FROM THE YEAR 1624 TO 1645.


An interesting Narrative of the Proceedings of the great Families in Scotland during that Period—Rising of the Highland Clans in Arms—Origin and Progress of the Covenanters, their Battles, Sieges, &c.—And many other remarkable Particulars of the Troubles in the North of Scotland, not contained in any other History of the Times.

Then Commissary Clerk of ABERDEEN.
With an INDEX to each; and a GLOSSARY.

Printed for T EVANS, Paternoster-Row, LONDON;


p. 3

Anno 1624.

After the death and burial of Angus M'Intosh of Auld Iirlie, alias Angus Williamson, (which was a little before Whitsunday in the year of God 1624,) his kin and friends of Clanchattan, whom he in his time held under rule and in peace by his power and policy, began to call to mind how James Earl of Murray, their master, had casten them out of their kindly possessions, whilk past memory of man their predecessors and they had kept for small duty, but for their faithful service, and planted in their places, for payment of a greater duty, a number of strangers and feeble persons, unhabile to serve the earl their master, as they could have done, by which means those gentlemen were brought through necessity to great misery, and therewith considering their young chief, the laird of M'Intosh, was but a bairn, who (according to the common band) might not be answerable for their misdeeds, and thinking and calling to mind how oft and how humbly they had craved their kindly possessions, from the said earl, but could not be heard, nor find favour, which grieved them in the highest degree; they therefore, finding the time proper, partly through infancy of their young chief, and partly through the death of this worthy chieftain, p. 4 (who by his wit and policy, held them still under awe and obedience), desperately resolve by force of arms, either to recover their own kindly possessions, or otherwise cast the samen waste, and none should labour the ground or pay any duty to the earl; and to that effect, about the said feast of Whitsunday 1624, there brake out in arms about the number of two hundred of the principal gentlemen of that race and lineage of Clanchattan, under the leading of Lachlan M'Intosh, alias Lachlan Ogle, (uncle to this now laird of M'Intosh) and Lachlan M'Intosh or Lachlan Angus-son, (eldest ion to the said umquhile Angus Williamson) their captains. They keeped the fields in their highland weed upon foot, with swords, bows, arrows, targets, hagbuts, pistols, and other highland arms, and first began to rob and spuilzie the earl's tenants who laboured their possessions, of their haill goods, gear, insight plenishing, horse, nolt, sheep, corns, and cattle, and left them nothing that they could get within their bounds, syne fell in sorning throughout Murray, Stratherick, Urquhart, Rois, Sutherland, Brae of Mar, and divers other parts, taking their meat and food per force where they could not get it willingly, frae friends as well as frae their faes, yet still kept themselves from shedding of innocent blood. Thus they lived as outlaws, oppressing the country, besides the casting of the earl's land waste, and openly avowed they had taken this course to get their own possessions again, or then hold the country waking.

The earl of Murray, mightily grieved at the Clanchattan to break out in such disorder, himself being dwelling in Murray, sends shortly and brings out of Monteith and Balquidder about three hundred highlandmen armed after their own custom; this people, with the earl himself, came through Murray to Inverness in battle rank; they stayed there that night, and the earl was, with his good brother the earl of Eugie, in the castle well entertained; thir people stayed a while in the country upon the earl's great expences, without seeing or seeking the Clanchattan; therefore the earl sent them all back the gate they came; always the earl returned frae Inverness back to Elgin, and provided another company to go against the Clanchattan; but p. 5 also did little service, and so returned without finding of the enemy first or last, albeit they made a pretext of seeking them through the country.

But the Clanchattan, nothing dismayed, became more furious and enraged, to rob and spoil every man's goods, wherever they came, whether friend or foe, to the great hurt and skaith of the king's lieges. The earl, seeing he could hardly get them suppressed by force of arms, resolves upon another course to bear them down, which was, he goes to London, to king James, and humbly shews the rising of thir Clanchattan, and that he could not get them overcome and subdued without an lieutenantry in the North, which the king graciously granted to him for some few years, and to sit, cognosce, and decern upon some capital points allenarly, specially set down thereintill. The earl returns home, causes proclaim his lieutenantry, (whereat it was thought the house of Huntly was somewhat offended, thinking none should be lieutenant in the North but themselves, albeit he was his own goodson, who had gotten it, to wit, the marquis's son-in-law who had married his eldest daughter) proclaims letters of intercommuning against the Clanchattan at the head burghs of sundry shires, that none should receipt, supply, or intercommune with them, under great pains and peril. After publication of which letters, the Clanchattan's kin and friends, who had privately promised them assistance before their breaking out, begins now to grow cold, fearing their estates, of whom sundry was wealthy, in lands and goods, and simpliciter refused them help, receipt or supply, for fear of the laws.

The Clanchattan seeing this, by expectation begin now to repent their breaking out, and seek the earl's peace, whilk by intercession of friends was granted, provided that they should give the earl information who did receipt or supply them after publication of the letters of intercommuning, and to give up their names, and prove the same. Upon this condition the earl forgives them, and takes them by the hand, and shortly begins to hold justice courts within the burgh of Elgin. Some slight lowns, followers of the Clanchattan, were execute; but the principal outbreakers p. 6 and malefactors were spared and never troubled. This justice court was fenced in the earl's own name, and in the name of the laird Innes, the laird Brodie, Mr. Samuel Falconer of Knockorth, and Mr. John Hay, commissary of Murray, his deputes, before whom was summoned all such as had given supply, receipt, or intercommuned with the Clanchattan, who durst not but compear, otherwise go to the horn; and being accused, they could not but deny, then presently was brought in before the bar, and in the honest men's faces, the Clanchattan, who had gotten supply, verified what they had gotten, and the honest men confounded and dashed, knew not what to say or answer, were forced to come in the earl's will, whilk was not for their good; others compeared and willingly confessed, trusting to get more favour at the earl's hands, but they came little speed, and lastly some stood out and denied. All who were reserved to the trial of an assize, the principal malefactors stood up in judgment, and declared what they had gotten, whether meat, money, cloathing, gun, ball, powder, lead, sword, durk, and the like commodities, and also instructed the assize in ilk particular, what they had gotten from the persons pannelled; an uncouth form of probation, where the principal malefactor proves against the receptor for his own pardon, and honest men, perhaps neither of the Clanchattan kin nor blood, punished for their good will, ignorant of the laws, and rather receipting them more for their ill than for their good. Nevertheless thir innocent men, under colour of justice part, and part as they came in, were soundly fined in great sums as their estates might bear, and some above their estates were fined, and every one warded within the tolbooth of Elgin, while the least mite was paid by such as were pursued in anno 1624.

Anno 1625.

King James departs this life in the month of March 1625. King Charles renews the lieutenantry, the earl goes on quickly, and sharply with his justice-courts against p. 7 Inverness, John Grant of Glenmoriston, and others who would not come in the Earl's will for receipt of the Clanchattan, an4 pay him sic fines as pleased him to impose. Inverness, standing to their innocence, made moyan before the council, which availed nought. Then they sent Duncan Forbes their provost to the king; John Grant went also to complain to his majesty, but still the earl, who past also to the king, set them aside and bare them down; they returned all home, and the earl fined Inverness in great sums of money, and John Grant of Glenmoriston agrees with him quietly, after he had made great travel and expence for his just defence. There was some miscontentment betwixt the marquis of Huntly and his son the lord Gordon on the one part, and the said earl of Murray on the other part, touching the purchasing of this lieutenantry without their counsel and advice, they kept no secrets, nor frequents other companies. The earl by himself goes on with his lieutenantry, the marquis grudges to see the king's. leiges, who were just and innocent, so abused and fined, under colour of a law, yet held him quiet and beholds all patiently. Yet some said, both they and the lord Gordon assisted some of their friends who were pursued, and made moyan secretly before the council, and thereafter before the king, which did little good, but made the earl think upon it when he found occasion, and as was thought he made the marquis to lose both the sheriffships of Aberdeen and Inverness, as ye shall hear; and in the mean time the marquis punished not blood nor oppression, but reserved all to the lieutenant, whereby the country was casten loose.

N.B. There is nothing noted in the years of God 1626 and 1627 worthy of memorial, and therefore goes to 1628. for the notes of that year.

Anno 1628.

In this year of God John Grant of Balnadallach and his complices follow John Grant of Carroun to the wood of Abernethy, betwixt whom there fell out an hot skirmish p. 8 where the said John Grant of Carroun was cruelly slain, and —— Grant of Dalvey on young Balnadallach's side, and divers others hurt on both sides, which blood lay unpunished.

And siclike about Michaelmas in the said year, the laird, thereafter lord of Banff, unhappily slew James Ogilvie his cousin, being a proper gentleman; there was some assythment; made for this slaughter, and he went peaceably.

Anno 1629.

Alexander Innes, nottar public in Elgin, cruelly slew Robert Tulloch, brother to —— Tulloch of Tanoquhy, at the Pans-port in Elgin about Whitsunday 1629; he fled to Ireland, his wife and children followed, but feared punishing.

Anno 1630.

Upon the first of January 1630, the laird of Frendraught and his complices fell in a trouble with William Gordon of Rothemay and his complices, where the said William was unhappily slain, being a gallant gentleman, and on Frendraught's side was slain George Gordon, brother to James Gordon of Lefmoir, and divers others were hurt on both sides. The marquis of Huntly, and some well-set friends settled this feud, and Frendraught ordained to pay to the lady relict of Rothemay and the bairns, fifty thousand merks in composition of the slaughter, whilk as was said was truly paid.

Upon the first of September 1630, the laird of Frendraught having in his company Robert Crightoun of Candian, and James Lesly, son to John Lesly of Pitcaple, with some other servants, the said Robert after some speeches shoots the said James Leslie through the arm. They were parted, and he convoyed to Pitcaple, and the other Frendraught shot out of his company.

p. 9 Likeas Frendraught upon the fifth of October held conference with the earl of Murray in Elgin, and upon the morn he came to the Bog of Gight, where the marquis made him welcome. Pitcaple loups on about 30 horse in jack and spear, (hearing of Frendraught's being in the Bog) upon Thursday the 7th of October, and came to the marquis, who before his coming had discreetly directed Frendraught to confer with his lady. Pitcaple heavily complains of the hurt his son had got in Frendraught's company, and rashly avowed to be revenged before he went home. The marquis alledged Frendraught had done no wrong, and dissuaded him from any trouble. Pitcaple, displeased with the marquis, suddenly went to horse, and that same day rides his own ways, leaving Frendraught behind him in the Bog, to whom the marquis revealed what conference was betwixt him and Pitcaple, and held him all that night, and would not let him go. Upon the morn being Friday, and a night of October, the marquis caused Frendraught to breakfast lovingly and kindly; after breakfast, the marquis directs his dear son, viscount of Aboyn, with some servants to convoy Frendraught home to his own house, if Pitcaple was laid for him by the way; John Gordon, eldest son to the late slain Rothemay, happened to be in the Bog, who would also go with Aboyn; they ride without interruption to the place of Frendraught, or fight of Pitcaple by the way. Aboyn took his leave from the laird, but upon no condition he and his lady would not suffer him to go, nor none that was with him that night, but earnestly urged him, (though against his will) to bide. They were well entertained, supped merrily, and went to bed joyfully. The viscount was laid in an bed in the Old Tower going off the hall, and standing upon a vault, wherein there was an round hole devised of old, just under Aboyn's bed. Robert Gordon, born in Sutherland, his servitor, and English Will his page, were both laid beside him in the same chamber; the laird of Rothemay with some servants beside him, was laid in an upper chamber just above Aboyn's chamber; and in another room above that chamber, was laid George Chalmers of Noth and George Gordon another of the viscount's servants; with p. 10 them also was laid captain Rollock, then in Frendraught's own company. Thus all being at rest, about midnight, that dolorous tower took fire in so sudden and furious manner, yea and in an clap, that the noble viscount, the laird of Rothemay, English Will, Colonel Ivat, another of Aboyn's servants, and other two being six in number, were cruelly burnt and tormented to the death without help or relief. The laird of Frendraught, his lady and haill household, looking on, without moving or striving to deliver them from the fury of this fearful fire, as was reported. Robert Gordon, called Sutherland Robert, being in the viscount's chamber, escaped this fire with the life. George Chalmers and captain Rollock, being in the third room, escaped also this fire; and as was said, Aboyn might have saved himself also, if he would have gone out of doors, which he would not do, but suddenly ran up stairs to Rothemay's chamber, and wakened him to rise; and as he is wakening him, the timber passage and lofting of the chamber hastily takes fire, so that none of them could win down stairs again, so they turned to a window looking to the close, where they piteously cryed, many time, help, help! for God's cause! The laird and the lady with their servants all seeing and hearing the woeful crying, made no help nor manner of helping, which they perceiving, cried oftentimes mercy at God's hands for their sins, syne clasped in others arms, and chearfully suffered their martyrdom. Thus died this noble viscount, of singular expectation, Rothemay a brave youth, and the rest, by this doleful fire never enough to be deplored, to the great grief and sorrow of their kin, parents, and haill common people, especially to the noble marquis, who for his good will got this reward. No man can express the dolour of him and his lady, nor yet the grief of the viscount's own dear lady, when it came to her ears, which she kept to her dying day, disdaining after the company of man in her lifetime, following the love of the turtle dove,

How soon the marquis gets word, he directs some friends to take up their ashes, and burnt bones, which they could get, and as they could be kent, to put ilk one's ashes and bones in an chest, being six chests in the haill, p. 11 which with great sorrow and care, was had to the kirk of Garntullie, and there buried. In the mean time the marquis writes to the lord Gordon, then dwelling in Inverness, of the accident. It is reported that upon the morn after this woeful fire, the lady Frendraught, daughter to the earl of Sutherland, and near cousin to the marquis, busked in a white plaid, and riding on a small nag, having a boy leading her horse, without any more in her company, in this pitiful manner she came weeping and mourning to the Bog, desiring entry to speak with my lord, but this was refused, so she returned back to her own house the same gate she came, comfortless.

