From the Accession of James I. to the Outbreak of the Civil War.

Table of Contents.

Volume 1
499-1272 National consolidation 1
1272-1307 Reign of Edward I. 1
English Parliamentary Government. 2
1307-1399 The later Plantagenet kings. 3
1399-1485 The Lancastrian and Yorkist kings. 4
1485-1509 Reign of Henry VII. 5
1509-1547 Henry VIII. and the Papacy. 6
Aspirations of the Middle Ages. 7
The New Learning and the Reformation. 9
Henry VIII. and Protestantism. 10
1547-1558 Reigns of Edward VI. and Mary. 11
1558-1603 Difficulties of Elizabeth. 12
Elizabeth and Mary Stuart. 13
Elizabeth and the Catholics. 14
Elizabeth and the Puritans. 16
The Vestiarian Controversy. 18
Elizabeth decides against the Nonconformists. 19
Enforcement of Conformity. 21
Presbyterianism. 22
English Episcopacy. 26
The Royal Supremacy. 27
Grindal's archbishopric. 28
The Prophesyings. 29
Suspension of Grindal. 31
The Nonconformists and the House of Commons. 31
Whitgift's archbishopric. 33
The Court of High Commission. 34
The Separatists and the Marprelate libels. 37
Reaction in favour of the Elizabethan Church. 38
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity 39
Ariosto, Cervantes, and Spenser. 41
Death of Elizabeth. 43
1560-1572 Contrast between England and Scotland. 44
Knox and the Scottish nobility. 45
1572 The Tulchan Bishops. 46
1581 The Second Book of Discipline. 47
Character of James VI. 48
1584 Jurisdiction restored to the Bishops. 50
1592 Presbyterianism restored. 50
1593 Defeat of the Northern Earls. 50
James urged by the clergy to make full use of his victory. 51
1594 Exile of the Earls of Huntly and Errol. 52
1596 Return of the Earls. 52
Andrew Melville. 53
Quarrel between the King and the Ministers. 54
Black's Sermon. 56
Black summoned before the Council. 58
Resistance of the Ministers. 59
Banishment of Black. 61
Tumult in Edinburgh. 63
1597 James reduces Edinburgh to submission. 65
Proposed admission of representatives of the clergy to Parliament. 66
James supported by the Northern clergy. 66
Restrictions imposed on the clergy. 69
Absolution of Huntly and Errol. 70
Parliament supports the re-establishment of Episcopacy. 71
1598 The Assembly agrees to appoint clerical representatives in Parliament. 72
James inclines to the re-establishment of Episcopacy. 74
The Basilicon Doron. 75
1599 Bishops appointed 76
The new Bishops not acknowledged by the Church. 77
The English succession. 77
The Infanta and the Suffolk line. 78
James and Arabella Stuart. 79
160l Drummond's mission to Rome. 80
James's signature to a letter to the Pope surreptitiously obtained. 81
1602 The secret correspondence with Sir R. Cecil 82
1603 Accession of James I. 84
Proceedings of the Council. 85
James sets out from Edinburgh. 87
Sir Walter Raleigh. 88
Sir Robert Cecil. 90
Lord Henry Howard. 93
Raleigh dismissed from the Captaincy of the Guard. 94
Quarrels between Scotch and English 95
Grievances of the English Catholics 96
Hopes of better treatment from James. 97
Lindsay's Mission. 97
The Pope's Breves. 98
Letters of Northumberland. 99
The Monopolies called in. 100
Spain and the Netherlands. 101
The war party in England. 102
Cecil's views on peace with Spain. 103
The Dutch embassy. 105
Rosny's mission. 106
Treaty of Hampton Court with France 107
Watson's plot. 108
Information given by the Jesuits. 113
The Recusancy fines remitted. 115
The Queen refuses to receive the Communion. 116
Cobham and Raleigh arrested. 117
Evidence against them. 118
Case against Raleigh. 120
Raleigh's attempted suicide. 121
Raleigh's trial. 123
The verdict. 135
Probable explanation of Raleigh's conduct. 136
Trial of the other prisoners. 138
Executions and reprieves. 139
Negotiation with the Nuncio at Paris. 140
James renews his assurances to the Catholics. 141
Standen's mission. 142
1604 Increase of Catholics in England. 143
Proclamation for the banishment of the priests. 144
