady Dudley's Half-BrotherGeneral Expectation that the Queen will marry Lord Robert DudleyOpinion of Lord SussexFresh Dangers from FranceSir N. Throgmorton protests against the Dudley MarriageDeath of Francis the SecondElizabeth declines the Earl of ArranResentment of the ScotsState of Parties in FranceProjected Catholic LeagueSecret Advances through Sir Henry Sidney are made to the Spanish AmbassadorThe Queen and the Dudley MarriageAdvice of Lord PagetThe Queen of Scots and her SubjectsParties in ScotlandAdvances of Lord R. Dudley to the Spanish AmbassadorInterview between Elizabeth and De QuadraThe House of LennoxElizabeth is invited to admit a Nuncio from the PopeConditions on which Elizabeth will take Part in a General CouncilTulip and Lord Robert DudleyRefusal to admit the NuncioThe Burning of St. Paul'sA Water Party on the ThamesAddresses of the Scots to Mary StuartLord James Stuart invites Elizabeth to recognize Mary Stuart as her Heir-PresumptiveMary Stuart refuses to ratify the Treaty of EdinburghShe prepares to return to ScotlandLetter of Elizabeth to the Scotch EstatesMary Stuart sails from CalaisConsequences expected from her Return
Chapter V   Mary Stuart lands at LeithHer Welcome to HolyroodInterview with KnoxThe Scots agree to support her Claims on the English SuccessionProposed Marriage of Mary Stuart with Lord DarnleyLady Catherine Grey is found to have been married secretly to Lord HertfordThe Treaty of Edinburgh remains unratifiedProtestant RiotsSuggestion of an Interview between the two QueensThe Conference at PoissyThe Huguenots at ParisElizabeth and Lord Robert DudleyApostasy of the King of NavarreUncertain Attitude of PhilipLady Margaret LennoxThe Duke of GuiseThe Massacre of VassyCivil War in FranceSir N. Throgmorton entreats Elizabeth to support the HuguenotsThe Bishop of Aquila and his SecretaryDiscovery of Catholic Intrigues in EnglandThe Recognition of the Queen of ScotsConspiracy of Arran and BothwellElizabeth desires the Interview with the Queen of ScotsOpposition of Sir N. BaconProbable Coalition of the Catholic PowersThe Interview is abandonedThe Laws against the Catholics are enforced more strictlyThe Civil War in FranceThe Prince of Condé offers Havre to Elizabeth as the Price of AssistanceAlliance between Elizabeth and CondiWant of Sincerity on both SidesThe English occupy HavreSiege of RouenConspiracy of the PolesElizabeth is attacked by Small-poxPhilip requires Elizabeth to abstain from Interference in FranceDeath of the King of Navarre, and the Fall of RouenCondé takes the FieldUnsuccessful Negotiation for PeaceThe Battle of DreuxExpedition of Mary Stuart to InvernessBattle of Corrichie BurnMary Stuart again demands her Recognition
Chapter VI   Reform of the English CurrencyCondition of EnglandCharacter of CecilSocial DisorganizationState of the ClergyDeans and ChaptersRuinous Condition of the Parish ChurchesTemper of the Country ClergyDifficulties of the BishopsThe English Catholics apply to the Pope for Permission to attend the English ServiceThe Request is RefusedSir N. Throgmorton is taken Prisoner by the Duke of GuiseThe English Catholics are threatened with Persecution .Meeting of ParliamentDebate on the SuccessionPenal Laws against the CatholicsPetition to the Queen to name a SuccessorTrial of BonnerStory of ChatelarMurder of the Duke of GuiseProposed Marriage between Mary Stuart and Don CarlosElizabeth wishes her to marry Lord Robert DudleySpeech of the Queen in ParliamentProceedings of ConvocationThe Civil War in France is brought to an EndElizabeth refuses to evacuate HavreWar with FranceSiege of HavreThe Plague attacks the GarrisonSurrender of HavreThe Plague in LondonPhilip consents to the Marriage between the Queen of Scots and Don CarlosDeath of De QuadraThe Marriage of the Queen of Scots with a safe Person is made a Condition of her RecognitionKnox protests against her Marriage with a CatholicHe sends Warning to CecilElizabeth again attempts to work on the Queen of ScotsThe Carlos Project cools — S Relations between England and Spain
Chapter VII   Ireland under Queen MaryHabits and Character of the PeopleThe especial Wretchedness of the PaleReport of 1559The King of Spain declines the Advances of the Irish ChiefsThe Scotch in AntrimThe O'Neil and his ChildrenElection of Shan O'Neil by TanistrySchemes of Shan for the Ulster SovereigntyPhilip again discourages an Irish RebellionLoyalty of the Earl of KildareLetter of Shan O'Neil to ElizabethThe English Government proposes to invade UlsterShan carries off the Countess of ArgyleSkirmish at ArmaghDefeat of the Earl of SussexAttempt to procure the Assassination of ShanSecond Invasion of UlsterShan goes to LondonShan at the Court of ElizabethMurder of the Baron of DungannonIndentures between Shan and Elizabeth, and Return of Shan to IrelandFresh Treachery of SussexShan again rebelsThe Countess — Disageements between the Irish Council and the Earl of Sussex (4 Campaign in UlsterIrish SuccessesSecond attempt to assassinate ShanTriumph of ShanInquiry into the Disorders of the PaleSir Nicholas ArnoldDesolation of Munster
Chapter VIII   War with FranceNegotiations for PeaceThe Peace of TroyesConspiracies to Murder ElizabethDefences of EnglandThe French Embassy at BekesbourneImproved Relations with SpainThe SuccessionMary Stuart and Lord Robert DudleyThe Earl of BothwellMary Stuart prefers DarnleyElizabeth urges Lord RobertBook of John Hales on the SuccessionObjections to Darnley in ScotlandGuzman De Silva comes to EnglandReception of De Silva at the CourtA Party at RichmondThe Dudley MarriageElizabeth at CambridgeDisorders in the ChurchFresh Thoughts of the Archduke CharlesSir James MelvilleLord Robert Dudley is created Earl of LeicesterDelay of ParliamentMary Stuart's Friends in EnglandConversation between Elizabeth and DeThe Scotch SuccessionInstructions to Bedford and RandolphState of Feeling in ScotlandConference at BerwickFinal Demands of the ScotsReply of CecilDavid Ritzio — - AfFected Compliance of Mary StuartProposed Marriage between Elizabeth and the King of FranceDarnley goes to ScotlandThe Settlement of the Succession is postponedDiscipline of the Church of EnglandMarriage of the ClergyThe Queen and the BishopsThe Queen insists on the Observance of the Act of UniformityThe Queen at Paul's CrossArchbishop Parker remonstratesEcclesiastical Commission at LambethRiots in LondonLetter of Parker to CecilAlarm in ScotlandScene at the Market Cross at EdinburghThe Queen of Scots resolves to marry DarnleyApprobation of Philip and the Duke of AlvaAgitation at the English CourtAttitude of MurraySir Nicholas Throgmorton at StirlingCharacter of DarnleyProbable Consequence of the Darnley MarriageResolutions of CouncilA Game at ChessThe Archduke again