The lord Gordon, upon the receipt of the marquis' letter, came hastily to the Bog, conveened William, with whose sister the viscount was married, and many other friends, who after serious consideration, concluded this fearful fire could not come by chance, sloth or accident, but that it was plotted and devised of set purpose, as ye may hereafter see, whereof Frendraught, his lady, and servants and friends, one or other was upon the knowledge; so thir friends dissolves, and the marquis would not revenge himself by way of deed, but seek the laws with all diligence, whereunto he had more than reason.

Now there was a gentleman called John Meldrum, who some time served the laird of Frendraught, and got not good payment of his fee, as he alledged, whereat he was miscontent; this Meldrum thereafter married with Pitcaple's sister, and the hurting of James Leslie made this grief the greater, and bred some suspicion of the raising of this fire, whereupon he with one John Toasch, servitor to Frendraught an young woman called —— Wood, daughter to the laird of Colpnay, all suspected persons to be either airt and part, or on the counsel of this fire, one or another of them, were apprehended and warded in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh. This young gentlewoman was first accused before the lords of session, and sharply examined. She stands to her innocence, and denies all; she is therefore put into the boots, and cruelly tortured, yet confesses nothing, whereupon she is set to liberty, as an innocent, but the other two men are kept in strait ward, where I will leave them till afterwards.

p. 12 Ye heard before how young Baldnadallach had killed John Grant of Carroun without punishing; whereupon his uncle James Grant vowed to revenge his death, and wrought mickle displeasure to the said Balnadallach, as ye shall hear, because he could get no justice against him by the laws, for his moyan with the earl of Murray.

Ye heard before of some miscontentment betwixt the marquis of Huntly and the earl of Murray, anent purchasing the lieutenantry. In recompence of the marquis' procedure, the earl of Murray, being at court, and in good favour with the king, dealt so that his majesty should take the sheriffships of Aberdeen and Inverness from the marquis, and give him five thousand pounds sterling for the samen. The marquis was very loth to quit these offices, purchased for singular services done to the kings of Scotland by his predecessors, yet is forced to do the samen, not standing now in such favour with this king; as with his father; but it was said the earl of Murray alledged, he was sic a great man, of sic friendship and power, that none could live beside him, except these sheriffships were taken frae him and his posterity, and the king gave better ear in this purpose to the earl of Murray nor to the marquis, and thir heritable offices were annexed to the crown; but the marquis would not receive the said 5000 pounds sterling, but desired his son the lord Gordon to take it up; but whether he got full payment or not, I cannot tell, for he was then in England. It is true the country was not in sic obedience afterwards, as ye shall hear.

At Michaelmas in the same year of the marquis' demission, 1630, John Johnstoun of Caskiebain by the king's commission was made sheriff principal of Aberdeen, and Sir Robert Gordon of that ilk, knight baronet, was likewise by the king's commission made sheriff principal of Inverness, and both to endure for an year. The marquis, made free of these sheriffships, resolved to look about his own affairs, and behold all, whilk bred great troubles in the land, that durst not have been enterprized if he had bruiked office, and no lieutenantry had been granted to the earl of Murray, as ye have heard.

Ye heard of James Grant, how he brake out. Indeed no redress could be gotten of Balnadallach for the innocent p. 13 slaughter of his brother's son, for by moyan he purchased a respite, and thereafter a remission, as was said: James Grant seeing this, turned lawless, and upon the third day of December, he with his complices, came to the town and lands of Pitchass, young Balnadallach's dwelling place, who with about thirty persons was within, whilk the said James Grant well enough knew, and to train him out he sets his corn yard on fire, and haill laigh bigging, barns, byres, stables, wherein many horse, nolt and sheep was burnt, and sic bestial as was not burnt they flew and destroyed; but young Balnadallach kept the house, and durst not come out and make any defence. In like manner the said James Grant with his complices, upon the seventh day of the said month of December, past to the town and lands of Talqbyn pertaining to old Balnadallach, and burnt up and destroyed the haill bigging thereof, corns, cattle, goods and gear, and all which they could get, and to the hills goes he.

Balnadallach old and young complain to the ear of Murray, lieutenant, upon this injure and oppressions, and with all the country people, still under hazard of their lives and heirship of their goods, who was unfriends to the said James Grant, cried out against the lieutenant for not punishing of thir grievous offences, searching, seeking and taking of the said James Grant and his complices; the earl mightily moved thereat, and in end. resolves to gar one devil ding another, and to that effect agrees with Lachlan M'Intosh alias Lachlan Og, brother to the umquhile laird of M'Intosh, William M'Intosh alias M'Lachlan, son to umquhile Lachlan Angus-son, and George Dallas. These three were the principal men that broke out against the earl himself, and being reconciled as ye have heard, he now agrees with them to take the said James Grant, either quick or dead; whilk upon conditions they frankly undertook, and conveens about forty strong men of Clanchattan, well armed after their highland fashion, divides them into three several companies, and under three captains, viz. the said Lachlan Og, William M'Lachlan, and George Dallas. The earl himself refers this business to thir three captains, and upon the tenth day of the said month of December, he p. 14 rides from Murray south. But thir captains used so great diligence, that upon the eighteenth day of the said month of December, they find the said James Grant in the town and lands of Auchachyll within a house, and ten men with him, and his bastard son at the head of Strathavan; they pursued the house most furiously; the said James and his men wins out and takes the flight, they follow sharply, flew four of the men, wounded himself with arrows in eleven parts of his body, and when he could do no more he was taken, and his other xix men, but his bastard son wan away. Thus were they brought quickly to the place of Balnadallach, where he with his men were straitly kept, then his men were had to the tolbooth of Elgin, and warded there, himself was led to Darnway upon Yool-day the 25th of December, where he remained till the 25th of February 1631, that his wounds was cured, syne had into Elgin as you shall hear. Balnadallach old and young, with all their friends, was glad at this taking. So the earl of Murray being at Edinburgh, and hastily advertised hereof, rejoiced mightily at this vassalage done by his men, and shortly takes order with him, as you shall hear. Whilk was, he writes frae Edinburgh, and discharged the Clanchattan companies, and ordered thir three captains with some others, and his own men, tenants and servants, to convey them from Elgin to Edinburgh, whilk was done; howsoon James Grant came to Edinburgh, he was admired and looked upon as a man of great vassalage; he is received and warded in the castle of Edinburgh, and his six men were all hanged to the death: he was often times accused before the counsel of diverse matters: at last he breaks ward and wan away, as ye may hereafter hear.

Anno 1631.

This James Grant, now able to travel, being cured of his wounds, came frae Darnway upon the 25th of February 1631 to the burgh of Elgin, convoyed by the same men that took him; he lodged that night in.the Earl's own p. 15 house with strait watches; upon the morn himself was transported therefrae, and his six men out of the tolbooth, and all together was conveyed by the earl's own men, tenants and servants, according to his own written direction, to the town of Edinburgh, except the three Clanchattan captains, with some few others that convoyed him also; where he was warded, and his men hanged, as you have heard.

Ye heard before how the marquis of Huntly was curious in trying of the woeful fire of Frendraught. He resolves, by advice of his friends, to complain to the secret council, who went, with his lady and virgin daughters, upon the eleventh of March, frae the Bog, by chariot, well accompanied by his friends; how soon he came to Edinburgh, he declared before the council, this fearful fire, and his irrecoverable loss, desiring their aid and assistance to try the authors of this work, for still the marquis himself had Frendraught in suspicion of this fire, that he was the forger and deviser thereof; the lords of council admired at the marquis' declaration, and all lamented his pitiful case, whilk could not be well tryed; however after consultation, the lords send a commission to the bishops of Aberdeen and Murray, the lord Carnegie and Crowner Bruce, to go to the place of Frendraught, and there ingeniously to try how the tower took fire, whether accidentally or of purpose, or if it proceeded from fire within the house, or if fire was put in at the flits or windows, by men's hands, or done by any other engine. Thir four commissioners upon the 13th of April conveened at Frendraught, where the lord Gordon, the lord Ogilvie, the lord Delkford, with sundry barons and gentlemen, met them; they went in and circumspectly looked round about them up and down, within and without, and at last all in one voice concluded, and wrote to the council, that this fire could not be raised without the house, except by force of engine of war, neither came the same by accident, negligence or sloth, but of set purpose this fire was raised by mens hands within the vaults or chambers of said tower. After this conclusion the commissioners and all the rest takes their leave, and all this time the marquis bade in Edinburgh till the commissioners p. 16 returned with their answer, which howsoon the marquis heard, he returned home again with his suspicion more and more encreased against the laird of Frendraught.

Upon Saturday the 16th of July, the high and mighty lord Francis earl of Errol is in his own place of the bounds departed this life, and was buried within the church of Slains, upon the night, convoyed quietly with his own domestics and country friends with torch light. It was his will to have no gorgeous burial, nor to convocate his noble friends with making great charges and expences, but to be buried quietly, and such expences as should be wared prodigally upon his burial, to give the same to the poor. This was a truly noble man, of a great and courageous spirit, who had great troubles in his time, which he stoutly and honourably still carried, and now in favour died in peace with God and man, and a loyal subject to the king, to the great grief of his kin and friends.

At Michaelmas, John Forbes of Pitsligo is sheriff of Aberdeen, and Thomas Fraser of Stricheu sheriff of Inverness, by commission.

Upon the eighth day of December, John Urquhart of Craigstoun, sometime tutor of Cromarty, departed this life in his own house, and upon the first day of December thereafter he was buried within his own isle, in the kirk of King Edward. He left behind him a fair estate, conquest without court or session, and from a small beginning, and provided his children honestly.

John Urquhart of Lathers, his eldest lawful son, coming frae his burial towards Aberdeen, takes sickness suddenly by the way at Parcock, and upon the eleventh day of the said month of December departed this life, and was buried beside his father upon the fifteenth day of the said month. Thus the son followed the father shortly. His death was sorrowful to many, but chiefly to sundry of his friends and country gentlemen, whom he had engaged as cautioners for him in great sums of money, who saw no relief, because he had neither heir or executor, his son being put in fee of all by the old tutor his good-sir.

The marquis of Huntly, with his lady, and virgin daughter, was in the ploughlands in harvest, to whom p. 17 came the lady Murray, their eldest daughter, and visited them. After conference within the yard, they kindly drank together; syne she took her leave, and rode to Darnway. Here it is to be marked, that the earl her husband was at this time south, and since the fire of Frendraught she saw not her father and mother, nor did the earl himself since the purchasing his lieutenantry ever visit them, or give them any comfort since this dolorous fire, which was admired by many country people, that for any dryness was betwixt them that the earl of Murray should have been so unkind, and his lady both, in such sorrowful days. At last they became more kind, as ye shall afterwards hear.

Anno 1632.

Upon the third day of January 1632, the earl of Sutherland, being in Querrell wood beside Elgin, directed there frae his led horse with his greath to the Bog, minding to lodge there all night, by the gate going south. Himself with the tutor of Duffus followed, who came to the Bog, but the marquis made him cold welcome for his good-brother the laird of Frendraught's cause, saying he should either quit him or the marquis. The earl answered, he would prefer him to his good brother Frendraught, but to quit him who had married his sister, so long as he was law-free he could not with his honour, The marquis suddenly answered, Then God be with you, my lord, and turned about his back. The earl shortly said the like, and came forth, syne took his leave of his lady and his daughters, but the lady urged him to stay all night, saying his chamber was prepared, but he would not, and night being fallen, he lodges in Andrew Haddentoun's at the yett-cheek, who was an ostler. Upon the morn timely he rises, and to the south goes he.

Upon Saturday the 15th of September the earl of Angus, accompanied with his eldest son the lord Douglas, and thirty other brave-horsed gentlemen came to the Bog, where they were made welcome, and well entertained; and p. 18 upon the morn, without further ceremony, he was married at the kirk of Belly with lady Mary Gordon, daughter to the marquis, by Mr. Robert Douglas, minister at Glenbervie, whom the earl of Angus brought with him of purpose. Their entertainment was honourable; but the earl of Murray and his lady, by reason of the coldness aforesaid, was not there, nor yet the lord Gordon, now being at the court in London.

Upon the 22d of September, the earl of Angus, with his lady, went to Darnway, and visited the earl of Murray, and his lady; they stayed that night, being Saturday, Sunday and Monday, till ten of the clock; they had great welcome with good chear, where Sir Thomas Randolph drank to the Black Douglas, and the Black Douglas to him, with great love and kindness. Thereafter the earl of Angus, with his lady, took their leave, and returned to the Bog, where they remained till the 27th of September, and that day took their leave, and south ride they home.

At Michaelmas, John Forbes of Pitsligo, sheriff of Aberdeen, by commission, was continued in his office till Michaelmas 1633, and right sua Thomas Fraser of Strichen, sheriff of Inverness, was continued to that day.