1603 Bacon's Considerations Touching the Pacification of the Church of England. 146
James's attitude towards the Puritans. 147
The Millenary Petition. 148
Answer of the Universities. 150
James's proposals. 151
Touching for the King's evil. 152
1604 The Conference at Hampton Court. 153
Death of Whitgift. 159
The House of Commons. 160
The House of Lords. 162
Meeting of Parliament. 163
Sir Francis Bacon 164
The King's speech. 165
Cases of Sherley and Goodwin. 167
Recognition of the King's title. 170
Purveyance. 171
Wardship. 174
Proposed Union with Scotland. 176
Church Reform in the House of Commons. 178
The Apology of the Commons. 180
Supply refused. 186
The trading companies. 187
Discussion on freedom of trade. 188
The King's speech at the prorogation. 190
1604 Misunderstanding between James and the House of Commons. 193
Bacon a possible reconciler. 194
The Canons of 1604. 195
Archbishop Bancroft. 196
Proceedings against the Nonconformists. 197
1605 The Northamptonshire petition. 198
Cecil's opinion on Nonconformity. 199
Expulsion of the Nonconformist clergy. 200
1604 James and the Catholics. 201
Act against Recusants. 203
1603 The Spanish monarchy. 204
Lerma's foreign policy. 205
Negotiations between England and Spain. 206
1604 Conferences for a Peace. 208
The Treaty of London. 214
The Spanish pensioners. 214
Commercial treaty with France. 217
The blockade of the Flemish ports. 218
Difficulty of preserving neutrality. 219
Proposed marriage between Prince Henry and the Infanta Anne. 220
The Recusancy Act carried into effect by the judges. 221
The priests banished. 222
Pound's case. 223
Recusancy fines required from the wealthy Catholics. 224
Sir James Lindsay sent to Rome. 224
1605 The Pope hopes to convert England. 225
James takes offence. 226
The Recusancy fines levied. 227
Cranborne created Earl of Salisbury. 230
Difficulties in the way of toleration. 231
1602 Winter's mission to Spain. 234
1603 Catesby conceives the idea of the plot. 235
1604 Imparts it to Winter and Wright. 236
Fawkes and Percy informed. 237
A house at Westminster taken. 238
The mine commenced. 239
1605 A cellar hired. 241
Fawkes sent to Flanders. 242
Garnet, Gerard, and Greenway. 243
Digby, Rokewood, and Tresham admitted. 244
Preparations for a rising. 245
Were the Catholic peers to be warned? 246
Tresham turns informer. 247
The letter to Lord Monteagle. 248
The plot betrayed to the Government. 249
Capture of Fawkes. 250
Probable explanation of Tresham's behaviour. 251
The conspirators' proceedings in London. 253
Their flight to the North. 257
The hunting at Dunchurch. 258
Failure of the movement. 259
The conspirators take refuge at Holbeche. 262
Death and capture of the conspirators. 263
Character of the conspiracy. 264
1605 Examination of Fawkes. 265
Thanksgiving for the deliverance. 266
Tresham's imprisonment and death. 267
1606 Trial and execution of the conspirators who had been taken. 268
The search at Hindlip. 270
Capture of Garnet. 271
His examination. 272
His narrative of his connection with the plot. 273
His trial. 277
The doctrine Of equivocation. 281
Garnet's execution. 282
Trial of Northumberland in the Star Chamber. 283
1605 Parliament opened and adjourned. 285
1606 On its reassembling a new Recusancy Act is passed. 286
The oath of allegiance. 288
Canons drawn up by Convocation. 289
The doctrine of non-resistance. 290
The King refuses to assent to the canons. 291
Effect of the oath of allegiance. 292
Financial disorder. 293
James professes a wish to be economical. 295
Bacon's position in the House of Commons. 297
Subsidies granted. 298
End of the session. 299
Visit of the King of Denmark. 300
1603 State of Scotland after the King had left it. 301
Causes of his success against the Presbyterians 302
1604 He intends to allow no more General Assemblies. 303
1605 He fears that an Assembly will attack the Bishops and Commissioners. 304