Chapter IX   State of Parties in ScotlandStrength of Mary Stuart's PositionLennox and Darnley are ordered to return to EnglandElizabeth invites the Scotch Protestants to rebel, and promises to assist them .Measures in the General AssemblyRenewed Promises of Support from EnglandRandolph expostulates with Mary StuartLennox and Darnley throw off their Allegiance to ElizabethMarriage of Mary Stuart and DarnleyMission^of TamworthIrresolution of ElizabethThe Lords of the Congregation in ArmsMary Stuart takes the FieldRetreat of the LordsElizabeth determines to break her PromiseThe ArchdukeMarriage of Lady Mary GreyDebate in the English CouncilResolution not to interfere in ScotlandThe Lords of the Congregation at DumfriesFlight of the Lords into EnglandRemonstrance of the Earl of BedfordMurray goes to LondonReception of Murray by the QueenPrivate Protest of MurrayLetter of Elizabeth to Mary StuartQuestionable Instructions to RandolphAnticipated Consequence of Elizabeth's ConductResentment of ArgyleAdvice of Sir N. Throgmorton to Mary StuartMischievous Influence of RitzioMary Stuart applies for Help to PhilipPhilip communicates with the PopeElizabeth begins to recover herselfCatholic League in EuropeDifferences between Mary Stuart and her HusbandThe Crown MatrimonialMary Stuart and RitzioDivisions among the Scotch ProtestantsConspiracy to murder Ritzio and restore MurrayRandolph is expelled from ScotlandSketch of the PlotIntended Attainder of MurrayThe Queen's Rooms at HolyroodMurder of RitzioReturn of MurrayEscape of Mary Stuart to DunbarReturn in Form to EdinburghFlight of the ConspiratorsLetter of Morton and Ruthven to Cecil
Chapter X   Popularity of Mary Stuart in EnglandGeneral Character of Elizabeth's PolicyProspects of the Queen of ScotsTreachery of DarnleyArgyle threatens to join Shan O'NeilA Spy at HolyroodLetter of Elizabeth to the Queen of ScotsBirth of James StuartThe Archduke or LeicesterIncreasing Strength of Mary Stuart's PartyElizabeth visits OxfordPosition of Darnley in ScotlandMary Stuart and BothwellIntended Flight of Darnley to EnglandThe Scotch Council at HolyroodMeeting of the English ParliamentThe Bishops' BillThe SuccessionThe Queen promises to marryThe Queen and De SilvaParliament resolves to address the Queen on the SuccessionPresentation of the AddressReply of ElizabethIrritation of the House of CommonsQuestion of PrivilegeRemonstranceSpeech of Mr. DaltonThe Queen yieldsSubsidy BillThe Thirty-nine ArticlesDe Silva and ElizabethProposed Covenant between the two QueensClose of the SessionSpeech of ElizabethThe Queen of Scots at JedburghHer dangerous IllnessDifferences with DarnleyConsultation at CraigmillarBond for the Destruction of Darnley — Baptism of James, and Recall of Morton Illness of Darnley at GlasgowMary Stuart visits himLetter to BothwellPlan of Kirk-a-FieldDarnley is removed thither from GlasgowThe last NightMurder of DarnleyEffect on the Catholics in England
Chapter XI   The English Army in IrelandSir T. StukelyIrish Policy of the Tudor SovereignsProjects for Irish ReformThe PrimacyShan O'Neil defeats the ScotsInvasion of ConnaughtSir Henry Sidney appointed DeputyThe Presidency of MunsterSidney lands in IrelandShan O'Neil at HomeSidney demands Men and MoneyAnger and Hesitation of ElizabethAlliance between O'Neil and ArgyleShan O'Neil writes for Assistance to FranceSidney ineffectually demands his RecallPlan for a CampaignThe Ormond and Desmond ControversyTroops are sent from England under Col. Edward RandolphDesmond refuses to join ShanThe Antrim ScotsSidney invades UlsterCol. Randolph at DerrySuccess of SidneyIll-humour of Elizabeth and Advice of CecilDefeat of Shan and Death of Col. RandolphThe Scots attack ShanPestilence at DerryFinal Ruin of the SettlementShan's last BattleDeath of Shan
Chapter XII   English Sailors before the Sixteenth CenturyVoyage of John CabotEngland and SpainFirst Expansion of the English NavyThe Merchant AdventurersThe African Slave TradeForeign Trade at the Accession of ElizabethAlarms and Comments of CecilDecay of the FisheriesForeign Fishermen in the English WatersCecil's FastEnglish Gentlemen on the CoastThe Channel PrivateersEnglish Outrages and Spanish ReprisalsEnglish Sailors and the InquisitionPetition of Dorothy SeeleyEnglishmen burnt in SpainIll-usage of Englishmen in Spanish PrisonsExploit of Thomas CobhamCommissions to prey on PapistsPrivateers and PiratesThe Channel and the ThamesPiracy of English Men-of-WarArrest of English Ships in SpainThe Ports of England closed against the FlemingsSufferings of English PrisonersElizabeth attempts to repress PiracyThe Pirates in IrelandConference at BrugesThe Negro TradeFirst Slaving Voyage of John HawkinsSecond VoyageProfits of the AdventureThird VoyageScene in Plymouth Harbour and last Protest of the Spanish Ambassador
Chapter XIII   The Murder of DarnleyHolyrood on the — th of February S Reward offered for the Discovery of the Murderers . .Excitement in EdinburghThe Queen goes to SetonLennox requires her to assemble the NobilityThe Queen refusesPolitical Importance of the MurderPublic Opinion in ParisLetter of the Spanish Ambassador in LondonOpinion in EnglandSir Henry Killegrew sent to ScotlandLetter of Elizabeth to the Queen of ScotsReception of Killegrew at HolyroodHistory of the Conspiracy against DarnleyPreparations for the Trial of BothwellRumour of the intended Marriage between the Queen and BothwellRemonstrances of the Queen's FriendsBothwell makes Advances to MurrayMurray leaves ScotlandMurray in LondonLennox petitions for a Postponement of the TrialThe Petition is supported by ElizabethScene at Holyrood on the 12th of AprilThe High Court of JusticeAcquittal of BothwellMeeting of the Scottish ParliamentAinslie's SupperThe Lords apply to ElizabethLetter from Grange to CecilSecond Letter of Elizabeth to the Queen of ScotsDifficulties in Bothwell's PositionConspiracy to carry off the QueenThe Queen at StirlingBothwell carries the Queen to DunbarCombination of the LordsApplication to ElizabethBothwell divorced from his WifeBothwell and the Queen return to EdinburghThe Queen marries BothwellColdness of France towards the QueenThe Bishop of Dunblane is sent to ParisResolution of the Lords to seize BothwellBorthwick CastleBallad on the Murder of DarnleyBothwell and the Queen advance on EdinburghCarberry HillFlight of Bothwell and Capture of the QueenConversation between Maitland and Du CrocThe Queen refuses to abandon BothwellProposal to kill the QueenLochleven CastleProclamation of the Lords