Ye heard of the earl of Sutherland going south. He married lady —— Drummond, daughter to the earl of Perth; and upon the second of October, he and his lady came by the Bog, and would not go to see him; crossed, the water, and breakfasted in William Stewart's, ostler, syne rode their ways.

Ye heard before, how James Grant was warded in the castle of Edinburgh, many looking but he should have died, nevertheless upon Monday the 15th of October at night, he came down over the castle wall, upon tows brought to him secretly by his wife, and clearly wan away through evil attendance, and to the great grief of the lords of council, who did not lay him faster; they posted proclamations throughout all the kingdom, offering large sums to any that should bring him back again, quick or dead, but all in vain. James Grant's wife was taken shortly thereafter at the marquis of Huntly's command, being drinking in his own gardener's house in the Bog; he writes to the council, p. 19 who desired to send her in to the bishop of Aberdeen, there to abide trial before him, and the bishop of Brechin, as the council had appointed. The marquis about Martinmas sends her into Aberdeen, where she is examined upon sundry circumstances touching her husband's breaking of ward; she confessed nothing, whereupon she was set at liberty by order of the council, and she past and repast, thereafter at her pleasure without interruption, and her husband shifted for himself, as ye shall hear, till that he began to kyth and break out again to trouble the land.

Upon Wednesday the 28th of November in the afternoon, the lord of Strathbrane, otherwise called the master of Abercorn, was married with lady Jean Gordon, the marquis' youngest daughter, within the kirk of Belly, by an Irish minister brought with him of purpose; they were. honourably entertained within the Bog, and within few days departed home.

In this month of November, the earl of Murray took journey towards Edinburgh, and from that to the king, but he received some advertisements, whereupon he went to the chancellor's lodging, and in his presence laid down his patent under the great seal of his lieutenantry, and rendered the samen. It was said he prepared himself to go to the king, to get his lieutenantry renewed, but the lord Gordon being at court, crossed his design, knowing his. lieutenantry to be expired, in recompence of the sheriffships taken from his father, as ye have heard before, whereat the earl of Murray had his own miscontentment.

Patrick, bishop of Aberdeen, sitting in his own chair in the Old Town, was upon the —— day of —— 1632, suddenly striken in an apoplexy, and. his right side clean taken away, and was forced to learn to subscribe with his left hand; he was carried in mens arms sometimes to provincial assemblies, and sometimes to sermons, and continued so while the 28th of March anno 1635, that he departed this life, as ye shall hear, and was buried in bishop Gavin Dumbar's isle. p. 20

Anno 1633.

Upon Thursday the 7th of February there began a great storm of snow, with horrible high winds, whilk was noted to be universal through all Scotland. This hideous winds was marked to be such, as the like had never been seen here in these parts, for it would overturn countrymens houses to the ground, and some persons suddenly smo'red within, without relief. It also threw down the stately crown bigged of curious eslar work, off the steeple of the King's College of Old Aberdeen, whilk was thereafter re-edified and built up, little inferior to the first.

This outrageous storm stopped the ordinary course of ebbing and flowing on sundry waters, by the space of 24 hours, such as the waters of Leith, Dundee, Montrose, and other parts, whilk signified great troubles to be in Scotland, as after ye shall hear over truly came to pass.

Ye heard before of the lord Gordon's being in England. It's true his father the marquis was also at court, seeking to defend his sheriffships, whilk he could not get done, and therefore returned home again, leaving his son the lord Gordon behind him to uplift the prices thereof. Now the lord Gordon returns home to Scotland about the month of February, having gotten the place to be captain or lieutenant of the French guard of Gens d'Armes. In this month of February or thereby, he lists a number of brave gentlemen to serve in the said guards, well armed and well horsed, and he has them landways to London, and from thence transported them by sea over into France. He had also with him his eldest son lord George, and his second son James Lord of Aboyn; he made a brave muster in presence of the king of France, whereat the king was veil pleased, and received the lord Gordon, his bairns and soldiers, graciously. Shortly after his lady and eldest daughter lady Ann, came first. to London, and frae that to her husband, where she was made welcome, and staid till they came home together.

Upon Saturday the 15th of June, king Charles came to Edinburgh from London. He had the duke of Lennox, p. 21 the marquis of Hamilton, the earl of Morton, and divers others of the Scots, and sundry English lords, accompanied with about 500 Englishmen, and officers of his household. His furniture, plate, and plenishing was carried about with him in princely form. At the West Port his majesty had an eloquent speech, making him welcome, and the keys of the town offered him by the speaker as he entered in, and upon the south side of the same port Alexander Clark, then provost of Edinburgh, with the baillies, all clad in red robes, well furred, and about threescore of the aldermen and counsellors clad all in black velvet gowns, were sitting all upon seats of deals for the purpose bigged of three degrees, frae the whilk they all raise in great humility and reverence to his majesty, and the said Alexander Clark, provost, in the name of the rest, and town of Edinburgh, made some short speech, and therewith presented to his majesty a bason all of gold, estimated at five thousand merks, wherein was shaken out of an embroidered purse a thousand golden double angels, as a token of the town of Edinburgh their love and humble service. The king looked gladly upon the speech and gift both; but the marquis of Hamilton, master of his majesty's horse, hard beside, meddled with the gift, as due to him by virtue of his office. Thereafter the provost went to his horse in good order, having a rich saddle with a black velvet foot mantle, with pasements of gold, and the rest of the furniture conform, who with the baillies and counsellors on their foot, attended his majesty. As he is going up to the Upper Bow, there came a brave company of town's soldiers all clad in white sattin doublets, black velvet breeches, and silk stockings, with hats, feathers, scarfs, bands, and the rest correspondent. These gallants had dainty muskets, picks, and guilded partisans, and such like, who guarded his majesty, having the partisans nearest to him, frae place to place: while he came to the abbey, at his entry of the port of the Upper Bow, he had a third speech; at the west end of the tolbooth, he saw the royal pedigree of the kings of Scotland, frae Fergus the first, delicately painted; and had a fourth speech; at the Mercate Cross he had a fifth speech, where his majesty's health was drunken by Bacchus on the p. 22 Cross, and the haill stroups thereof running over with wine in abundance. At the throne, Parnassus hill was erected curiously, all green, with birks, where nine pretty boys, representing the nine nymphs or muses, was nymph like clad, where he had the sixth speech: after the which the speaker delivered to his majesty a book; and seventhly, he had a speech at the Nether Bow, which haill orations his majesty with great pleasure and delight, sitting on horseback, as his company did, heard pleasantly; syne rode down the Canongate to his own palace of Holy Rood House, where he staid that night. The provost with the rest returned home; upon the morn being Sunday the 16th of June he. heard devotion in the Chapel Royal of his own chaplain the bishop of Dumblain, went to dinner served upon his own provision, with his officers of household, guarded with his ordinary English guard, clad in his livery, having brown velvet coats side to their hough, and beneath with boards of black velvet and his majesty's arms curiously wrought in raised and imbossed work of silver and gold upon the breast and back of ilk coat; this was the ordinary weed of his majesty's foot guards.

Upon the morn, Monday, seven hours at even, his majesty came up frae the Abbey to the Castle of Edinburgh by coach, with whom was the Duke of Lennox and Marquis of Hamilton, and his foot guard riding round about the coach; followed sixteen other coaches, furnished with nobles and courtiers; the captain of the Castle saluted his majesty coming up the gate with 52 shot of great ordnance; thereafter he went and supped in the castle, most magnificently served with his own officers, and with his own provision, vessels and plate, and there staid all night.

Upon the morn, Tuesday, about ten hours in the morning, the nobility came up to the castle in their furred robes; the king had his robe royal, who in order rode from the Castle down to the abbey of Holy Rood House, and first the earl of Angus (who was made marquis of Douglas the night before) rode immediately before the king in his furred robe, carrying the crown betwixt both his hands; the duke of Lennox being on the king's right hand, and the marquis of Hamilton on his left, but before p. 23 the earl of Angus rode first, the earl of Buchan carrying the sword, and the earl of Rothes the scepter, side for side. The lords with the rest of the nobility, all richly clad in scarlet furred robes, rode upon their horses, furnished with rich saddles and foot mantles, ilk ane in their own rooms, with the king, down throw the streets to the abbey; lighted, heard sermon in the abbey kirk, taught by Mr. David Lindsay, bishop of Brechin, a prime scholar;, after sermon the king receives the communion, and some other ceremonies was used as is at the coronation of kings, and about two in the afternoon his majesty was crowned king of Scotland, upon the 18th of June 1633. The archbishop of St. Andrews, the bishops of Murray, Dunkeld, Ross, Dumblain and Brechin served about the coronation (which was done by the said bishop of Brechin) with white rochets and white sleeves, and loops of gold, having blue silk to their foot; the bishop of Murray was made lord Elymosinar, who at the coronation threw out of his hand amongst the throng of the people within the kirk, certain coined pieces of silver striken for that purpose, in token of joy. Now it is marked that there was a four-nooked taffil in manner of an altar, standing within the kirk, having standing thereupon two books, at least resembling clasped books, called blind books, with two chandlers and two wax candles, whilk were on light, and a bason wherein there was nothing; at the back of the altar (covered with tapestry) there was an rich tapestry wherein the crucifix was curiously wrought, and as thir bishops who were in service past by this crucifix, they were seen to bow their knee, and beck, which with their habit was noted, and bred great fear of inbringing of popery, for whilk they were all deposed, as is set down in thir papers. The archbishop of Glasgow, and remanent of the bishops there present, changed not their habit, being not in the service; but wore their black gowns without rochets, or white sleeves.

All solemnities done about this coronation, the king goes from the church into his own palace, where he stays while Thursday the twentieth of June, that the haill estates came down to him, who came frae the Abbey in p. 24 order, and was the first day of the riding of the parliament, as ye shall hear, viz. in the first rank rode the commissioners of boroughs, ilk ane in their own places, well clad in cloaks, having on their horses black velvet foot-mantles; secondly, the commissioners for barons followed them; thirdly, the lords of the spirituality followed them; fourthly, the bishops, who rode altogether, except the bishop of Aberdeen, who was lying sick in Aberdeen, and the bishop of Murray, who as Elymosmar rode beside the bishop of London, somewhat nearer the king; fifthly, followed the temporal lords; sixthly, followed the viscounts; seventhly, the earls followed them; eighthly, the earl of Buchan followed them, carrying the sword, and the earl of Rothes earring the scepter, riding side for side with other; ninthly, the marquis of Douglas carrying the crown, having on his right arm the duke of Lennox, and on his left the marquis of Hamilton; following them, then came his majesty immediately after the marquis of Douglas, riding upon a chesnut-coloured horse, having on his head a fair bunch of feathers, with a foot mantle of purple velvet, as his robe royal was, and none rode without their foot mantles, and the nobles all in red scarlet furred robes, as their use to ride in parliament is, but his majesty made choice to ride in king James the fourth's robe royal, whilk was of purple velvet, richly furred and laced with gold, hanging over the horse tail a great deal, whilk was carried up from the earth by five grooms of honour, ilk ane after another, all the way as he rode, to his highness lighting; he had also upon his head an hat, and a rod in his hand. The heraulds, pursuivants, macers and trumpeters, followed his majesty in silence.

In this order his majesty came frae the Abbey, up the High Street, and at the Nether Bow the provost of Edinburgh came and saluted the king, and still attended him while he lighted. The causeway was railed frae the Nether Bow to the Stinking Style with stakes of timber dung in the end, on both sides, yet so that people standing without the samen, might see well enough, and that none might hinder the king's passage, there was within the rails a strong guard of the townsmen with picks, partisans, and p. 25 muskets, to hold off the people, and withal the king's own English foot guard, with partisans in their hands, was still about his person. Now his majesty with the rest lighted at the said Stinking Style, where the earl of Errol, as constable of Scotland, with all humility received him, and convoyed him through his guard to the outer door of the High Tolbooth, and the earl of Marischal as marischal of . Scotland, likewise received him, and convoyed him to his tribunal, through his guard standing within the door, and let the king down. After his majesty all the rest in order followed; the marischal, the prelates and nobles ranked after their own degree, then the earl of Errol sat down in a chair, and he in another, side for side, at a four-nooked taffil set about the fore face of the parliament, and covered with green cloth.

The parliament about eleven hours was fenced, thereafter the lords of the articles was begun to choose, consisting of eight prelates, eight nobles, eight barons, and eight burgesses; how soon they were chosen, the parliament. About two in the afternoon his majesty went to horse, rode to the Abbey, having the earl of Errol as constable of Scotland on his right hand, and the earl of Marischal as marischal thereof on his left hand, carrying a golden rod in his own hand, and so the haill estates in good order rode to the Abbey. There were also two princes of Germany, who came only to congratulate the king's coronation, as was said.

Upon the morn being Friday, and the 21st of June, the king about eleven hours came from the Abbey by coach, having the captain of his guard before him, and his foot guard running still about his coach, and convoyed by many nobles, knights, and others by coach also; he comes up the street where the town of Edinburgh's guard was yet standing in arms, but continued not long after that day. The king comes frae coach, and with the lords of the articles enters the Laigh Tolbooth, where upon consultation they remained while two in the afternoon, syne dissolved, and his majesty upon foot returned to the Abbey, where he made his foot guard to sweat, being an able footman as was within the town.

p. 26 Saturday the 22d of June, he came by coach in like manner frae the Abbey, and sat with the lords of the articles while three in the afternoon, syne returned back to the Abbey by coach, where the king of Poles' ambassador took his leave.