Presbyterian opposition. 305
Meeting of ministers at Aberdeen. 306
They declare themselves to form a General Assembly. 307
False account of their proceedings sent to the King. 308
Imprisonment of Forbes and five other ministers. 309
They decline to submit to the Council's jurisdiction. 370
1606 Trial of the ministers. 311
Their banishment. 315
Imprisonment of eight other ministers. 316
Position of the bishops. 317
Andrew Melville and seven other ministers brought to London. 318
His verses, imprisonment, and banishment. 319
The Linlithgow Convention and the Constant Moderators. 320
Causes of the King's success. 322
Opening of the English Parliament 324
Report of the Commissioners for the Union. 324
Free trade and naturalisation. 325
The Post-nati and the Ante-nati. 326
The King urges the Commons to accept the scheme of the Commissioners. 328
Debates on commercial intercourse. 329
1607 Violence of Sir C. Pigott. 330
Debates on naturalisation. 331
Speech of Fuller. 331
And of Bacon. 332
Coke's opinion. 334
Proposal of the Commons. 336
Fresh intervention of the King. 336
Abolition of hostile laws and extradition of criminals. 337
Prisoners to be tried in their own country. 338
Bacon Solicitor-General. 340
Relations between England and Spain. 340
Sea-fight off Dover. 341
Ill-treatment of Englishmen in Spain. 342
Proposed marriage between Prince Henry and the Infanta Anne. 343
Newce's arrest. 344
Franceschi's plot. 345
The trade with Spain. 347
The Spanish company opposed in the House of Commons. 348
The merchants' petition. 349
Spanish cruelties. 350
The Commons send the petition to the Lords. 351
Salisbury advises patience. 352
Northampton's contemptuous language. 353
Parliament prorogued. 354
Disturbances about enclosures. 354
1608 The case of the Post-nati in the Exchequer Chamber. 355
The Post-nati naturalised by the judges. 356
The Union abandoned 356
1169-1529 The Norman Conquest of Ireland. 358
Ireland in the Middle Ages. 359
1529-1598 Ireland in the time of the Tudors. 360
1598 The defeat on the Blackwater. 361
1599 Essex in Ireland. 362
1600 Mountjoy in Ireland. 362
1603 Submission of the country 364
Grievances of the towns. 365
Resistance at Cork. 367
Proposed league between the towns. 368
Mountjoy suppresses their resistance. 369
He returns to England and becomes Earl of Devonshire. 371
Sir George Carey Lord Deputy. 372
1604 Sir Arthur Chichester Lord Deputy. 373
1605 Social condition of Ireland. 374
The septs and the chiefs. 375
The Government wishes to introduce English customs. 377
1603 Condition of Leinster and Munster. 378
Of Connaught and Ulster. 379
The first circuit in Ulster. 380
The Earl of Tyrone. 381
Sir John Davies. 382
1605 Proclamations for disarmament, and an amnesty. 383
Protection to be given to the tenants 381
Chichester's visit to Ulster. 386
Treatment of the Irish Catholics. 388
The Dublin aldermen summoned before the Castle Chamber. 392
Protest of the Catholics. 394
1606 Proceedings against the Catholics in Munster 395
Chichester's views on persecution. 396
1607 Relaxation of the persecution. 399
Indictment of Labor. 400
Chichester's efforts to reform the Church. 401
1606 Chichester's second visit to Ulster. 402
Wicklow made into shire-ground. 406
1607 Dissatisfaction of the Northern chiefs. 408
Tyrone's quarrel with O'Cahan. 409
O'Cahan refers his case to the Government. 411
Information given of a conspiracy. 413
O'Cahan's case to be heard in London. 414
The flight of the Earls. 416
Precautions taken by the Government 417
Chichester's views on the settlement of Ulster. 418
Quarrel between O'Cahan and the Bishop of Derry. 419
Sir George Paulet at Derry. 420
O'Dogherty attacked by Paulet. 421
The Assizes at Lifford and Strabane 422
1608 Intrigues of Neill Garve. 423
O'Dogherty's rising. 424
Defeat and death of O'Dogherty. 428
The massacre on Tory Island. 430