Chapter XIV   Mission of De VilleroyElizabeth declares against the LordsSir Nicholas Throgmorton is sent to Scotland Elizabeth promises to help the QueenHamilton and Stuart FactionsStatement of Sir James BalfourSeizure of the Casket LettersEffect of the DiscoveryDifference of Opinion between Elizabeth and her CouncilArrival of Throgmorton at Edinburgh Danger of Mary StuartKnox advises her ExecutionMaitland's Opinion of ElizabethElizabeth threatens to invade Scotland Return of Murray from FranceConversation between Murray and the Spanish AmbassadorThrogmorton demands the Release of the Queen The Lords propose to bring her to TrialThe Queen abdicatesCoronation of James VIEffect of Elizabeth's InterferenceElizabeth in Correspondence with the Hamiltons The Hamiltons ready to consent to the Queen's DeathMaitland and ThrogmortonAdvances of France to MurrayMary Stuart's PrisonInterview between Murray and his Sister Murray Regent of ScotlandExtreme Displeasure of ElizabethShe creates a Faction for the QueenMurray pacifies ScotlandGrange goes in Pursuit of Bothwell, who escapes to DenmarkThe Regent on the BordersPuritans and CatholicsElizabeth's MarriageThe Archduke Charles againLord Sussex goes to ViennaDifficulties of ReligionThe Negotiation is suspendedCatholic Reaction in EnglandPhilip II. expected in the Low Countries Elizabeth and LeicesterThe Archduke declines to come to England Death of Lady Catherine GreySussex threatens LeicesterThe Uncertainty of the SuccessionLetter of the Spanish Ambassador to Philip II Good Feeling of Philip towards Elizabeth
Chapter XV   The Hamiltons make a Party for Mary Stuart Excellence of Murray's GovernmentReaction in Favour of the QueenThe Craigmillar BondMeeting of the Scotch ParliamentDeclaratory Act against the QueenGeorge DouglasPlans for the Escape of the QueenThe Queen leaves LochlevenThe Gathering at HamiltonElizabeth proposes to mediateLetter of Elizabeth to the Queen of ScotsMurray at GlasgowLangsideDefeat of the Queen's ArmyFlight of Mary Stuart to the SolwayUncertainty as to her future Course She crosses to EnglandReception in CumberlandPerplexity in Elizabeth's CouncilMary Stuart at Carlisle CastleShe is placed in Charge of Sir Francis Knollys and Lord ScropeKnollys' Impression of Mary Stuart's Character Lord Herries and Lord Fleming go up to Elizabeth Elizabeth prohibits further Hostilities She declines to see the Queen of Scots Replenishment of Mary Stuart's Wardrobe Mary Stuart clamours to be heardThreatened Investigation into the Murder of Darnley .Fleming wishes to bribe^CecilElizabeth and Lord HerriesPreparation for the EnquiryRemoval of Mary Stuart to BoltonElizabeth's DifficultiesPlan for assimilating the Kirk to the Church of EnglandMary Stuart professes ConformityReligious Conferences with Sir F. Knollys The French expected in ScotlandLetter of Lord Hemes to the English Council Intention of Elizabeth in the Enquiry into the Murder of DarnleyCommission appointed to sit at York The Duke of Norfolk appointed PresidentProposed Marriage between Norfolk and Mary StuartOpening of the Commission Insincerity of all Parties except Murray Conditions on which Murray will advance his ChargesAttempt to hush up the EnquiryThe Commission is transferred to London
Chapter XVI   Piety and Dogmatic TheologyGrowth of the Principle of Toleration Religious Parties in FranceCalvinismExtinction of Protestantism in Spain State of the Low CountriesPhilip IL and HeresyLast Injunctions of Charles VThe Regent Margaret Insurrection of the United Provinces against the EdictsThe Duke of Alva arrives at Brussels Defeat of Count Louis of JemmingenLutheran Tendencies of ElizabethScene in the Streets of LondonThe PrivateersExpulsion of the English Ambassador from Spain Don Guerau de EspesCardinal Chatillon is received in England Mary Stuart's SuitorsResumption of the Enquiry into the Murder of DarnleyMary Stuart endeavours to stifle it The Conference at WestminsterMurray accuses the QueenProtests of the Queen's Commissioners Murray produces the Casket Letters The English Nobles pronounce them GenuineElizabeth advises the Queen of Scots to confirm her abdicationAdvice of Sir Francis KnollysGloomy Prospects of the Protestants on the Continent .TolerationRelations between Elizabeth and the Huguenots Expedition of Sir John Hawkins to the Spanish MainDestruction of the English Squadron at St. Jean de LuzSpanish Treasure Ships in the English Harbours Letter of Sir Arthur Champernowne The Treasure is seizedArrest of English Ships in the Low Countries Probability of War with SpainThe Queen of Scots' Friends meditate Insurrection .Differences of Opinion among the English Catholics Arrest of the Spanish AmbassadorFactions in Elizabeth's CouncilThe Queen of Scots refuses to repeat her Abdication .The Bishop of ElyPlot to murder MurrayLord Arundel works upon ElizabethClose of the EnquiryIndignation of Sir F. KnollysGeneral Remarks on the Evidence against the Queen of ScotsPrivate Opinion of the Bishop of Ross
Chapter XVII   Catholic Reaction in EnglandReview of the Condition of the Realm by Sir Wm. CecilPolicy recommended by Cecil to the Queen Discontent of the English AristocracyPhilip adopts unwillingly the Cause of the Queen of ScotsDescription of Parties in England by Don Guerau Conflicting Schemes in Favour of Mary StuartProposed Marriage between Mary Stuart and the Duke of NorfolkConversation between Norfolk and MurrayPart of the Council in Favour of the Marriage Double Dealing of NorfolkTrade opened with HamburghEnglish Rovers under the Flag of the Prince of Conde The Queen of Scots placed in Charge of Lord ShrewsburyDanger of War with France England protected by SpunIrritation of Elizabeth against CecilDeath of the Prince of CondéArundel and Norfolk conspire against Cecil Intended RebellionFrance and SpainThe Norfolk MarriagePlan to destroy CecilCecil separates Norfolk from the Catholic Lords Proposals for Mary Stuart's Restoration Pretended Illness of Mary StuartThe Council communicate with her about her Marriage with Norfolk Her AnswerDifficulties in ScotlandElizabeth determines to restore her Capture of Paris the PageThe Lords of Scotland refuse to receive the QueenThe Catholic Nobility in England prepare to rebel They are rejoined by Norfolk Vote of the Council in Favour of Mary Stuart's SuccessionElizabeth removes to RichmondNorfolk fears to ask her to consent to his Marriage with the Queen of ScotsLetter of Don Guerau to AlvaElizabeth forbids the MarriageNorfolk leaves the CourtMary Stuart urges him to take Arms He retires to FramlinghamSeizure of the Queen of Scots' Papers The Duke of Norfolk being summoned to the Queen's Presence, after some Hesitation obeysHe is arrested and committed to the Tower
Chapter XVIII   Fresh Uncertainties about the Queen of ScotsResolution to hold her a PrisonerInvestigation into the ConspiracyNorfolk promises to think no more of the Queen of ScotsTemper of the Northern CountiesChristofer Norton at Bolton CastleThe intended Rebellion disconcertedCouncil at TopcliffChapin Vitelli comes to EnglandEnforcement of the Act of UniformityProposal to seize YorkThe Earls of Westmoreland and NorthumberlandOutbreak of the InsurrectionThe Gathering at RabyMass in Durham CathedralLord Sussex at YorkThe Earls march for Tutbury to release the Queen of ScotsPreparations of AlvaShe is carried to CoventryThe Southern Counties remain quiet, and the Earls retireUniversal Disloyalty in YorkshireElizabeth raises an ArmyThe Earl of Westmoreland takes Barncastle The Queen's Forces arrive at Doncaster The Earls fly to ScotlandConversation between Elizabeth and La Mothe Fénelon .The Spaniards seek a Reconciliation with her Causes of the Failure of the RebellionAddress of the Gentlemen of Lincolnshire to Philip IIMurray and Maitland of LidingtonArrest of MaitlandCapture of the Earl of NorthumberlandThe Earl of Westmoreland at JedburghElizabeth demands the Extradition of the RebelsLord Hunsdon's Opinion of her Conduct Punishment of the InsurgentsThe Sufferers chiefly the least guilty Extreme Severity towards the poorer Classes Principles of English JusticeSir Robert Constable employed to entrap the Earl of WestmorelandMurray's Position in ScotlandThe Hamilton* conspire to kill himBothwellhauph and his BrothersMurder of Murray at LinlithgowCharacter of MurrayFeeling in ScotlandLeonard Dacres at NaworthBattle on the Gelt River, and Flight of DacresLetter from Elizabeth to Lord Hunsdon