Sunday the 23d of June he came frae the Abbey by coach to St. Giles' kirk, and heard John bishop of Murray teach in his rochet, which is a white linen or lawn drawn on above his coat, above the whilk his black gown was put on, and his arms through the gown sleeves, and above the gown sleeves is also white linen or lawn drawn on, shapen like a sleeve. This is the weed of archbishops and bishops, and wears no surplice, but churchmen of inferior degree, in time of service, wears the samen, which is above their cloaths, a side linen cloth over body and arms like to a sack.

The people of Edinburgh, seeing the bishop teach in his rochet, which was never seen in St. Giles' kirk since the Reformation, and by him who was sometime one of their own puritan ministers, they were grieved and grudged hereat, thinking the samen smelled of popery, whilk helped to be the bishop's deposition, as after does appear.

After sermon, the town of Edinburgh gave the king the banquet, whilk in a dining-room they had prepared in sumptuous and costly manner, whereby no sermon was through all the town churches; after dinner he went to coach, well convoyed back to the Abbey.

Upon Monday the 24th of June the town of Edinburgh gave another sumptuous banquet to sundry nobles, courtiers and court officers, with music and much merriment; after dinner the provost, baillies, and counsellors ilk one of them in others hands, with bare heads, came dancing down the Street, with all fort of musick, trumpeters and drums, but the nobles left them, went to the king, and told him their good entertainment with joy and gladness, whereat the king was well pleased.

Upon Tuesday the 25th of June, the king heard devotion in his own Chapel Royal. Doctor William Forbes, minister at Aberdeen, teached in his black gown, without either surplice or rochet; his text was at the 27th verse of the 14th chapter of John's Gospel; the English service was p. 27 said both before and after sermon, as their use was, the chaplains and novices, having their white surplices on, the bishop of Dumblain, as chaplain of the Chapel Royal, had his rochet and white sleeves on, but none of our Scots bishops, except he, had the like, but only black gowns.

Upon Wednesday the 26th of June, the king came by coach, convoyed in form aforesaid frae the Abbey, about ten hours, and sat with the lords of the articles while near four in the afternoon, syne returned by coach back to the Abbey.

Thursday the 27th of June, the king by coach, convoyed in form foresaid, came frae the Abbey and sat with the lords of the articles while three in the afternoon, where then all matters was concluded, and he returned back by coach.

Upon Friday the 28th of June the parliament was ridden again by the king, and his three estates, in manner formerly set down, except the earl of Glencairn bare the scepter which the earl of Rothes bare the first day, and siclike the earl of Suffolk rode upon the king's right hand, and another English lord on his left hand, and the marquis of Hamilton as master of the king's horse, rode directly behind him, having at his back a stately horse with his caparisons, led in a man's hand; and in this order in their parliament red robes, they came riding from the Abbey up the gate, and lighted, syne went in all together to the parliament house, and there ratified the haill acts made and concluded before the lords of the articles, after the same was first voiced and voted about by the lords of the parliament, and thir acts ordained to be imprinted, and so the parliament rose up the foresaid day.

The king rested upon Saturday the 29th of June, and heard devotion within the Chapel Royal on the morn being Sunday.

Monday the first. of July, the king dined in the Abbey, syne past to sport to recreate himself, to Linlithgow, Dumfermling, and Falkland, and came back to Bruntisland, shipped, came over the water, and safely lodged in the Abbey that night; but as he is on the water, in his own sight perished a boat following after him, having within p. 28 her about 35 persons, English and Scots, his own domestic servants, and two only escaped with their lives. His majesty's silver plate and household stuff perished with the rest; a pitiful sight no doubt to the king, and the haill beholders, whereof the like was never seen, a boat to perish between Bruntisland and Leith, in a fair summer's day, without storm of weather, being the 10th of July; but it foretokened great troubles to fall in betwixt the king and his subjects, as after does appear.

The tenth of July being Wednesday, the king staid all night in the Abbey, and Thursday and Friday. The marquis of Huntly, intending to keep this parliament, came to Kandychyle, where he fell sick; but he sent his lady and lady Aboyne to complain to his majesty anent the fire of Frendraught, who took their own time as commodiously as they could, and accompanied with some other ladies in mourning-weed, pitifully told the king of the murder done by the fire of Frendraught, humbly craving at his hands justice. The king with great patience heard this complaint, whilk he bewailed, comforted the ladies the best he could, and promised justice; they could get no more at present, but humbly took their leave of the king, and returned to their lodgings.

The king upon Saturday the 13th of July, minding for London, rides to Seatoun from the Abbey; he was honourably convoyed by nobles and town of Edinburgh. He staid that night at Seatoun well entertained; upon the morn he heard their devotion, and held his council in the afternoon, as the.English custom was; and upon Monday the 15th of July his majesty rode from Seatoun, and so furth from place to place while he came to London safe, haill, and sound, praised be God. It is said his majesty commended our Scotish behaviour and entertainment, albeit some lords grudged with him, as ye shall hear, which bred much sorrow.

His majesty gone to London, the lady marchioness and lady Aboyne stay behind him in Edinburgh, using all the means they could, for trial of the fire of Frendraught; at last she causes put John Meldrum and John Toasch, who ye heard before were warded in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, to p. 29 trial. And first the lords, upon the second and third days of August, began to accuse the said John Meldrum what he knew anent the said fire; and therewith examined him upon certain speeches, whilk he, as was alledged, had spoken. concerning that purpose; he* utterly denied all; and what he said was written. Thereafter the lords begins another day, to re-examine him, could find no light; yet found him varying frae his first declaration in some circumstances, and therefore the lords shortly refers him to the trial of an assize, where he was convicted and condemned to be hanged to the death at the Cross of Edinburgh; his head to be stricken frae his shoulders, and his body demaimed and quartered, and set up on exemplary places of the town, in example of others to do the like. He was executed upon the —— day of August, and died without any certain and real confession, as was said, anent this doleful fire.

All this time John Toasch was keeped in strait ward, yet is put to no trial, upon what reason I cannot tell; whereupon the ladies left Edinburgh after John Meldrum's execution, and came to Kandychyle, where the marquis was attending their coming, leaving Toasch to his trial, as ye have hereafter. The marquis with his ladies came frae Kandychyle to Strathboggie upon the 5th of September, and from that to the Bog upon the 17th of September.

Alexander Gordon of Dunkyntie, and George Gordon his eldest son, with some servants, being at the hunts in Glenelg at the head of Strathaven, were upon the 19th of August cruelly murdered by certain highland limmars, likeas the laird and his son in their defence slew three of thir lowns, but craftily they presently yerded two of them in a hole, and the third they left lying above the ground, syne went their ways, of whom triall yet could never be gotten, for all the marquis of Huntly could do, they being his own brother's son and brother's oy, whom thir limmars had killed without any known cause. Dunkyntie's second son, getting account of this woeful murder, convenes some friends suddenly, and takes up the corps of his father and brother, in two chests; the head of the third limmar they cut off, and set it upon a fork-head, whilk was carried by an horseman all the way to Elgin before the corps, and upon p. 30 upon the 22d day of August, with great lamentation, they were both buried within the marquis' isle; and presently thereafter this limmar's head was set upon an iron stob on the end of the tolbooth of Elgin, in example of others to do the like. The marquis took the death of his lawful brother's son and brother's oy to heart, but in all his life, do his best, he could never get trial of this murder, who extended his moyan to the full thereanent; so he died without revenge. Some thought this strange, that the great marquis of Huntly should see .his blood destroyed without trial or reparation.

Ye heard before how James Grant brake out of the castle of Edinburgh, and wan safely away, upon the 15th of October 1632; he lay lurking quietly in secret places here and there through the country, so that his enemies thought they were surely quit of him. But contrary to their expectation, in the beginning of November this year 1633, he began to kyth in Strathaven, and pertly and avowedly travelled through the country, sometimes on Spey-side, sometimes here, sometimes there, without fear or dread. His wife being great with child, took a little house in the town of Carron, pertaining to the heirs of her husband's late slain brother's son, minding there to remain while she was delivered, and to whom her husband would usually come and go without fear; but being spied by his enemies, they await upon him, to wit, some of the forbidden name of M'Gregor, brought into the country by young Balnadallach against the said James Grant, and was about fourteen limmars in company, with a cruel bloody tyrant their captain called Patrick Ger or M'Gregor; these wait on while they saw him and his bastard son and one man only, come quietly to his wife's house, and seeing him so few in company, they followed hastily, being under cloud and silence of night, lap about the house, and tried to tirr it. James Grant hearing the noise, and seeing himself so beset, that he was not able to keep that little house, nor win away, resolved to keep the door with the other two as long as they might, and shot out arrows at two windows, that few did venture to come near the door, except their captain came fiercely forward to pursue the door, whilk p. 31 the said James Grant perceiving, and knowing him well, presently bends an hagbutt, and shoots him through both the thighs, and to the ground falls he; his men leaves the pursuit, and loups about to lift him up again; but as they are at this work, the said James Grant, with the other two loups frae the house and flees, leaving his wife behind him; but he is sharply pursued, and many arrows shot at him, yet he wan away safely to a bog near by with his two men. This Patrick Ger died of this shot, within short while, a notable thief, robber and briganer, oppressing the people wherever he came, and therefore they rejoiced at his death to be quit of sic a limmer, and praised the said James Grant for cutting him off. See more of him hereafter.

At Michaelmas 1633, Thomas Crombie of Kemnay was by commission made sheriff principal of Aberdeen, and Mr. Alexander M'Kenzie of Kilcowie made sheriff of Inverness in like manner, to endure for a year.

Anno 1634.

In the month of January 1634, thir lawless limmers of the forbidden name of M'Gregor came to the laird of Frendraught's bounds, and took or stole away 200 wedders, as was reported.

About this time Dr. William Forbes, one of the ministers of Aberdeen, was translated therefrae to the town of Edinburgh, where in February thereafter he was with great solemnity consecrated bishop of Edinburgh,, and shortly thereafter transported his wife and children, goods and gear, frae Aberdeen to the said burgh: this man was the first that ever was made bishop of Edinburgh, and continued but a short while; for upon the 12th day of April, in the said year 1634, he departed this life, after taking of some physic, sitting in his own chair, suddenly; a matchless man of learning, languages, utterance, and delivery, a peerless preacher, of a grave and godly conversation, being about the age of 44 years.

p. 32 Ye heard before of John Toasch: this fellow was one of Frendraught's domestic servants, and one who was in the house the time of the fire, and very suspicious to be upon the knowledge thereof; therefore the marquis resolves to put him to a trial, and to that effect he with his lady takes journey towards Edinburgh; but by the way he fell sick in Kandychyle: the lady marchioness leaves him there, and rides forward to the said burgh; she causes sharply accuse him upon sundry suspicious points; he denies all; he is put to the torture, and called in the boots, but confesses nothing; thereafter she desires him to be put to the trial of an assize, whilk was refused, saying, none suffering torture and confessing nothing, by the laws thereafter should be put to the trial of an assize, and this was vehemently pleaded by the said John Toasch his own lawyers, whilk Frendraught had for that effect secretly employed, as was alleged. And in end he was ordained to sit at the Cross of Edinburgh, with the mitre on his head, by the space of two hours, for some speeches he had spoken against the marquis. So in June he was put to liberty; but how this guise went, ye shall hear afterwards. The lady rides back to Kandychyle, where the marquis was, and both returned home.

After the killing of Patrick Ger, as before ye have heard, there brake out a number of highland lowns, and harried the Braes of Murray; the victual dear at 16 merks the boll; yet one of thir lowns called Donald M'Kenzie, was taken by Mr. Gavin Douglas, sometime provost of Elgin, presented to the sheriff of Murray, assized, convicted, and hanged to the death upon the 28th of August, whilk affrighted the rest of the limmers frae their robbery and oppression.

In September there came a company of Highlanders, and lifted out of Frendraught's ground, a number of goods, but Frendraught himself, with some horsemen, followed sharply, and brought back his haill goods again, without straik of sword; it was vehemently suspected that the Gordons were the outhounders of these highlandmen, of very malice against Frendraught for the fire aforesaid.