1609 Neill Garve and O'Cahan sent to England. 431
Scheme of the Commissioners in London for the settlement of Ulster. 432
Difference between their scheme and that of Chichester. 433
Bacon's views on the subject. 435
Chichester's criticism. 436
Publication of the scheme of the Commissioners. 437
1610 Chichester's appeal on behalf of the natives. 438
The removal of the Irish. 439
Discontent in Ulster. 440
Material progress of the colony. 441
Volume 2
1607 Financial difficulties 1
1591 The Levant Company 2
1603 Imposition on currants 3
1606 Bate resists pavment 5
Bate's case in the Court of Exchequer 6
1608 Salisbury becomes Lord Treasurer 11
The new impositions 12
The debt and the deficit 13
1609 Entail of the Cown lands 15
1606 Banishment of the priests. 15
Paul V. 16
The Pope condemns the oath of allegiance 17
Sufferings of the Catholics 18
1607 The Pope again condemns the oath of allegiance 20
Negotiations for a peace in the Netherlands 21
English dipomacy 22
James's view of the negotiations 24
1608 Opening of the conferences at the Hague 26
Spanish intrigues 27
League between England and the States 28
1609 The Truce of Antwerp 29
1608 Church difficulties in Scotland 30
Balmerino detected in obtaining surreptitiously the King's signature 31
1609 Balmerino's trial and sentence 33
James appeals to Europe against the Pope 34
1606 Coke on the Bench 35
1607 Fuller's case 36
Coke's conflict with the King 38
1608 Fuller's submission and release 40
Dispute between Coke and Bancroft 41
The question of prohibitions discussed before the King 42
Rise of Robert Carr 42
1605 Raleigh loses the manor of Sherborne 43
1609 Sherborne granted to Carr 46
Value of the estate 47
1585-1605 Early attempts to colonise Virginia 50
1606 The first Virginian charter 51
1607 Landing of the first colony 54
Smith's adventures 55
1608 Smith elected president 56
1609 The new charter 57
Lord De la Warr appointed governor 59
Smith returns to England 60
Arrival of De la Warr and Gates 61
Administration of Dale 62
1610 Parliament summoned 63
Opening of the session 64
Salisbury's financial proposals 65
Cowell's Interpreter 66
Bacon's speech on tenures 68
Offer of the Commons 69
The Commons forbidden by the King to complain of the Impositions 70
Excitement in the Commons 71
The King gives way 72
Prince Henry created Prince of Wales 73
Salisbury bargains with the Commons 74
The debate on the Impositions 75
The Commons almost unanimous against the Crown 81
The Bill on Impositions 82
The Great Contract concluded 83
The King's reply to the Petition of Grievances 84
Prorogation of Parliament 87
1555 The Peace of Augsburg 88
1582 The Catholic reaction 90
1606 Parties in Germany 91
1608 The Protestant Union 92
1609 The Catholic League 92
The succession of Cleves and Juliers 93
Strife between the pretenders. 94
1610 Interference of foreign powers 95
Projects of Henry IV. 96
Murder of Henry IV. 98
English and French intervention in the Duchies. 99
Surrender of Juliers 100
Treaty between England and France. 101
Prospects of Episcopacy in Scotland 101
The Assembly of Glasgow introduces Episcopacy 102
Consecration of Bishops 103
Opinion of the judges on the King's right to issue proclamations 104
Opening of a new session of Parliament 105
The Great Contract discussed 106
Abandonment of the Great Contract 107
Resistance to a demand for a supply 108
1611 Dissolution of Parliament 109
Commencement of the quarrel between the King and tbe Commons 110
Carr made Viscount Rochester 111
The Baronets 112
1610 Case of Arabella Stuart 113
1611 Her escape and recapture 118
Case of the Countess of Shrewsbury 119
1610 Death of Bancroft 119
Expectation that he will be succeeded by Andrewes 120
1611 Abbot becomes Archbishop 121
Chancey's case in the High Commission Court 122
Abbot appeals to the Council against Coke 123
Abbot and Laud at Oxford 124
Theories of Laud 126