Chapter XIX   Situation of the European PowersGood Fortune of ElizabethThe New and the Old Creed in England Manifesto of Elizabeth to the English Nation Sense in which the Queen was Head of the Church The Pope determines to excommunicate Elizabeth Letter of the Pope to the Earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland Plans for the Escape of the Queen of Scots Reply of Elizabeth to the demands of France for the Queen of Scots' ReleaseState of Parties in FranceElizabeth's Intentions towards the Queen of Scots Change in the Scotch Character produced by the ReformationFuneral of the Regent MurrayRandolph at EdinburghUnwillingness of Elizabeth to support the Scotch ProtestantsThe Catholic RefugeesMaitland of LidingtonMaitland and KnoxLetter of Maitland to ElizabethThe Catholic Nobles replaced in the English CouncilCatholic Convention at LinlithgowThe Earl of Sussex invades ScotlandThe Harrying of the BorderCorrespondence of Mary Stuart with the Catholic Powers .Divisions among the Catholics in England Danger of War with FranceLetter of Elizabeth to the Earl of Sussex Morton insists on her declaring openly for King James .Negotiations for the Restoration of the Queen of ScotsThe Bishop of Ross Second Invasion of ScotlandDestruction of Hamilton CastlePublication in London of the Bull of ExcommunicationMeeting of the CouncilSpeech of Sir N. BaconSpeech of Lord ArundelPlans for a Rebellion in England Symptoms of Disaffection among the Catholic Nobles 70 Temper of ElizabethProspect of Peace in FranceThe Earl of Lennox declared Regent of Scotland The Privateers in the ChannelReluctance of Philip to quarrel with EnglandOpinions of Bacon and Cecil on the proposed Restoration of the Queen of ScotsArrest and Execution of FeltonSeizure of Dr. Story at AntwerpEfforts of the English Catholics to rouse the Duke of AlvaAlva refuses to moveIntrigues of MaitlandCorrespondence between Maitland and Sussex Elizabeth seriously resolves to reinstate Mary Stuart Letter from Lady Lennox to CecilConditions of the RestorationMaitland at Blair AtholCecil is sent down to ChatsworthThe Norfolk Marriage
Chapter XX   English Commerce in 1570Protestantism and Privateering The PuritansCatholic ReactionThe Church at NorthamptonArticles of FaithThomas Cartwright at CambridgeWhitgift and High AnglicanismCecil and Mary StuartPeace in FranceSir Francis WalsinghamParties in the French CourtSuggestion of a Marriage between Elizabeth and the Duke of AnjouReview of the Situation by CecilCecil favours the Anjou MarriageElizabeth opens the Question with the French AmbassadorDebate in the CouncilReport of La Mothe Fénelon on Elizabeth's Private CharacterConversation between Lord Buckhurst and Catherine de Medici — Anxiety of Walsingham for the Marriage with Anjou138 Commission in London for the Restoration of the Queen of ScotsObjections raised by MortonThe Commission is suspendedMary Stuart determines to throw herself upon SpainAlva seeks a Reconciliation with Elizabeth Indignation of the PopeThe Pope and the Spanish Ambassador at Rome The Bishop of Ross writes to the Duchess of Feria The Pope urges Philip to declare against Elizabeth .RidolfiThe Duke of Norfolk and the Catholic Conspiracy The Catholic Peers determine to petition Spain for Assistance Letter of the Spanish Ambassador to Philip Petition of the Queen of ScotsPetition of the Duke of NorfolkDeparture of RidolfiCapture of Dumbarton Castle Execution of the Archbishop of St Andrew's
Chapter XXI   Unwillingness of Elizabeth to encounter a Parliament .The Succession to the CrownProspects of Mary StuartNecessity that Parliament must meet Catholic Conspiracy to seize Elizabeth's Person Defeated through the Cowardice of the Duke of NorfolkBeginning of the SessionTemper of the Lower HouseCollision between the Queen and the Commons Puritan Legislation The Thirty-nine ArticlesMarriage of the ClergyBill for Attendance at the Communion Bill for the Protection of the QueenAct of Attainder against the Northern Insurgents A SubsidyThe Parliament endsRidolfi at BrusselsLetter of Alva to PhilipElizabeth to be killed or capturedRidolfi sends Home a favourable Report His Messenger, Charles Baily, is taken at DoverLord Cobham and the Bishop of Ross Cecil and his InstrumentsCharles Baily in the MarshalseaIntercepted CorrespondenceBaily is rackedConfession of BailyExamination of the Bishop of Ross Execution of Dr. StoryRelations between England and France The Anjou MarriageReligious DifficultiesInsincerity of ElizabethLeicester once moreThe Negotiation dropsAdvice of CecilCount Louis at Paris Proposed League between France and England against SpainMutual Distrust at the two CourtsThe PrivateersSlave Market at DoverMission of Sir Henry Cobham to Madrid The Duke of FeriaCold Reception of CobhamRidolfi arrives at the Spanish CourtPolitical AssassinationMeeting of the Spanish CouncilThe NuncioResolution to procure the Murder of Elizabeth Chapin Vitelli offers to kill herOrders sent to Alva to prepare to invade England Slowness of the Spanish Movements Sir John Hawkins pretends to be a Traitor He offers to desert to Spain with Part of the English FleetHe deceives the Queen of ScotsHe deceives Philip and learns the intended Invasion Letter of Hawkins to CecilPolitical TreacheryState of ScotlandCatherine de Medici refuses Assistance to Mary Stuart's FriendsMaitland works upon ElizabethSir William Drury is sent to EdinburghIrritation of the Lords against England They divide into three Parties — French, Spanish, and EnglishThe Gathering at StirlingAttempted Surprise of StirlingDeath of Lennox, and Regency of the Earl of Mar