At this Michaelmas Thomas Crombie of Kemnay, continued sheriff principal of Aberdeen for an year, and Mr. p. 33 Alexander M'Kenzie, sheriff principal of Inverness for that time,

In October there came down certain Highlanders again to the bounds of Bainshole and Auchintender, pertaining to Frendraught, and took away threescore nolt, and eleven score sheep or thereby, without rescue or recovery back again. Shortly thereafter there came into the country about 600 highlanders, of the Clangregor, Clancarneron, and others, all footmen, and openly declared they had taken part with Adam Gordon of Park, John Gordon of Invermarkie, and others the friends of the late burnt laird of Rothemay, and would see the same revenged. Frendraught . hearing this, suddenly raises two hundred foot, and an hundred and forty horse, and sought thir people out, who looking for no sic onset, lay scattered and dispersed thro' the country, and finding they were not able to gather suddenly together to meet them, ilk man fled and shifted for himself without more ado. Frendraught seeing thir daily perturbations, leaves his lady in Kinnardie, and upon the eighth of November rides south, two and himself, to Edinburgh. Thereafter brake out openly a number of the name of Gordon with their friends and followers, such as Alexander. Gordon, eldest lawful son to John Gordon of Invermarkie, Captain Adam Gordon, second lawful son to Sir Adam Gordon of Park, John Gordon of Auchenreath, William Gordon brother to John Gordon in Auchenhandach, William Gordon, eldest lawful son to Robert Gordon of Colaichie, James Gordon son to Peter Gordon in Sutherland, Nathaniel and George Gordons, sons to John Gordon of Ardloggie, John Gordon, son to John Gordon of Little Milne, James Gordon son to —— Gordon of Baldorney, Alexander Leith brother to the goodman of Harthill, Robert Douglas skinner in Elgin, Duncan Brebner and William M'Gillivorich, servants to the laird of Park, and diverse other friends and followers; these gentlemen taking the fire of Frendraught heavily to heart, and seeing no redress thereof by law, brake out, ilk man sware to another to live and die with other, and vowed to revenge themselves upon the laird of Frendraught by way of deed. And first they began and spoilzied a number of cattle frae p. 34 the ground of Frendraught, and avowedly had them to Bryack .fair, and sold a cow for a dollar, and a sheep for a groat, (whilk was very cheap,) to hold silver amongst their hands; they spoilzied from Mr. Alexander Innes, minister at Rothemay, his riding horse, and took some money frae Mr. Robert Jameson, minister at Marnan Kirk, violently and masterfully, with sundry other outrages in the country. Some of thir gentlemen happened to be drinking in Tilliesoul; there they took one Thomson, directed out by Frendraught's friends as a spy to hear their discourse , they speared at him wherefore he came there; he declares he was hired to go out and wait upon them, and learn their discourse and doings, and report the same back again to Frendraught's friends who had sent him out; upon this confession, without further justice, they gar hang the poor man most cruelly upon the gallows near Strathboggie.

The go-summer was matchless fair in Murray, without winds, wet, or any storm; the corns was well winn, the garden herbs revived, July-flowers and roses springing at Martinmas, whilk myself pulled; the kail shot and came to feed, and the March violets were springing and spreading as in April.

Upon the —— day of —— Alexander Leslie suddenly killed Adam Gordon, son to John Gordon of Curridon, whilk was never punished for all his great friendship.

Upon the 15th of November thir Gordons raised out of the ground of Frendraught, about 13 score of nolt and eight score of sheep, drove them to Strathboggie, and finding the marquis not to be dwelling there, they masterfully dang up the outer court gates, and drove in the goods within the close, brake up the stable doors, and took away two of the marquis' best horses, and thereafter they took out of the stable of the Bog three other of his saddle horses. Upon the 23d of November they burnt up the corn yard of the Mains of Frendraught, wherein there was standing fourscore stacks.

Frendraught was forced to suffer these outrages patiently, and bides in Edinburgh, supplicating the council daily for redress, who directed out an herald called John Malcolm, with a trumpeter called Alexander Ferguson, to summon p. 35 thir misdoers at the Mercat Crosses of Aberdeen, Banff, Elgin, and Forres, to compear before the secret council the 16th of December, and also upon the 18th January thereafter 1635, reflectively to answer to thir complaints, and siclike to charge the marquis, twelve barons, twelve gentlemen, and twelve ministers, personally or at their dwelling houses,to compear before the lords the same days, to give them information of thir disorders, under great pains. The herald in his coat of arms with sound of trumpet used thir charges, conform, at the Cross of Aberdeen and Banff, and coming frae Banff to Elgin, he meets with Captain Gordon and the rest, to whom he tells his commission, and makes intimation of his charge to the said Captain Gordon and the rest present, charging them to compear the respective days aforesaid, who, at the giving thereof, was feared for his life. The captain discreetly answered, that blood was taken (for the most part was come of the house of Rothemay) by fire most cruelly within the house of Frendraught; justice is sought, but none can be found, whilk made them desperately seek revenge upon the laird of Frendraught, his men, tenants, and servants, at their own hands, but as to the rest of the king's lieges, they would offer no injury without their own procurement. The herald, glad of this answer, and blyth to win away with his life, took his leave, and the trumpeter founded who was with him, to whom the captain gave five dollars of wages. The herald had personally summoned the marquis, before at the Bog, and was well entertained; thereafter he went to Elgin and Inverness, and made proclamation of his letters, syne returns home in peace after he had done all his affairs. Ye heard before, how thir broken men had driven Frendraught's goods to Strathboggie; upon the morrow thereafter, they drove them to the place of Rothemay, wherein the lady with her daughters were then dwelling; they entered the house masterfully, took the keys of the gates and doors, syne put the lady and her. daughters to the gate to a kiln barn, where they remained; but this was done with consent, as was thought. Thus having manned this strong house, they took it up royally, and caused to kill altogether threescore marts and an p. 36 hundred wedders; some they salted, same they roasted, and some they eat fresh; they boasted and compelled the tenants of Frendraught to bring in meal, malt, cocks, customs, and poultry, and to produce their last acquittances and pay them bygones, syne gave their acquittances upon such as they got, saying their acquittances were as good as the laird's. The poor tenants, for fear of their lives, obeyed their haill wills, wanting their master to defend them, who all this time was in Edinburgh, and durst not come home for fear of his life.

About this time the laird of Banff convoyed quietly to Edinburgh out of Kinnardie to the laird of Frendraught his two sons, and left his lady still dwelling behind him in Kinnardie with her daughters. Banff was then Frendraught's great friend, but it continued not long, as ye shall hear.

Ye heard before of the death of John Urquhart of Craigstoun, and how his eldest son John Urquhart of Leathers shortly followed; his son again departs this life upon the last of November instant. Thus in three years space the goodsire, son, and oy, died. It is said this young man's father willed him to be good to Mary Innes his spouse, and to pay all his debts, because he was young and had a good estate, whereunto his goodsire had provided him; the young boy mourning past his promise so to do, then he desires the laird of Cromartie being present to be no worse tutor to his son than his father had been to him, and to help to see his debts paid, being then above 40,000 pounds, for the whilk several gentlemen in the country were heavily engaged as cautioners. The laird of Innes (whose sister was married to this John Urquhart of Leathers) and not without her consent, as was thought, gets the guiding of this young boy, and without advice of friends, shortly and quietly married him upon her own eldest daughter Elizabeth Innes. Now Leathers' creditors cry out for payment against the cautioners; the cautioners crave Craigstoun, and the laird of Innes his father in law (who had also the government of his estate) for their relief. The young man was well pleased to pay his father's debt, according to his promise, albeit he was neither heir p. 37 nor executor to him. Yet his goodfather, seeing he could not be compelled by law to pay his father's debt, would in noways consent thereto; there followed great outcrying against him; friends met and trysted; at last it resolved in this, the creditors compelled the cautioners to pay them completely to the hazard of the sum of their estates, and they got some relief, others little or none, which made the distressed gentlemen to pray many maledictions, which touched the young man's conscience, albeit he could not mend it. And so through melancholy, as was thought, he contracts a consuming sickness, whereof he died, leaving a son behind him called John, in the keeping of his mother, and left the laird of Innes and her to be his tutors, without advice of his own kindred, which is remarkable, considering the great care and worldly conquest of his goodsire to make up an estate to fall in the government of strangers. This youth deceased in the place of Innes, and was buried beside his father in his goodsire's isle in Kinedwart.

Ye heard before how James Grant escaped from the M'Gregors; frae that time he was not publicly seen, but lived obscurely, yet under this there lurked some poison, which was young Balnadallach, and he was quietly under trysting unknown to any, and upon the seventh of December in this year 1634 (being Sunday) Elspet Innes, spouse to the said James Grant, came under night to the gate of Pitchass, knocked, the laird sitting at supper, wan in and rounded in his ear some few words. Shortly thereafter he rises, takes his wife's plaid about him with his sword and target in his hand, forbidding any to follow him, and furth at the gate goes he; but his wife would not leave him, so he and she, and James Grant's wife, all three go to Balnadallach's own miln of Pitchass, where the tryst was set, and James Grant was with 12 men lying secret, without Balnadallach's knowing that he had any men. Then Grant's wife cries the watch word, whereupon he comes out of the miln himself alone, shook hands with Balnadallach, and kissed his wife, and presently there rushed furth out of the miln the aforesaid 12 men, laid hands upon him and his wife both, and treacherously took him to Culqholly, three miles frae Pitchass, where they stayed short p. 38 while, syne rose up, leaving his wife behind him there and went away, but his wife returned to Pitchass with a woe heart, as all the house had. Always they travelled in the night, in obscure ways, crossing and recrossing burns and waters, that Balnadallach should not suspect the ways, and he is chained by the arm of a strong limmar, and locked fast together, with his face muffled up so much that he might not see. Thus they travelled, Bainadallach alleged it was foul play under trysting to have used him so. James Grant answered, he had reason, for two causes, 1st, He promised to get him a remission before Lammas last, whilk was not done; 2dly, He had dealt with the Clangregor to take his life; however the matter was, James Grant brought him to Thomas Grant's house, at Duadies, three miles frae Elgin, and in the highgate betwixt it and Spey here was their lodging taken up, and the shackles loosed frae Balnadallach, wherewith he was tormented, but had still a strong man upon ilk gardie, whether sleeping or waking. And this night he was laid in the kiln-logie, having Leonard Leslie, son in law to Robert Grant, brother to the said James upon the one arm, and a strong limmar called M'Griman on the other. Thus Balnadallach sat night and day, and lay between thir lymmers, not seeing daylight, nor getting out to obey nature, this kiln was first covered with divots, and syne straw, under which lay James Grant, and the veil just above Balnadallach; through want of air he was like to perish, not being used to such lodging. Upon Yool-even James Grant goes some gate of his own, leaving Balnadallach in the kiln-logie betwixt thir two lurdanes, and his brother Robert Grant with two other lymmars to lie above the kiln-logie; the rest he took with himself. Balnadallach knew nothing of this departure; but lying sore tormented and oppressed with cold, hunger, and want of the kindly air, want of fire, candles, and bed cloaths, in the dead of winter, whereby he is at the point of despair. Yet the Lord seeing him at this estate, was merciful unto him; for he perceiving quietness, speaks in Latin to Leonard Leslie, lamenting his misery, craving his help and assistance to win away, and promised him rich rewards for his pains. Now albeit this Leonard Leslie was son-in-law to p. 39 Robert Grant uncle to the killed Carron, whose death James Grant was now seeking to revenge, and that Balnadallach was specially entrusted to his keeping; nevertheless hoping for a reward, he tells him in Latin where he was, whilk Balnadallach understood to be within three miles of Elgin, three miles to Spey-side, and three miles to the Place of Innes, then shews him, that the morrow being Sunday, and the 28th of December, he should seem to rax himself and shake loose off his arm, while Leonard with all his strength was to get his other arm out of M'Grimmon's grips, then hastily to get up and go to the door of the kiln-logie, which he should behold. Balnadallach followed his counsel, shook himself loose, and wan the kiln-logie door; Leonard first followed, and of set purpose fell to stay M'Grimmon from following after; Balnadallach to the gate with all the speed he could run; Leonard follows, and still is nearest him; M'Grimmon gives the cry, and Robert Grant and the rest gets up and follows; Balnadallach wins by speed of foot to the town of Urquhart, and Leonard with him; the rest durst not follow, and went their way, sad and sorrowful for their own safety. Thus after twenty days imprisonment in such an open part, yet most obscure, Balnadallach miraculously escapes by God's permission, and after dinner in Urquhart, he goes with his coat and trews all rent and worn, with Leonard Leslie, to the Place of Innes, where the laird made him very welcome; he stayed that night, and by the morn at ten hours came to Elgin, where he stayed till Sunday; syne departed, where I shall leave him till afterwards.

Ye heard before how the marquis was charged to compear before the council, and finding himself aged and weak, and unable to travel in the dead of the year, as ye have also heard before, sends over John Gordon of Invermarkie, —— Gordon of Glengarrack, Sir Adam Gordon of Park, James Gordon of Letterfurie, James Gordon Baillie of Strathboggie, and James Gordon Ostler of Turriesoul, desiring them to obey the charge, which they had gotten, and withal to present before the lords a testimonial procured by the marquis under the hands of three ministers, declaring his inability to travel, whilk was repelled because that it was not upon their souls and consciences, p. 40 and in the mean time the haill gentlemen themselves were warded within the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and charges direct to Thomas Crombie sheriff principal of Aberdeen, to raise the country, and take the rest of thir broken men who had not compeared, and to convoy them to the next sheriff, and so furth frae shire to shire till they were brought before the lords. The sheriff conveens about 200 horse, goes to Strathboggie, and through other suspected places, upon the 30th of December, but could find none within the shire of Aberdeen, but understood they were within the house of Rothemay, whilk is within the shire of Banff, which the sheriff wrote back to the council, shewing also his diligence; the lords thereupon send a commission to George Baird sheriff principal of Banff, to go to the Place of Rothemay, and through the haill shire, and take and apprehend thir broken men in manner and to the effect foresaid, which charge the sheriff obeys, and goes with about 200 men to the place of Rothemay, finds open gates, entered the place, searched the haill rooms, but no man was there, for they had fled about two hours before the sheriff's coming, whereupon he disbanded his men, and ilk one went to his own house; but the sheriff was no sooner gone, but they came all back to Rothemay, and held house in wonted form.