Laud becomes President of St. John's 127
Controversy between James and Vorstius 128
1612 Proceedings against Legate and Wightman 128
Legate and Wightman burnt 130
Lord Sanquhar's case 131
Execution of Lord Sanquhar 133
1610 Salisbury joins the opponents of Spain. 134
English merchants ill-treated in Spain 135
1611 Marriages proposed for the Princess Elizabeth 136
Digby ordered to ask for the Infanta Anne for the Prince of Wales 138
Breach of the negotiation with Spain 139
Proposais from Tuscany 140
The Elector Palatine accepted for the Princess Elizabeth 140
1612 Illness of Salisbury 141
Salisbury's death 142
Estimate of his career 143
The Treasury put in commission 145
Candidates for thè Secretaryship 146
James resolves to be his own secretary 148
Digby advocates the claims of the merchants in Spain 149
Zuñiga's mission 151
The Elector Palatine in England 152
Marriages proposed for the Prince 153
A French alliance suggested. 154
Illness of the Prince 157
Death of the Prince 158
Northampton's slanderers fined 159
Betrothal of the Prineess Elizabeth 160
1613 Marriage of the Princess Elizabeth 161
League between the Statesand the Union 162
James at the head of the Protestant Alliance 163
Dissatisfaction of the Spanish Government 164
Sarmiento sent as ambassador to England 165
1606 Marriage of the Earl of Essex 166
Conduct of Lady Essex 167
1613 She thinks of procuring a divorce 168
Commission appointed to try the case 170
Abbot's letter to the King 171
Sentence in favour of the divorce 172
Conduct of James and Andrewes 173
Unpopularity of the sentence 174
Overbury's connection with Rochester 175
Overbury opposes the divorce 176
Overbury sent to the tower 178
Schemes of Northampton and Rochester 179
A conspiracy to poison Overbury 181
Overbury's death 186
The Navy Commission 187
Whitelocke's argument against it 188
Mansell and Whitelocke charged before the Council 189
Bacon's theory of government 191
Sir J. Cæsar's report on the Exchequer 199
Efforts to improve the revenue 200
Necessity of summoning Parliament 20l
Neville's advice 202
Bacon's advice 204
Bacon recommends that Coke be made Chief Justice of the King's Bench 207
Coke's penal promotion 208
Rochester marries Lady Essex, and is created Earl of Somerset 210
1614 Star Chamber decree against duels 212
1613 Sutton's Hospital 213
The water supply of London 214
The New River completed 215
1613 Digby discovers the Spanish pensions 216
Sarmiento's diplomacy 218
James's foreign policy 220
Affair of Donna Luisa de Carvajal 221
Position of the negotiations with France 223
The pensioners of Spain 224
1614 Cottington urges Sarmiento to propose a Spanish marriage 226
James decides on summoning Parliament 227
The Undertakers 228
The elections 230
Necessity of choosing a Secretary 231
Appointment of Winwood 232
Opening of the session 233
Supply and grievances 236
Impositions and monopolies 237
Debate on the Impositions 238
The Lords refuse to confer 241
The Commons excited by Bishop Neile's speech 243
The King intervenes 244
The Bishop excuses himself 245
The Commons demand his punishment 246
Northampton foments the quarrel 247
Dissolution of Parliament 248
Imprisonment of members 249
James complains to Sarmiento 251
The Spanish marriage proposed 252
Sarmiento's plans 252
Discussions in Spain on the marriage 255
Digby's mission 256
His advice on the Spanish marriage 257
1614 Death of Northampton 259
Suffolk appointed Lord Treasurer 259
Somerset becomes Lord Chamberlain 260
A Benevolence offered 260
Appeal to the country for money 261
The Duchies of Cleves and Juliers 262
Spinola and Maurice invade the Duchies 263
The payment of the Benevolence urged 264
General disinclination to pay 265
Deputations summoned to London 266
Payment under pressure 267
Letter of Oliver St. John 268
Bacon prosecutes him in the Star Chamber 269
His sentence 270
Raleigh's Prerogative of Parliaments 271