Chapter XXII   Preparations for Insurrection in England Suspicion cast upon the Duke of Norfolk Norfolk recommitted to the TowerHis Secretaries are torturedThe Ridolfi Secret is discovered Arrest of the Catholic Leaders The Bishop of Ross makes a full ConfessionAlva declines to move furtherThe French MarriageThe Due d'Alençon is proposed instead of AnjouDangerous TriflingResolution to try the Duke of Norfolk for High TreasonThe Spanish Ambassador is ordered to leave EnglandConspiracy of Berney and MatherIntended Murder of CecilArrest of the ConspiratorsThe Catholic Refugees once more address PhilipPhilip, under Alva's Influence, will not help themPreparations for Norfolk's TrialPublication of Buchanan's "Detectio"The Duke at the BarHe is found Guilty and sentenced to dieUnwillingness of Elizabeth to consent to his ExecutionExtreme Danger of her PositionMary Stuart attempts to work upon herRelaxation of Mary Stuait's ConfinementCharacteristic Letter to ElizabethThe Civil War in Scotland Elizabeth will not interfereSemper EademBattle of LepantoConference at Edinburgh CastleProposals for a Compromise The Earl of Northumberland is given up to England Douglas of LochlevenExplosion of Catholic Fanaticism in ParisThe Alençon MarriageElizabeth uncertain as usualTreaty between England and FranceMeeting of Parliament Proposed Bill of Attainder against Mary StuartThe Bishops memorialize the Queen for her ExecutionDeputation from the two Houses The Queen refuses to consentExecution of the Duke of NorfolkBill to cut off Mary Stuart from the Succession The Alençon MarriageThe Privateers are ordered to leave the Channel Capture of BrilleGeneral Insurrection in Holland and IrelandCount Louis with the Huguenots takes Mons Huguenot Ascendancy at the French CourtEnglish Volunteers cross to Holland The Alençon MarriageCharles requests Elizabeth to join him in a War against Spain for the Liberation of the Low CountriesElizabeth secretly offers to betray Flushing to Alva Panic at the French Court, caused by Distrust of ElizabethLetter of Cecil to ColignyThe Queen of Scots at SheffieldExecution of the Earl of Northumberland
Chapter XXIII   Catholic Reaction in EuropeParallel Growth of CalvinismFanaticism in ParisThe Relations of the French Court towards the Huguenots contingent on the Conduct of Elizabeth Marriage of the Princess Margaret with the King of NavarreCatherine de Medici determines to abandon the HuguenotsAttempt to kill ColignyCatherine works upon the King's Terrors Conspiracy to murder the Huguenot Leaders The Massacre of St. Bartholomew The Causes of itDelight in RomeEffect in EnglandDanger of the Queen of Scots Elizabeth prepares for WarLa Mothe Feénelon admitted to an AudienceAttempted Excuses of the French CourtAlva makes fresh Approaches to England Elizabeth resolves to accept his Advances Rage of the Catholic RefugeesThe English Volunteers are recalled from Zealand Distress of PhilipThe English Catholics pray him not to desert them Alva insists that their Prayer shall be refused Treaty between England and Spain Knox returns to EdinburghSermon on the MassacreNegotiation for the Surrender of the Queen of Scots to the Earl of MarSudden Death of MarCecil and Leicester urge Elizabeth to interfere in ScotlandSir H. Killegrew at EdinburghMorton elected RegentLast Illness and Death of KnoxCharacter of KnoxThe Civil War breaks out againPacification of PerthMaitland and Grange refuse to submit Elizabeth is requested to assist in Reducing Edinburgh CastleAfter long Hesitation, she consents Preparation for the SiegeBombardment and Storming of the Castle Death of MaitlandExecution of Grange, and Extinction of Mary Stuart's Party
Chapter XXIV   Interval of Quiet in Ireland after the Death of Shan O'NeilSketch of the Country and People by an Emissary of Philip the SecondEffect of the Attempt to force the Reformation upon the IrishTirlogh Lenogh Chief of the O'Neils The Irish DebtPlans for English ColoniesThe Earl of Desmond a Prisoner in London Proposal to partition Munster among a Party of English GentlemenIntention of the Colonists to exterminate the Native IrishQuarrel between the Butlers and Sir Peter Carew Leage of the Irish ChiefsThe Archbishop of Cashel goes to Spain to offer the Irish Crown to PhilipMurder of the English Settlers in Cork Massacres and Counter-massacresEdward Tremayne in IrelandSir H. Sidney overruns the South and West Quarrel with the House of OrmondSir Humfrey Gilbert in Command at Kilmalloch Wholesale Slaughter of the IrishA Week's Service in WicklowEnormous Cost of Ireland to the English CrownSir Edward Fitton President of Connaught Fortunes of the Archbishop of Cashel in Spain Ireland a Fief of the See of RomeComplications of European PoliticsSir Thomas Stukely at MadridHistory of Stukely Two Parties among the Irish Catholics Intended Invasion of Ireland by the Spaniards Sir Henry Sidney resigns his Office Sir William Fitzwilliam DeputyUniversal Disorder and ConfusionReport of TremayneSir John Perrot President of Munster The Scots invade LimerickThey are cut in Pieces by Perrot and the Butlers Results of Perrot's GovernmentElizabeth determines to conciliate the Irish Attempted English Settlement at KnockfergusEffect in Ireland of the Massacre of St. BartholomewCattle-driving in the PaleThe Earl of Desmond is allowed to return to IrelandHe is again imprisoned in DublinAdvice of TremayneWalter Devereux, Earl of Essex, undertakes to occupy Part of Ulster at his own Charge Great PreparationsEssex lands at CarrickfergusBright Prospects soon overcloudedFailure and Ruin Desmond escapes from DublinGeneral Prostration of the English Power in Ireland
Chapter XXV   Development of the Character of ElizabethHer FavouritesThe Bishop of Ely and Hatton Garden State of FranceProposed Latitudinarian LeagueHaarlem takenExploits of DrakeAlva in Favour of an English Alliance Treachery of English Officers in the Low Countries Recall of AlvaSpanish Offers of PeaceBattle of Mook HeathMelancholy Letter from the Prince of Orange State of Parties in EnglandPhilip II. refuses an Asylum to English Catholic RefugeesElizabeth promises to reconsider her Secession from the ChurchBurning of Anabaptists in England Story of Edward WoodshaweSiege of LeydenSir Henry Cobham's Mission to Spain Debate in the Spanish CabinetPhilip's Answer to CobhamPosition of the StatesPerplexity of the English CouncilChampagny's MissionWentworth's Speech in ParliamentDeath of RequescensTreatment of St. Aldegonde by ElizabethHer Anger with the Prince of OrangeShe meditates a Change of Policy Castelnau de Mauvissiere sent to EnglandDuke of Alençon a Suitor to Elizabeth He joins La None and the HuguenotsUnsatisfactory Peace signed at Paris with the ProtestantsThe Catholics disregard itRavages of Spanish Mutineers in the States The Seventeen Provinces unite against Spain in the Treaty of GhentArrival of Don John of AustriaMission of M. Schwegenhem to Elizabeth She refuses to assist the ProtestantsEffects of her WorkSir John Smith sent to MadridHis Interview with Archbishop Quiroga Liberty enjoyed by Mary Queen of ScotsMargaret, Countess of LennoxPlots with Lady ShrewsburyHer Grandchild, Lady Arabella Stuart .Elizabeth will not see Treason Her Letter to Lord ShrewsburyHer Correspondence with Regent Morton Her Treatment of Bishops Archbishops Parker and GrindalThe Spanish Troops evacuate Holland Don John intends to break the Treaty Fluctuations in Elizabeth's Policy Severities to Recusants .League with the States Story of Oxenham, the RoverFrancis Drake sails from Plymouth Don John defeats the States' Army at GembloursTheir Indignation at Elizabeth's Want of Faith