Thomas Crombie was sheriff of Aberdeen, and Mr. Alexander M'Kenzie sheriff of Inverness for this year 1634, and in December the said year, commissions were sent down to the Laird of Drum to be sheriff of Aberdeen, and Thomas Fraser of Strichen to be sheriff of Inverness for the year 1635. At Michaelmass 1634, Patrick Leslie is provost of Aberdeen, and is shortly by the king's warrant discharged, and Sir Paul Menzies re-elected in his place, to Leslie's great grief, whereof the like had been seldom seen in Aberdeen, whilk was thought his own fault in seeking a place that he should have been sought to, yet he laboured so that he was thereafter made provost.

About this time a pot of the water of Brechin called Southesk, became suddenly dry, and for a short space continued so, but bolts up again, and turns to its own course; which was thought to be an ominous token for Scotland, as so fell out, p. 41

Anno 1635.

About or in the month of January there was seen in Scotland, a great blazing star, representing the shape of a crab or cancer, having long spraings spreading from it. It was seen in Elgin and in the country of Murray, and thought by some that this star, and the drying up of the pot of Brechin, as is before noted, were prodigious signs of great troubles in Scotland, which over truly came to pass.

In this month of January Mr. John Spotswood, archbishop of Saint Andrews, was made high Chancellor of Scotland, his son being president of the college of justice, by the decease of Sir James Skeen a little before. This was thought strange, and marked by many, to see a bishop made a chancellor, and his son president, both at one time, whilk bred great trouble, as after does appear.

Ye have before the marquis sending over his testimonial, whilk was rejected, and for his not compearance, both he and the rest who did not compear were put to the horn, and such as compeared were warded. The marquis takes this to heart, and in a great storm upon the ninth of January by chariot he comes frae Strathboggie to the Bog, having in his company his noble lady, and two of Lord Gordon's children (whilk were left by their mother when she went to France, to be brought up by their good dame) with sundry friends, where he staid that night, Saturday and Sunday all day , Monday he travels to the Newtoun of Culsalmond, whilk was but eight miles, where he staid that night; Tuesday he comes to Kintore, other eight miles, where he staid while Friday, and that day he came to Cowie twelve miles; Saturday he came to Fettercairn, fourteen miles, where he was stormstaid Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday; Wednesday he went, to Brechin, six miles; Thursday he went to his own place of Melgyne, two mile:; frae Brechin, where he is stormstaid while the tenth of February. But this gave no content to the lords of council, and therefore they directed an herald to charge the marquis at his own dwelling-place of the Bog and mercate cross of Banff, head burgh of the shire, to enter p. 42 ter hie person in ward within the castle of Dumbritton, albeit they certainly knew he was upon his journey, scarce able to travel, and stormstaid also, yet such was the moyan that Frendraught had at this time, that he brought the marquis of Huntly to this extremity, do his best, whilk was admired of by many in this land. The same herald charged the lady Rothemay to render the haill keys of the place, whilk she humbly obeyed, for then no Gordons were within, and the herald took the keys with him after he had locked up the gates and doors, to deliver to the council, but he returned mo sooner south, but as soon the Gordons came back again to Rothemay, strake up the gates and doors, and dwelt therein nobly. But in the mean time letters of intercommuning were proclaimed against them, whereby, as they were lawless, so made friendless, and might not bide together, therefore they parted the pelf among them, closed up the gates of Rothemay, and ilk man to do for himself, and parted company upon the 23d of January. All this time the marquis is stormstaid in Melgyne, old and unhabile to travel, in so great a storm, which began in January, and continued to the sixth of March thereafter, whereby few were able to travel, and many ships perished on our coasts; notwithstanding of all this, Frendraught dealt so by his moyan, that the lords directed the foresaid herald to go charge the marquis of Huntly (in respect of his disobedience) to render the keys of his house wherein he keeped his residence, upon the pain of treason; the marquis received this charge while he was stormstaid in Melgyne, who willingly obeyed, and sends word to his baillie to deliver to the said herald, how soon he came there, the keys of Strathboggie and the Bog, whilk he received upon the ninth of February, and south goes he, and presents them before the council. The marquis thought very uncouth of this sharp and severe dealing, and therefore without fear of the storm or peril of his life leaves Melgyne upon the tenth or twelfth of February, and with his lady was carried in a coach born upon long trees upon men's arms, because men might not travel in respect of the great storm and deepness of the way, and thus with his company comes to Dundee, and so forth to Edinburgh, upon the —— day p. 43 of February. He compears before the council, and upon his compearance he is released from the horn; thereafter the lords demand whether he was art or part, or on the counsel, or hounder-out of thir gentlemen of the name of Gordon, to do such open oppressions and injuries as they did daily? the marquis denied that he was privy to such courses, nor was it agreeable with his honour to revenge his just cause upon killing of beasts, or burning of corns. Then they urged him, as chief, to bring in thir lawless people to the council; he answered he was not Sheriff, nor had he authority; that he was now became old, feeble, and weak to bring in such people, descended of a flock by themselves, who were seeking revenge of their blood, nor would be consulted nor ruled by him; but if his son were in the country (who is now in France) he were mote able for such business than he. The lords heard him, but said he should have commission to apprehend thir broken men, or put them out of the kingdom, and not to receipt them within his bounds, as also to report his diligence before the sixth of June next to the council. He was ordained also to set caution to Frendraught, that he, his men, tenants, and servants, should be harmless and skaithless in their bodies, goods, and gear, of him, his men, tenants, and servants, and of thir broken men, is as far as he could stop or let, otherwise than by order of law and justice, under the pain of an hundred thousand pounds; as also to pay to Frendraught such cost and skaith as he should sustain by them frae the sixth day of April next to come, and in all time coming. This being done, the marquis got back his keys, whilk he took with the burthen foresaid, and could not mend himself; such and so great was Frendraught's moyan against him at this time; and siclike Sir Adam Gordon of Park, James Gordon of Letterfurie, and the rest that were warded, as ye have heard before, were put to liberty upon condition and caution that they should compear before the council upon the 17th day of June thereafter: it is said the earl of Murray came kindly now to the marquis, and did him all the favour he could, who had not spoken together a certain time before. The marquis writes home to his baillies, that none of his bounds p. 44 should receipt any of thir broken men, whilk made them highly offended; shot pistols at Robert Gordon, baillie of the Enzie-house, syne went their way.

Upon the tenth of March the Clangregor took, one Donald Gumming in Glenriness, who was with James Grant at the slaughter of Patrick Ger, and in the same place where he was shot, cruelly slew him with durks. They also upon the 18th of March slew Findlay M'Grimmon, a follower of Carroun's, and who was the instrument of his death, for Carroun maintained him against Balnadallach, as was said, and he, well worthy of death as a great lymmar, was thus cutoff. Thir lawless M'Gregors, under colour of seeking James Grant, opprest the country up and down, sorning and taking their meat, deflowering virgins and men's wives wherever they went.

The laird of Frendraught is not sitting idle; he purchases frae the council a commission directed to George Baird of Achmedden, sheriff principal of Banff, to take the lady Rothemay and man the place, who did so, and convoyed her to the sheriff of Aberdeen, who convoyed her to the next shire, and so frae shire to shire, while she was brought to Edinburgh; the sheriff of Banff set in the place twenty men to keep the same, who were sustained upon the lady's charges. She is brought before the council and accused for receipting thir broken men; she denied the same, saying they took in her house per force, and caused herself and her bairns to dwell in the kiln-barn. Nevertheless, in the month of —— she is warded, and in July thereafter she is removed from close ward, and got liberty to walk up and down the town, upon setting caution that she should not go without the ports during the councill's will. Thus is this doleful lady used, who had her husband slain and son burnt.

About this time the lord Balmerinoch is put to the trial of an assize, and convicted of certain capital points. The judge continues his doom while he writes to the king, who most graciously remitted him his life, ordaining him to be confined within six miles of his dwelling of Balmerinoch during his lifetime; therefore he got full liberty, to the king's great grief for this his goodness. p. 45

The M'Gregor oppress the lands of Balveny, the laird sends for a commission, and in April he sends out his eldest son with a company, who chafed them and put them all to flight, whilk the Clangregor forgot not, as ye shall hear.

Ye heard of the marquis of Huntly staying in Edinburgh. Upon the sixteenth of May, he and his lady with two oyes, comes home to Strathboggie, upon the morn he holds a court, and sends forth his son Adam, and James Gordon of Letterfurie to go seek and apprehend thir lawless men of his name and their followers. Whereupon James Gordon called the soldier, and John Gordon son to Littlemiln, John Gordon of Drumdelchy and James Gordon son to Balarmy, fled, shipped at Cowsie over to Ross, to Caithness, and frae that forth of the kingdom, so ilk one of the rest fled and left the country. This being done, the marquis with his lady and the rest came upon the 17th of June to the Bog. The laird of Frendraught biding still in Edinburgh frae November 1634 to this time, and hearing of the marquis' procedure, and that he had set caution, returns frae Edinburgh to his own house, in the month of May, thinking to live more peaceably than before.

James Gordon of Letterfurie went to Edinburgh and reported the marquis' diligence anent thir broken men, and had over the heads of some lowns, whilk the marquis caused execute for their odious faults, whereof the lords thought much good, and the said James Gordon for himself offered his person to enter in ward, conform to the last act; but upon finding of new caution, he gat liberty to return home again: yet they resolved to have the marquis himself to give account of his diligence before the council.

In the month of June there was seen in the river of Don a monster having a head like to a great mastiff dog, and hand, arms, and paps like a man, and the paps seemed to be white, it had hair on the head, and its hinder parts was seen sometimes above the water, whilk seemed clubbish, short legged and short footed, with a tail. This monster was seen body-like swimming above the water about ten hours in the morning, and continued all day visible, swimming above and beneath the bridge, without any fear. The town's people of both Aberdeens came out in great multitudes p. 46 to see this monster; some threw stones, some guns and pistols, and the salmon fishers rowed cobles with nets to catch it, but all in vain. It never sinked nor feared , but would duck under water, snorting and bullering, terrible to the hearers. It remained two days, and was seen no more: but it appears this monster came for no good token to noble Aberdeen, for sore was the samen oppressed with great troubles that fell in the land.

Ye heard before that young Balnadallach miraculously escaped out of the Kiln-logie; he rests not till he got a commission, and takes Thomas Grant, goodman at the kiln-logie, —— Grant his son, Patrick Anderson in Elchies, with two other fellows, who were the ordinary receptors of James Grant foresaid, and upon the 3d of July brought them to Elgin, presented them to the sheriff depute, who received and warded them in the tolbooth thereof; two of thir lymmars wan away by the working out an hole under the door threshold, and the other three were convoyed to the sheriff of Banff, and so frae shire to shire till they were brought to Edinburgh, where Thomas Grant was hanged for receipting of James Grant, and not revealing to Balnadallach's friends where he was. The other two were banished Scotland for ever.

Upon the 15th day of July, the marquis (having gotten charges to shew his diligence) takes journey frae Strathboggie to Edinburgh by chariot, declares his diligence as he was obliged, by virtue of the last act. The lords are well pleased therewith, he is ordained to set new caution for keeping the king's peace under the pain aforesaid, whilk being done, he returns frae Edinburgh to his own place of Melgyne, and there disposes the same to —— Maul of Byth; the marquis had conquest thir lands himself before, and now by reason of thir troubles, sells the same again. Frae Melgyne he comes to the Bog, upon the 25th of August, well thought of by the council for putting the broken men out of the country; he agreed also with Balnadallach in Edinburgh, at the earl of Murray's desire.

Ye heard before how the Clangregor were chafed by the young laird of Balveny, for the which they came to the town and lands of Avaigh pertaining to him, and violently p. 47 took and carried away from three poor tenants, occupiers thereof, their haill horse, nolt, sheep, kine, and other goods, and such hearts as would not drive, they cruelly killed and left them behind lying on the ground, whilk Balveny could never get repaired.

Ye heard before how captain Gordon, and the rest of the broken men were put out of the country by the marquis. This captain Adam thought heavy, to be banished his own country, resolved to come home, reveal the truth, and do for himself; like as he comes to Edinburgh in the month of September, and upon his revelations he gets an ample remission for himself for all bygones, and with great diligence passed through the seals; likeas in October, his peace was proclaimed at the mercat cross of Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Banff, and Elgin of Murray, and was well entertained in the clerk register's own house in Edinburgh. This hasty purchased peace was admired at by many, thinking surely he had revealed such as he knew of the instigators of thir troubles, as it was true indeed.