Peacham's seditious writings 272
Peacham is committed to the Tower 273
1615 Torture inflicted on Peacham 275
The judges consulted separately on the nature of his offence 277
Coke's opinion 278
Position assumed by Coke 279
Peacham brings false charges against his neighbours 280
Peacham's trial and conviction 282
1611 Irish grievances 283
Proposal of summoning an Irish Parliament 284
The new constituencies 285
Alarm of the Catholics 286
1612 Proposed legislation against priests and Jesuits 287
Petition of the Lords of the Pale 287
1613 Protest of the Catholic Lords 288
Opening of Parliament 289
Struggle in the House of Commons over the election of a Speaker 289
Deputation to the King 292
Talbot questioned 294
Commissioners sent to investigate grievances 295
1614 The King's decision 296
Chichester instructed to carry out the laws against recusants 297
Withdrawal of he Bill against Priests and Jesuits 298
The Irish Parliament at work 299
Irish complaints 301
1615 Dissolution of Parliament and recall of Chichester 302
1615 0wen's case 304
1614 Building fines 305
The Brewers 306
The Treaty of Xanten 307
The whale fishery and the East India trade 309
1599-1615 Early history of the East India Company 310
1615 Roe's embassy 312
Rivalry between the English and the Dutch in the East 312
Negotiations at the Hague 313
1614 The French marriage treaty 314
The French States-General 315
Sarmiento hopes that the Prince will visit Madrid 316
Digby's negociations at Madrid 316
First appearance of Villiers at Court 317
1615 Somerset's behaviour to the King 319
The King's visit to Cambridge 320
Cotton's negotiation with Sarmiento 321
Intrigues against Somerset 322
Villiers made Gentleman of the Bedchamber 323
The articles of the Spanish marriage treaty sent to James 323
James hesitates to accept them 324
The articles accepted as the basis of the negotiation 326
Somerset is to conduct the negotiation 327
Somerset's dissatisfaction with the King 327
The Chancellor refuses to pass his pardon. 329
James orders the Chancelor to seal it, but neglects to enforce his command 350
1615 Winwood informed of Overbury's murder 331
Confession of Helwys 332
Weston's confession 333
Commissioners appointed to investigate the affair 334
Somerset's behaviour 335
James refuses fo interfere 336
Trial of Weston 337
Proceedings in the Star Chamber 341
Trials of Mrs. Turner and Helwys 342
Trial of Franklin 343
Sir Thomas Monson's trial postponed 344
Information extracted from Cotton on Somerset's relations with Sarmiento 345
1616 The Earl and Countess of Somerset indicted 347
Bacon's conduct in the affair 348
Somerset threatens to accuse the King 351
Trial of the Countess of Somerset 352
Trial of the Earl of Somerset 353
The Countess pardoned 360
Somerset's life spared 361
Sir Thomas Monson pardoned 363
1615 Discussion in the Privy Council on the summoning of Parliament 364
Bacon encourages James to call a Parliament 366
James resolves to proceed with the Spanish marriage 368
The design of summoning Parliament abandoned 369
1594 Raleigh's early projects 370
El Dorado 372
1595 Raleigh's first voyage to Guiana 373
The gold mine on the Orinoco 374
Raleigh's return 375
1596 Voyage of Keymis to Guiana 377
1603 Explorations of Leigh and Harcourt 378
Raleigh's imprisonment 379
1612 Raleigh proposes to send Keymis to Guiana 380
1616 Raleigh released from the Tower 382
Treaty for the surrender of the Cautionary Towns 382
1613 The cloth manufactory 385
1614 Cockaine's proposais 386
1615 The new company 387
1616 Distress in the clothing districts 388
Bacon's proposals 389
James resolves to break the negotiation for a French marriage 390
Hay's mission to Paris 391
Embarrassment of James 392
Sale of peerages 393
Hay's negotiation 394
The French marriage broken off 396
Carleton in Holland 396
The Dutch decline to execute the Treaty of Xanten 397