Chapter XXVI   Assassination of EscobedoDon Bernardino de Mendoza sent to England First Interview with ElizabethShe receives Count de RetzAlençon offers to assist the StatesSir James Crofts bribed by PhilipElizabeth repudiates the Bonds which she had given to the StatesDistress of her MinistersThe Regent MortonResigns RegencyDuke of Guise proposes to invade Scotland Mission of the Abbot of Dunfermline to ElizabethShe rejects the Scotch ProposalsWill give no MoneyPhilip Sidney declines to carry her Message to the StatesThe States lose PatienceThe Battle of Rymenant gained for them by the EnglishElizabeth changes Policy again She receives the Burgundian Crown Jewels Closes her direct Dealings with the Netherlands Her last Matrimonial AdventureShe invites Alençcon to visit herDeath of Don John, Alexander of Parma becomes RegentBattle of Alcazar, and Death of Sebastian of Portugal Prosperity of EnglandAudacity of the PiratesAlençon leaves the StatesM. Simier brings Elizabeth his LetterOpinions in England on the Marriage Demands of AlençonLeicester's Marriage to Lettice Knollys Alençon's Personal AppearancePamphlet by John StubbsGeneral Dislike in England of the Alençon Marriage .Stubbs loses his HandThe Marriage Treaty suspended for two Months And then allowed to dropCecil's Advice to the QueenCatholic Plot against EnglandThe Refugees at Rheims Meditated Jesuit InvasionThe Missionaries of Disaffection
Chapter XXVII   Relations between England and Ireland Cruel Effects of the Queen's Economy The Earl of Essex appointed Governor of Ulster Submission of Tirlogh Lenogh and Sir Phelim O'NeilSubmission and Pardon of the Earl of Desmond Massacre of the O'Neils at BelfastCampaign of Essex in the NorthMurder of the Wives and Children of the Scotch ChiefsSir Henry Sidney again made Deputy Progress of Sidney in MunsterGranny O'MalleyOvations and ExecutionsState of Religion in IrelandCatholic RevivalReport of Sidney on the Established Church Execution of Justice in the SouthSir Nicholas Malby at AthloneRevolt and Punishment of the Burkes Death of EssexAnarchy, temporal and spiritualSir William Drury President of Munster Symptoms of Approaching Rebellion Dr. Nicholas SandersOvertures to Spain for Interference in Ireland Coldness of PhilipSanders and James Fitzmaurice sail for Ireland with a Commission from the PopeThey land at DingleThey call on the Earl of Desmond to join them Murder of English Officers at TraleeThe Rising of the GeraldinesDeath of James Fitzmaurice Energy of SaundersMalby destroys AshketynDesmond declares for the Insurrection The Earl of Ormond commissioned to suppress it Supplies sent from EnglandOrmond and Pelham take the FieldMassacre of the People, and Capture of Carrigafoyle Invasion of Kerry, and Narrow Escape of Sanders Killarney in the Sixteenth Century Death of Sir James of DesmondRising in the PaleLord Grey de Wilton DeputyDefeat of the English in Glenmahire An Italian and Spanish Force lands in Kerry The Fort at SmerwickDivisions among the IrishThe English Fleet ordered to Smerwick Lord Grey goes thither with the Army Bombardment and Capture of the Fort Execution of the Garrison Death of Sanders Collapse of the RebellionEnglish intended Clemency Executions on all Sides Despondency of Lord GreyGeneral Despair and Cruelty Dress and Habits of an Irish Nobleman Executions in DublinThe Geraldines in the ForestBurghley's Censure on the English Barbarities Elizabeth desires to try Milder Methods Preparations for the Last CampaignDesmond refuses to submitOrmond marches into KerryCatholic FerocityDesmond a Wanderer in the Mountains Betrayed and killedUlick and Shan BurkeArrest of Archbishop HurleyWho is tortured and hanged without Trial Grey succeeded by Sir John Perrot
Chapter XXVIII   Esmé Stuart, Count d'Aubigny, sent by the Jesuits to ScotlandReorganisation of the French Faction at the Scotch CourtPhilip invited to assist the Catholics there Alarm of ElizabethDanger of the Earl of MortonElizabeth tempts Morton to commit Treason Changes her Mind too late • And when he fails, deserts himArrest of Morton, and Confinement in Dumbarton CastleCharged with the Murder of Darnley Obligation of Elizabeth to protect him She remonstrates, threatens, and does NothingDexterity and Treachery of D'Aubigny Fresh Efforts to save MortonFinal Resolution of the Queen not to interfere Trial and SentenceThe Last MorningDeath of Morton, and Victory of the Catholic FactionThe Jesuit Invasion of England The Pope sanctions the Murder of Elizabeth Elizabeth's Tolerant Policy towards the CatholicsParsons and CampianTheir Early HistoryThe Seminary at RheimsThe English Mission resolved upon Difficulty in the Position of the English Catholics New Construction of the Bull of Pope Pius Agitation in the CourtThe Queen appeals to the Country Parsons and Campian land in England Reception in LondonLetter of Campian to the General of the Jesuits He challenges the Protestant Divines Arrest of the JesuitsUse of TortureSufferings of the CatholicsPriests in the Pay of Walsingham Exultation of CampianMeeting of ParliamentDispute between the Queen and the House of CommonsBill for the Repression of Treasonable Practices Complaint against the Anglican Bishops Lukewarmness of the Catholic Laity Campian publishes his "Ten Reasons" Lyford GrangeCampian's Last SermonHis CaptureExecution of Everard HarteCampian is tortured Six Catholic Noblemen promise Mendoza to take Arms Disputation in the Tower ChapelTrial of Campian and his CompanionsExecution of Campian, Sherwin and Bryant Reflections on the Treatment of the Jesuits Failure and Success of Persecution Burghley's "Execution of Justice" with Allen's Reply
Chapter XXIX   The Alençon Marriage revivedEarly Life of Sir Francis DrakePortrait of DrakePreparations for the Great VoyageThe Pelican sails from PlymouthMr. Thomas DoughtyMagellan's Straits Return of Captain Winter to England Valparaiso and Tarapaca Lima Pursuit and Capture of the Cacafuego Description of Drake and his Ship Two Spanish Cruisers fear to attack him He sails for CaliforniaAgitation in Spain and England Anxiety of Philip to avoid a WarFeeling in the City of London Convention between Mendoza and Elizabeth Drake searches for a North-eastern Passage Failing to find it, he returns by the Cape of Good HopeThe Pelican on a Coral ReefSafe Arrival in EnglandMendoza demands the Restoration of the Plunder He is supported by Burghley and Sussex False Returns of the BullionFavour of Drake with the QueenShe determines to restore NothingAlençonSpanish Conquest of PortugalUneasiness of France and England Advice of BurghleyThe Crown of the Low Countries offered to AlençonElizabeth promises to marry him Arrival of Alençon's SecretaryIncredulity of MendozaA French EmbassyConditional Marriage TreatyManoeuvres to escape Irritation in ParisLikelihood of a Rupture with SpainDon Antonio the Portuguese Pretender Proposed Expedition to TerceiraWalsingham is sent to ParisElizabeth's DilemmaMisgivings of WalsinghamShe sends Alençon MoneyHard Treatment of Don AntonioRemonstrances of MendozaFinal Refusal to restore Drake's Plunder Mendoza advises Philip to reconcile himself with ElizabethAlençon again in EnglandThe Kiss at GreenwichFresh HesitationThe Queen decides that she will not marry Alençon goes to HollandInstalled Duke of BrabantThe Queen determines on a League with SpainResentment of the French CourtShe inclines to the Marriage once more Alternative Prospects