Whereupon followed, that the marquis of Huntly was charged upon the second day of November by an herald to compear before the council the first day of December, and to produce James Gordon of Letterfurie, James Gordon baillie of Strathboggie, John Gordon of Ardclash, ——Gordon of Cairnburrow; John Gordon of Invermarkie, John Gordon alias Swankie, and John Lichtoun, his domestic servants, and diverse others, as alleged hounders-out of the broken men to do the injuries formerly set down; and siclike charges are given to the haill barons and gentlemen of the name of Gordon within the sheriffdoms of Aberdeen, Banff, and Murray, to compear the foresaid day before the council, to the effect that they with the marquis should set caution, for the keeping of the king's peace; this Frendraught wrought also, for his better security, and as was said, the lord Gordon being in France, was charged in threescore days to set caution in like manner, and upon the back of this followed other charges against the marquis, that he should compear the day foresaid before the council, and answer for the alleged recepting, p. 48 supplying, and intercommuning with the broken men after the publication of the letters thereof. These charges coming so thick upon the marquis, still by moyan of the laird of Frendraught,. he set himself to obey, and in the dead of the year, cold, tempestuous, and stormy weather, he and his lady by chariot went to Edinburgh, compeared before the council, with James Gordon of Letterfurie, and John Gordon called Swankie, his page, for no more compeared at this day of all the rest. The marquis was there confronted face to face with captain Adam Gordon, anent the wrongs done to Frendraught. Howsoever the matter was, the marquis came discontented frae the council-house; the chancellor had him to dinner, and after they had dined, the chancellor in his own house, commanded him to enter his person in ward within the castle of Edinburgh, together with the said James Gordon and John Gordon, and kept in close prison, not seeing daylight, but served with candle light. The lords refused to let the lady marchioness go to the castle with her husband, unless she would ward also, and with great intreaty had the favour to Yool with him, but to stay no longer. The marquis' page got liberty to go out of the tolbooth and bide beside his master in the castle, but Letterfurie staid 14 days in close ward, to his great grief, but at last he was removed to another chamber, where he had daylight and open windows. The laird of Frendraught rode from Kinnardie, and keeped the council day. Donald Farquharson being charged with the rest, and having set caution under the pain of 1000 pound, fled, but his brother who was cautioner was warded, and paid his fine before he wan his liberty.

Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum, and Thomas Fraser of Strichen were continued Sheriffs of Aberdeen and Inverness for another year.

Patrick Forbes of Corse, bishop of Aberdeen, departed this life in his own palace upon the 28th of March, in the year of God 1638, and was buried in bishop Gavin Dumbar's isle.

Ye heard before how Balnadallach took some of James Grant's men; he purchased also a commission against himself, p. 49 and his followers, who in December slew a man called M'Bean, servitor to the said James, with another innocent man in his company, which the said James beheld patiently, and lay quiet while he brake out, as ye shall hear.

Anno 1638.

Ye heard before how Sir Paul Menzies was chosen provost of Aberdeen in place of the deposed Patrick Leslie; it was thought the lords of the council were not well content; however, according to the form there was no election made at Michaelmas, but there was a leet sent to the council by the council of Aberdeen, out of whilk Mr. Alexander Jaffray was chosen provost of Aberdeen for a year, in January this year. Many thought little both of the man and the election, not being of the old blood of the town, but the oy of a baxter, and therefore was set down in the provost's desk to sermon with a baken pye before him. This was done several times, but he miskenned all, and never quarrelled the samen.

Upon the 11th of February the dollars at 58s. the piece were cried down at the mercat cross of Edinburgh to 56s.

In February there was brought to Edinburgh eight of Gilderoy's followers, who were notorious lymmars, and did great oppressions in the lands of Corse, Craigievar, and divers other parts in the country, under pretext of seeking of James Grant for killing of Patrick Ger. The lymmars were taken by the Steuarts of Athol, by persuasion and advice of the laird of Craigievar and Corse, whereof there were seven hanged altogether at the Cross of Edinburgh, and their heads cut off, and set up in exemplary places; the eighth man got his life, because it was proven he was drawn to this service against his will. Gilderoy, seeing these his men taken and hanged, went and burnt up some of the Steuarts houses in Athol, in recompence of this injury.

All this while James Grant lies quiet since Balnadallach's escape out of the kiln-logie; at last upon the 5th of April, p. 50 he sought Thomas Grant, brother to Patrick Grant of Culquhoche, friends to Balnadallach, and missing the said Thomas at his dwelling-house, he killed 16 head of his nolt under night: thereafter they found the said Thomas Grant with his bastard brother, lying in their naked beds in a friend's house near by, whom the said James commanded to rise, syne took them out of the house, and cruelly slew them both. It was said Thomas Grant had gotten money from the earl of Murray, to seek out the said James, and take his life, for the whilk it cost him his life, as said is. After the doing of this wicked deed, the said James Grant came with four and himself, to the ground of Strathboggie upon the tenth of April, and by chance came to the hangman's house, and craved some meat, but he knew not what house it was; the hangman not knowing what they were, was feared, and suddenly went and told James Gordon baillie of Strathboggie, that some broken men were come to his house, whereupon he raises men on horse and foot, well armed, and surrounds the house. James Grant keeps the door, and shoots Adam Rhind dead, who came foremost to the door. The baillie seeing him fall, bides back and goes to counsel, whilk the said James espying, falls to and tirrs the house, and himself and his men stood within the walls thereof, and how soon the baillie began to pursue the house again, they shot at them with hagbuts, so thick that none durst come within shot of hagbut; however the baillie rides about the house and his company, where one called Anderson was shot dead, and another sore hurt, whilk the baillie perceiving, resolved he could not keep this little house long, it being now about three afternoon, but of necessity come soon out, and therefore would bide his outcoming, but frae the night fell, James Grant with his brother wan clear away, for all the multitude of people was waiting upon him about the house; but his bastard son and other two with him were taken and had to Edinburgh, and there hanged.

Ye heard before how the marquis was warded; he makes moyan to be removed out of the castle of Edinburgh, to remain in his lady's lodging in the Canongate, and to pass p. 51 and repass about the same, within two miles, during the king's pleasure. Letterfurie was likewise set at liberty upon finding of caution to compear before the lords upon the next citation, and Swankie the marquis' page came out with himself frae the castle, whilk was done in March.

In the month of June thereafter the lord Traquair came down frae the court, high treasurer of Scotland: he brought also a letter frae the king to the council, commending them for administration of justice; he willed them to set the marquis, his page, and Letterfurie at liberty, since he understood them to be innocent, albeit Frendraught had gotten wrong, and to take caution of Letterfurie to compear upon the next citations, and that the council would see all controversies submitted, betwixt the marquis and Frendraught, to certain friends, and in case of variance among them, the king to elect out of the same friends so many as pleased him for settling of all matters. The council at the king's command set them at liberty, and labours to get all matters submitted, whilk the marquis would never hear of, but disdained the same simpliciter; however Frendraught crossed the marquis every way mightily, and as was said obtained a decreet against him for 200,000 merks, for the skaith he had sustained in thir troubles, and another decreet for 100,000 pounds for spoilziation of the lands of Dumblate and parish thereof, like as the lords decerned him to give Frendraught a new tack of the said teinds, wherewith his son the lord Gordon was charged, as afterwards does appear.

The marquis finding himself become weaker and weaker, desired to be at home, and upon the —— of June was carried from his lodging in the Canongate, in a wand bed within his chariot (his lady still with him) to Dundee, and is lodged in Robert Murray's house in the town; but now his hour is come; further he might not go, his sickness increases more and more; he declares his mind to his lady and such friends as he had, then recommends his soul to God, and upon the thirteenth of June departed this life a Roman Catholic, being about the age of threescore and fourteen years, to the great grief of his friends and lady, who had lived with him many years both in prosperity and adversity. p. 52

This marquis was of a great spirit, for in time of trouble he was of invincible courage, and boldly bare down all his enemies; he was never inclined to war himself, but by the pride and influence of his kin, was divers times drawn into troubles, whilk he did bear through valiantly. He loved not to be in the law contending against any man, but loved rest and quietness with all his heart, and in time of peace he lived moderately and temperately in his diet, and fully set to building and planting of all curious devices: a good neighbour in his marches, disposed rather to give than take a foot of ground wrongously: he was heard to say he never drew sword in his own quarrel; in his youth a prodigal spender; in his old age more wise and worldly, yet never counted for cost in matters of credit and honour; a great householder; a terror to his enemies, whom he ever with his prideful kin held under subjection and obedience; just in all his bargains, and never heard for his true debt; he was mightily envied by the kirk for his religion, and by others for his greatness, and had thereby much trouble: his master king James loved him dearly, and he was a good and loyal subject: unto him during the king's lifetime, but now at last in his latter days, by means of Frendraught, he is so persecuted by the laws, (which he ay studied to hold in due reverence,) that he is compelled to travel without pity so often to Edinburgh, and now end his days out of his own house, without trial of the fire of Frendraught, whilk doubtless was an help to his death; the lord Gordon his eldest son, with his lady and two sons, and his daughter lady Ann, being at this time in France.

The marquis' friends conveen in mourning weed, and upon the 25th of June lift his corps frae Dundee, his chest covered with a black taffeta, and in a horse litter is brought to the chapel of Strathboggie, his.lady still with the corps till he was brought there; syne with a woeful heart he went to the Bog.

Frendraught hearing of the marquis' death, incontinent charges Letterfurie to compear before the justice the 29th of July, the gentleman rode over before the day, meaned himself to the lords of council, who continued the diet, and ordained the justice to take caution for his compearance p. 53 upon 15 days citation. Thus Letterfurie returned home safe and sound.

Upon Friday the 26th of August some friends lifted the marquis' corpse upon a litter frae the chapel of Strathboggie to the kirk of Belly, and upon the morn at night is likewise carried therefrae to his own lodging in Elgin, where they were kept, and upon the 30th day of August his corps were lifted therefrae, having above the coffin a rich mortcloth of black velvet, whereon was wrought two white crosses: he had torch lights in great number carried by friends and gentlemen; the marquis' son Adam was at his head, the earl of Murray on the right spaik, the earl of Seaforth on the left, the earl of Sutherland on the third, and sir Robert Gordon on the fourth spaik. Besides thir nobles, many barons and gentlemen was there, having above three hundred lighted torches. He is carried to the east kirk stile of the college kirk, in at the south kirk door, buried in his own isle with much mourning and lamentation; the like form of burial with torch light was seldom.seen here before.

Gilderoy and five other Lymmars were taken and had to Edinburgh, and all hanged upon the —— day of July.

Upon the 23d of June Alexander Dumbar of Kilbyack and his accomplices flew Robert and Ninian Dumbars, and hurt James Dunbar, all three brethren in Forres, and wan away without reparation. It is said that their sister with a timber stoup slew ane called Mercer, wife to Alexander Dumbar of Braks, who was at the slaughter of her brethren, and she and they were all buried together in the kirk of Alves. Thir slain gentlemen were sons to Umquhile Alexander Dumbar of Hemprigs, and all friends together.

Upon the 16th day of September the rix dollars were cried down in Edinburgh frae 56s. to 54s. and the dog dollars frae 46s. to 44s. but are cried up again in anno 1645.

Upon the 17th of September John Ross for a light cause murdered a chapman called David Leg upon the Stane Cross-hill at Elgin: he was taken and headed, and his right hand set upon a stob in the same place where he was p. 54 slain. It is said that how soon captain Adam Gordon heard of the marquis' death, he went out of the kingdom.

At Michaelmas, Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum continued sheriff principal of Aberdeen for a year, and Mr. William Davidson purchased a commission frae the council to be sheriff depute during his lifetime, and the court fenced in his name with the principal sheriffs thereof; the like was never seen here. Thomas Fraser of Strichen continued sheriff of Inverness for a year.

In October, George the now marquis of Huntly, his lady, two sons, and lady Ann, and their servants, frae France came to England, and therefrae to Scotland; they left behind them two children, and upon the 23d of June 1637 came to Strathboggie.

In the month of December 1636, William earl of Errol departed this life in the Place of Errol, and his lady shortly followed, leaving an only child called Gilbert, with a distressed estate.

Anno 1637.

Upon the 13th of March, Alexander Gordon of Dunkintie rashly slew by a shot Oliver Spence, without any just cause; he disposed of his estate, and passed out of the kingdom.

Upon the —— day of April the laird of Grant, warded in Edinburgh for not following the Clangregor, is thereafter put to liberty, and upon the foresaid day departed this life in Edinburgh in his own lodging.

Upon the 19th of July the earl of Murray came from Darnway to the Bog, and welcomed home his good brother (then in the Bog) his lady and bairns from France; they were blyth and merry that night with the old lady marchioness, and upon the morn the earl took his leave and returned home to Darnway.

Ye have before heard of our parliament. Some of our nobles, it is true, such as the earl of Rothes, the earl of Cassilis, the earl of Glencairn, the earl of Traquair, the p. 55 lord Loudoun, the lord Lindsay, the lord Balmerinoch, the lord Couper, the lord Lorne, not without advice of the. marquis of Hamilton and divers others, took offence at his majesty's zealous and godly government of this land, both in church and policy: and first they call to mind the great danger lord Balmerinoch was of his life, sought earnestly by the bishops, after he was convicted for his treasonable writings, although the king graciously remitted him; yet this part touching the bishops could they not forget, fearing they were counselling the king to draw in the kirk lands to the crown, and to make up abbots and priors again, to the strengthning of the king and overthrow of the nobility, who had the most part of their living off kirk lands, 2d, They had great fear, who were lords of erections, at his majesty's general revocation in his first parliament, ordinary for kings to do frae time to time, albeit they received no prejudice thereby. 3dly, For granting in the same parliament a commission of surrenders of superiorities and teinds, granted for helping of the ministry, and relief of the laity living under the bondage of the lords of erections or laick patrons; of this aft of parliament they were under great fear, albeit his majesty's intention was singularly good and much to be praised. 4thly, It pleased his majesty, for his own reasons, not to confer honours upon some persons who craved the same, such as a baron to be made a lord, and a lord a earl, or some to be made knights, whereat there was much, grudging in their hearts, and strife to clip his majesty's wings in royal government both in state and kirk, and so craftily and quietly they try the hearts of the nobles, barons, church and gentry of England, how they were set, and found them of the same humour that themselves were of, at the least a great number of all estates.