Chapter XXX   D'Aubigny created Duke of Lennox Disposition of JamesRelations between Scotland and France Proposed Association of James and Mary Stuart in the CrownMission of Captain Errington .Negotiations with the Queen of ScotsElizabeth attempts to play her off against her SonLetter of Mary Stuart to MendozaThe Jesuits in Scotland The Scotch Catholics make Advances to Spain Correspondence with the Catholics in England Proposed Treaty between Elizabeth and the Queen of ScotsIntended Invasion of England by the Duke of Lennox Irresolution of Philip Jesuit Plot for Invasion and Insurrection The Duke of GuiseEpiscopacy in Scotland The Earl of Arran Mr. Robert MontgomeryAction of the General AssemblyTumult in EdinburghAlarms of LennoxEagerness of the Queen of ScotsDefeat of the French at Terceira The Raid of RuthvenCaptivity of JamesScene in EdinburghDiscovery of the Jesuit PlotThe Earls of Angus and Ruthven apply for Help to ElizabethElizabeth refusesFrench Intrigues Appeal of Mary StuartLa Mothe Fénelon comes to London Proposed Alliance between France, England, and Mary StuartThe Lady ArabellaLennox retires from ScotlandDanger of JamesElizabeth receives Lennox in London Lennox and MendozaFresh Plans for InsurrectionHesitation of the English Catholic NoblesTreachery of LennoxHis Sudden Death in ParisParties in ScotlandRenewed Negotiations for an Arrangement with the Queen of ScotsSecretary Beale at SheffieldMary Stuart consults MendozaMendoza advises her to temporiseCommissioners from Angus and Ruthven sent to ElizabethConditions on which Scotland will be her AllyElizabeth demands the Extradition of the Jesuit Gasper HoltShe declines the Scotch ProposalsAnd will not part with MoneyContinuation of the Treaty with Mary Stuart Which also she declines to conclude
Chapter XXXI   Large Sums advanced to Alençon Plots to assassinate the Prince of Orange Orange wounded by JaureguyEnthusiastic Delight of the Catholics The Prince recovers The French ConspiracyCatastrophe at Antwerp, and Flight of Alençon Ineffectual Attempt at Reconciliation Elizabeth again purposes to assist Spain in the Reconquest of the United ProvincesThe Paris PlotGuise prepares to invade EnglandNegotiations with SpainLetter from Mendoza to PhilipJames escapes from the Protestant Nobles in Scotland .Revolution at the Scotch CourtJames places himself at Guise's Disposition Guise ready to sail, waits only for Support from SpainCharles Paget sent over to arrange the Landing Walsingham is sent to ScotlandComplaints of JamesThe King of Navarre applies to Elizabeth for Support .Her Sharp PracticeImpatience of the Duke of GuiseDivisions among the CatholicsAttempt to assassinate ElizabethDeath of Somerville and ArdenArrest of Francis ThrogmortonHis Confession on the RackArrest of the Earls of Arundel and Northumberland Difference of Opinion in the English CouncilFresh Executions of Seminary Priests Expulsion of the Spanish Ambassador Violent Scene with the CouncilParry's PlotParry and MorganThe Low Countries .Difficulties of JamesHe again writes to Guise And to the PopeParties among the English Catholics Protestant Plot to seize the King of ScotsThe Lords are betrayed, and fly 678 Capture and Execution of RuthvenMary Stuart's Instructions to her Son Elizabeth makes Fresh Efforts for a CompromiseReopening of the Treaty with the Queen of Scots She stands on "Proud Terms"The Treaty is droppedLetters of M. Fontenay from Scotland Curious Account of the Character of James Scotch PoliticiansMary Stuart's Hold over her Son
Chapter XXXII   Effects of ProtestantismThe Channel PiratesState of the English ChurchPolicy of ElizabethDeath of AlenconMurder of the Prince of OrangeElizabeth pretends a Wish to defend the NetherlandsBurghley's Advice The Earl of ArranPaltry Manoeuvring with Scotland Lord Hunsdon sent thereJohn Craig and ArranGeneral PerfidyThe Countess of Shrewsbury and Lady Arabella StuartLetter of Mary Queen of Scots to ElizabethConduct of MaryLetter of Warning to her from an ItalianMary's Professions to Elizabeth, and to the Pope and PhilipSt. Lawrence's Shoulder-boneConfessions of Crichton, the JesuitDread of Elizabeth's Assassination Bond of AssociationJames's Indifference to his MotherMission of the Master of GrayThe Queen of Scots sends her Secretary to Elizabeth .She despairs of Help from abroadShe is moved to Tutbury CastleShe threatens James with her CurseMeeting of ParliamentDread of the JesuitsSpeech of Dr. ParryDisplay of Loyalty in the House of Commons Parry's TreasonHis ExecutionNew Bill to provide for the Queen's SafetyHer Speech from the ThroneThe States offer themselves to Elizabeth Difficulties of the SituationElizabeth's InsincerityHenry III. refuses the Sovereignty of the States Elizabeth's Letter demanding the Delivery of MorganThe Holy LeagueHenry HI. declines Elizabeth's AidShe sends Champernowne to the King of Navarre Death of Gregory XIII., and Accession of Sextus VHenry III. yields to the GuisesThe King of Navarre's Appeal to Europe Elizabeth refuses to help him Scheme to rescue the Queen of Scots Her DespairShe is placed under Sir Amyas Paulet's CareJames affects Devotion to Elizabeth Proposed Assassination of ArranA League negotiated between Elizabeth and James Skirmish on the Border and Murder of Lord Russell Arran suspected, and his Surrender demanded by ElizabethJames refusesElizabeth withdraws her Demand Arran prepares for an Armed StruggleThe Scotch Lords permitted to leave England Flight of Arran Elizabeth's Excuses to JamesLetter of Elizabeth to JamesLord Northumberland destroys himself in the TowerCollapse of the Party of Insurrection
Chapter XXIII   Positions of England and SpainElizabeth's Religious ViewsSir John Hawkins offers to destroy the Newfoundland Fishing Fleet — S Value of Elizabeth's FriendshipArrest of English Sailors by SpainUnjust Suspicions of BurghleyThe States renew the Offer of Sovereignty to ElizabethFall of AntwerpLeicester appointed to command the English Troops in the StatesHis Departure delayedDreadful Sufferings of the TroopsElizabeth's IrresolutionLeicester sails for the HagueDrake's Expedition to SpainHis Exploits in the West Indies Elizabeth and M. de ChampagnyHer Meditated Betrayal of the States Burghley's Share in it consideredOlivarez discusses the Invasion of England with Sextus VDoubts of obtaining the Assent of France Elizabeth's Secret NegotiationsLeicester accepts the Government of the ProvincesElizabeth's Neglect of her TroopsHer Indignation with LeicesterHer Fury with Davison Her Interview with Sir Thomas Sherley Burghley threatens to resignEffect of Drake's SuccessesMischievous Influence of Sir James CroftsAnxiety of WalsinghamBodenham and Grafigny examinedElizabeth is forced to disown them She renews the Negotiations for the Treaty De Looe and the Prince of Parma Alarm of Lord BuckhurstSir William StanleyLoss of Grave and VenlooLeicester remonstrates with Elizabeth His IncapacityAction at ZutphenDeath of Sir Philip SidneyLeicester's ReturnSir John Perrot on IrelandEcclesiastical DisorganisationDevon and Somerset Families settle in IrelandThe Jesuits once more Rebellion of the Connaught BurkesDefeat of the Scots on the Moy
Chapter XXXIV   The Two Futures open to EuropeWalsingham's Secret Correspondence Devotion of the Jesuits to SpainLoyalty of other CatholicsDifficulty of knowing Catholic Secrets Plan to intercept the Correspondence of the Queen of ScotsThe GiffordsMary Stuart is moved to Chartley Manor 235 Her Letters are deciphered and readLetters of Thomas MorganPlot to assassinate ElizabethAnthony Babington and John Ballard Confederacy among the Catholic Nobles and GentryBabington's Accomplices and Plans Morgan informs the Queen of Scots of the Conspiracy .League between Elizabeth and James Mary disinherits JamesBabington explains his Plot to Mary Stuart Her ReplyIts Authenticity discussedExcuses for her ConductAnd for Elizabeth'sMary Stuart's Unchanged Character Folly of the ConspiratorsThe ArrestsMary Stuart taken to TixallSeizure of her PapersShe returns to ChartleyPanic in EnglandAppeal of Elizabeth to Mary StuartRemoval to FotheringayTrial of BabingtonExecutionsWhat to do with the Queen of ScotsDisposition of JamesExamination of LettersResolution of the PeersTrial of the Queen of Scots at Fotheringay Technical DifficultiesShe consents to appearHer AddressThe Court adjournsShe is declared guiltyMeeting of ParliamentPetition of the two HousesReply of ElizabethInterposition of France and Scotland Mission of the Master of Gray and Sir Robert MelvilleM. Believre sent from ParisInterview with the QueenUncertainty as to the Real Disposition of France Catholic Conspiracy in ScotlandPublication of the Sentence in London Second Ineffectual Protest of Believre Dismissal of Gray and MelvilleDeath or Imprisonment for LifeMessage from Elizabeth to the Queen of Scots Removal of her Cloth of StateResolution to die a MartyrLetters to FriendsContrast of the two QueensElizabeth's Treatment of Walsingham Pretended Conspiracy at the House of the French AmbassadorCritical Condition of Public Feeling Betrayal of Deventer by Sir William Stanley The Queen signs the Warrant for the Execution Ambiguous Conversation with Davison Suggestion to Sir Amyas Paulet to kill the Queen of Scots privately Davison consults the CouncilThey agree to execute the WarrantPaulet's Answer, and Elizabeth's Anger Secretary Beale carries the Warrant to Fotheringay The Queen of Scots learns that she is to die Preparations for the End The Morning of the ExecutionArrangement of the Hall On the ScaffoldDeathPolitical Effects
Chapter XXXV   Responsibility of SovereignsThe Execution known in LondonReception of the News by ElizabethAffected Indignation with Davison and Burghley She protests her InnocenceEmotion in ScotlandAnd in FranceDisgrace of Burghley Prosecution of DavisonSentence of the CommissionersPunishment of ElizabethEuropean PoliticsSextus V. and Count OlivarezPhilip intends to claim the English Succession The Bishop of DunblaneScotch and Spanish Factions among the English CatholicsAllen in Favour of PhilipScotch Sympathies in the Sacred College Disorders in the Low CountriesFresh Expedition of Sir Francis Drake Burning of Galleons in CadizMeditated Attack on LisbonCapture of the San PhilipElizabeth persists in seeking Peace The Religious Liberties of the States to be betrayedSiege and Capture of SluysNeglect and Misery of the English Troops The States demand the Restoration of the Cautionary TownsCommission appointed to treat for Peace Indignation of the StatesThe Civil War in FranceHenry III. and the LeagueJealousies between France and Spain Intrigues at Rome Spanish Preparations for WarThe Spanish Fleet prepares to sail for EnglandSufferings of Parma's Army at Dunkirk Financial EmbarrassmentsDeath of Santa CruzThe English Commissioners at Ostend Parma's Views about the PeaceAnd on the Possible Result of the Invasion Philip determines to persevereDepreciation of Landed Property in England Collapse of the TreatyResults of Elizabeth's PolicyThe Huguenot Army dispersed for Want of MoneyIneffectual Appeals to the QueenGuise, supported by Philip, occupies Paris The Day of the Barricades, and Flight of the King The Success is too late to be of Use to Spain
Chapter XXXVI   Supposed Weakness of EnglandPreparations for DefenceThe English NavyIts Annual CostWages of SeamenCondition of the Fleet in 1588False Economy of the QueenDistress of Lord HowardIll-treatment of the SailorsThe Fleet collectsElizabeth's Obstinacy Sour Beer and Short SuppliesThe ArmadaMedina Sidonia, and other Officers in Command Allen made Cardinal and Archbishop of CanterburyHis Pastoral Letter against Elizabeth Sailing of the ArmadaIts first MisfortunesArming of EnglandLeicester made Commander-in-Chief Action off PlymouthSuperior Sailing of the English Ships Destruction of GalleonsEnthusiasm of the young English Gentry Fight off the Isle of WightThe two Fleets reach Calais Roads Preparations of the Prince of ParmaWant of Food and Powder in the English Fleet Fire-ships sent upon the ArmadaAction in the Straits of DoverTerrible Defeat of the SpaniardsFlight of the ArmadaShattered Condition of the ShipsCouncil of WarResolution to pass around IrelandThe English Fleet return to the Thames Frightful Mortality among the SeamenNeglect of the GovernmentBehaviour of ElizabethDeath and Character of LeicesterThe Armada at the North of ScotlandEleven Days of StormSidonia, with Fifty-two Ships, passes Cape ClearFate of the RemainderMartinez de Recalde, with two others, follows SidoniaWreck in Blasket SoundWrecks in Clare, Arran, and Clew Bay All Prisoners executedScene on the Coast of Sligo Spaniards murdered by the IrishAlonzo da LeyvaWreck at DunluceArrival of Sidonia in SpainCondition of the ShipsScene at St. SebastianReception of the News by PhilipFailure of Parma at Bergen-op-Zoom Gratification of the Pope and the Cardinals Sextus and OlivarezDisgrace of AllenMurder of the Duke of Guise
Conclusion   Reasons for concluding the History at this PointEffects of the Destruction of the Armada The English Catholics become Anglicans Reflections on the History of the two Religions Superstition and Love of TruthGovernment by Majorities and the Right of the StrongLater Policy of ElizabethInternal Administration Enforcement of the Act of Uniformity Relations between Elizabeth and the PuritansEnglish EpiscopacyToleration or Uniformity — Contrasts between France and EnglandDevelopment of Anglicanism"Martin Marprelate"The Double Character of the English ChurchCharacter and Position of the Bishops Effects of the Retention of the Catholic ElementDeath of ElizabethHard Usage of Sovereigns by History General Reflections