Whereupon followed a clandestine band drawn up, and subscribed secretly betwixt the malcontents, or rather malignants, of Scotland and England; that each one mould concur and assist others while they got their wills both in church and policy, and so to bring both kingdoms under one reformed .religion, and to that effect to root out the bishops of both kingdoms, whereby his p. 56 majesty should loose one of his three estates, and likewise that they should draw the king to dispense with divers points of his royal prerogative, in such degree as he should not have arbitrary government, as all his predecessors ever had, conform to the established laws of both kingdoms.

The king and bishops are still ignorant of this treasonable plot, and goes on; the prelates getting their wills frae the king backed by his authority, by means of the archbishop of Canterbury, who was oft with the king, stoutly resolving, what the king did command none durst disobey; but herein were they mightily deceived, as hereafter does appear. The clandestine band thus past, our nobles lying quiet while they fand occasion to break the ice, and begin the bargain, as was concluded. Now it fell out at the parish kirk of —— within the diocese of Galloway, the communion was given, on a Sunday, to the people on their knees, where —— Gordon, one of the tutors to the viscount of Kenmure, sometime laird of Lochinvar, happened to be, and boldly cried out, it was plain idolatry to take the communion kneeling (set on of purpose by the lord of Lorne, another of the viscount's tutors, as was said) the minister and people were astonished at this speech. However the bishop of Galloway, named Mr. Thomas Sydserf, by virtue of the book of canons, caused take the gentleman, put him to trial, and for his fault wards and confines him within the burgh of Montrose by the space of six weeks. At last the lord Lorne settled the matter, and caused offer the bishop 500 merks of fine, not looking that he should take up the same; but the bishop without ceremony took the money, whereat the lord of Lorne took offence, and thereafter being both sitting at the council, they fell in some words about the uptaking of the fine, where the bishop in plain terms gave him the lie. Lorne said this lie was given to the lords, not to him, and beheld him; but this made the matter worse and worse, and was the beginning of their overthrow plotted before; the lords of council were highly offended at the bishop's miscarriage in their presence also..

The lord of Lorne conveens the foresaid earls of Rothes, Cassilis, Glencairn, with the earl of Traquair, a great enemy p. 57 to the bishops, the lords Lindsay, Loudoun, Balmerinoch, Couper, and divers others, of whom the marquis of Hamilton was one, together with a menzie of miscontented puritans, of whom Mr. Alexander Henderson minister at Leuchars, Mr. David Dickson minister at Irvine, and Mr. Andrew Cant minister at Pitsligo, were the ringleaders. They had a privy meeting, and begin to regret their dangerous estate with the pride and avarice of the prelates, seeking to over-rule the haill kingdom , for the archbishop of Saint Andrews was high chancellor of Scotland, his son president of the college of justice; that the rest of the bishops were lords of the council, lords of exchequer, lords of high commission, and now lately procuring the book of canons that the bishop should be judge in his own diocese; besides all this, their inbringing of innovations within the church, such as rochets worn. by prelates in time of service at divers churches, the book of ordination, the book of common prayer, already put in practice in divers countries, and book of canons; without consent of a general assembly all this is wrought; attour, they are of intolerable greediness, seeking to reduce noblemen's rights, upon slight reasons, with a number of such faults, laying the blame hereof altogether upon the king, for giving them such way; and after much resolving they conclude to see a reformation shortly, and to that effect draws in a great number of the nobility quietly to their opinion, and only waited a time to begin, as was concluded in the clandestine band, whilk shortly fell out thus:

Upon Sunday the —— day of July, Doctor Hanna began to read the book of common prayer in Saint Giles' kirk of Edinburgh; the nobles being for seeing of the novelty, never heard before since the reformation, devise a number of rascally serving-women to throw stones at the reader, and perturb the kirk, whilk they did vehemently. The magistrates being in the church, (no doubt upon the counsel of this disorder) commanded their officers to hurl thir rascals to the kirk door and lock them out, but then they became more furious and mad, (as they were directed) crying and shouting, saying Popery was now brought in amongst them; dang at the doors and brake the glass windows p. 58 with stones, with such noise that there was no more reading; the bishop of Edinburgh, called Mr. David Lindsay, coming to preach, hearing of this tumult, came nevertheless to preach in Saint Giles' kirk, and did preach there without inquietation. Sermon ended, and he going out of the kirk door, thir rascall women cryed out against bishops, ready to stone him to the death; he being a corpulent man, was hastily put into the earl of Roxburgh's coach, standing hard beside, and was carried to his lodging; the same rascals still following him, and throwing stones at the coach, so that he escaped narrowly with his life: the like perturbation the samen Sunday was at the Gray Friar Kirk. Here you may see they began at religion as the ground of their quarrel, whereas their intention was only bent against the king's majesty and his royal prerogative; and conform to the clandestine band, begins the disorder in Scotland. The provost and baillies of Edinburgh, to shew their diligence, upon the morrow causes ward some of thir women, and by proclamation forbids the like perturbations, but no more punishment followed, albeit his majesty wrote down to the magistrates for the trying of the women who was the authors, and to punish them condignly, but they were let to liberty. After this Sunday's work the haill kirk doors in Edinburgh were locked, and no more preaching heard; the zealous partizans flocked ilk Sunday to hear devotion in Fife, syne returned to their houses, while they got preaching at home. Then they send a covenant through the country. The council then sitting in Edinburgh, remove down to the abbey in respect of thir troubles, and wrote up all that was done here to his majesty.

The lady Rothemay warded, as ye have before, by the laird of Frendraught, is at now set at liberty, and comes home to her place.

Mr. Andrew Ramsay and Mr. Henry Rollock, ministers in Edinburgh, were accused for not buying and using the Common Prayer Books at the king's command. They answer, it was contrary to the orders of their kirk and their own consciences, and so would not use them. Followed another council day, where there conveened about 100 ministers, well backed with thir nobles and gentlemen p. 59 who refused the using the service books, as contrary to the constitution of the kirk and worship of God, whereupon they offered public disputation, and so departed.

Upon the first Tuesday of October, the provincial synod sat down in Murray; the bishop of Murray desired the ministry to buy and use the service book, conform to the king's command, as all the rest of the bishops had done; so some bought, some took to be advised, and some refused. The bishops had caused imprint thir books, and payed for the samen, and should have gotten frae each minister four pounds for the piece.

At Michaelmas Sir John Hay, lord register, upon the king's warrant was chosen provost of Edinburgh in place of David Aikenhead lately deceased; the king thereafter writes down a letter to him, and the baillies and council of Edinburgh, to embrace the service books; but he narrowly escaped with his life, and was forced to go and dwell in Leith.

Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum continued sheriff principal of Aberdeen for a year, and Sir John M'Kenzie of Tarbet was sheriff of Inverness.

The king hearing of the disorders in Edinburgh, sends down charges in October, commanding the lords of council forthwith to remove out of Edinburgh, and to sit down in Linlithgow the first of November for holding session to the king's lieges, whilk was not done, to the hindering of justice, yet a council day was kept in Linlithgow in November, syne returned to Holyroodhouse.

Upon the 3d of October in the afternoon there fell out in Murray a great rain, dinging on night and day without clearing up while the 13th of October; waters and burns flowed over bank and brae, corn mills and mill houses washen down, houses, kilns, cotts, folds wherein beasts were kept, all destroyed, the corns well flacked began to moach and rot till they were casten over again; lamentable to see, and whereof the like was never seen before; doubtless a prognostick of great troubles within this land.

About this time there were four ships, lying within the harbour of Aberdeen, in one of which ships major Ker and captain Lumsden had a number of soldiers, but through a p. 60 great speat of the water of Dee, occasioned by the extraordinary rain, thir haill four ships brake loose, for neither tow nor anchor could hold them, and were driven out at the water-mouth by violence of the speat, and by a south east wind were driven to the north shore, where they struck leaks upon the sands. The soldiers deeping carelessly in the bottom of the ship upon heather, were all a-swim, through the water that came in at the holes and leaks of the ship, to their great amazement. Then they got up with horrible crying, some escaped, others pitifully perished and drowned. About the number of fourscore and twelve soldiers were wanting, drowned, or got away. This rain to continue so long together, the like was never seen in our age, and came for no good token.

In this month of October John Toasch, servitor to the laird of Frendraught, as ye have heard before, willingly came to the marquis and revealed what he knew of the fire of Frendraught, whereof he took notice, keeped him and gave him 12s. daily to sustain himself upon in the ostler's beside the place.

Ye heard before about removing the council to Linlithgow. The lords held a council day, syne returned back to the abbey, and held another council day for breaking up a packet sent them by the king. But scarcely were they well set down, when there came multitudes of puritans, ministers, gentry, and commons; the council is offended, sends out a macer to charge them to depart, but they proudly disobeyed, whereupon the council left the packet unbroken up, and went home to their houses, and likewise the ministers and others at their removing also.

In this month of November Walter Whitefoord, bishop of Brechin, upon a Sunday, within the kirk of Brechin, using his English service, as he had often done before without impediment in that kirk, the people got up in a mad humour, detesting this sort of worship, and pursued him so sharply, that hardly he escaped out of their hands unslain, and forced for safety of his life to leave his bishoprick, and, flee the kingdom.

Upon the 4th of December on the night there rose an high wind, which blew down the couples standing on the p. 61 college kirk of Elgin, whilk had endured many winds before, and never fell till now.

The earl of Roxburgh, lord privy seal, came down frae the king with command to the council, to conveen and sit down at Linlithgow upon the 7th day of December next, whilk they did, and there brake up the king's packet, whilk was left unbroken up the last council day in the abbey.

About this time Alexander Dumbar of Kilbyack and his complices returned home to Murray with an respite for the slaughter of Robert and Ninian Dumbars, where they dwelt peaceably.

It was reported that the laird of Frendraught about this time caused charge the marquis of Huntly, to set law surety, and also charged the said John Toasch to compear before the council.

A proclamation at the Cross of Edinburgh, declaring it was not his majesty's mind to bring in any alteration in religion. The earl of Perth being warded in his own house since November 1633, for seeking himself to be served heir to the earldom of Strathern, is now remitted and restored to his honours and dignities, contrary to the expectation of many.

In the month of December Mr. Andrew Ramsay and Mr. Henry Rollock, entered again to preach in Edinburgh, to whom flocked many auditors, because they had not preached since the beginning of thir troubles.

Upon St. Stephen's day, the 26th of December (through great inundation of water) a bar or great bed of sand was wrought up and casten overthwart the mouth of the river Dee, mixed with marle-clay and stones; this fearful bar so stopped the harbour mouth, that no ship could go out or come in thereat, and at low water a man might have parted on the bed dry-footed from the north shore to the bulwark. It amazed the haill people of Aberdeen, burgh, and land; they fell to with fasting, praying, mourning, weeping all day and night; then they went out with spades and shovels in great numbers, young and old, to cast down this fearful bar, but all in vain; for as fast as they threw down at low water, it gathered again p. 62 at full sea. Then the people gave it over, and became heartless, thinking our sea trade and salmon fishing was like to be gone, and noble Aberdeen brought to destruction, and hastily advertised the haill coast-side south and north, with this accident, that none of their ships should approach this harbour; but while they are at the pain of despair, the Lord of his great mercy removed clean away this bar, and the water did keep its own course as before, to the great joy of the people of Aberdeen, and comfort of the people round about; but this bar came not for nought, but was a token of great troubles to fall upon both Aberdeens. And it is to be remarked, that as there was fearful signs by water, so there was many monstrous high winds all this year; no good token more than the rest.

The king commanded the session to sit down at Stirling (seeing they could not be well used at Linlithgow) for administration of justice, but little done.

The sheriffs of Aberdeen and Inverness, viz. the laird of Drum and Sir John M'Kenzie of Tarbet, only get their commissions in this month of December, and not till then.

Anno 1638.

In the beginning of February, and not till then, the session sits down at Stirling at the king's command in this year 1638, but little or nothing done.

Upon the 19th of February a proclamation was made at the cross of Stirling, making mention, that the king, out of zeal for maintenance of religion, and bearing down of superstition, had compiled a book of common prayer for the general use of his subjects, and a book of canons for the churchmen, wherein he had taken great pains. Yet some of his subjects, out of a preposterous zeal, withstand the receiving of thir books, and has their conventions and meetings thereanent contrary to authority, and therefore his majesty by said proclamation discharged all such conventions, under the pain of treason. But the earl of Hume p. 63 and lord Lindsay, for themselves, and in name of the nobility, ministry, gentry, burgesses and commons, and at the said mercat cross, after reading of said proclamation, protested openly, that the samen should not draw them under the compass of law, seeing they came there to maintain the true religion as it is established, and to oppose popery, whereupon they took instrument in the hands of two notars, brought there for the purpose; but within the space of two hours there came to Stirling of noblemen, commissioners, ministers, and gentry, about 1600 men, whereof some went to the council presently, sitting in the town, desiring them to mitigate the hardness of the proclamation, whereunto they answered, if thir people were removed out of the town and dissolved, there should be no more heard of this proclamation; whereupon they dissolve that samen night. The council seeing them removed, conveen that same afternoon, viz. the chancellor, the treasurer, the lord privy seal, the earl of Wintoun, the lord Angus, the lord Down, the lord Elphinston, the lord register, the lord justice, the treasurer depute, the king's advocate, the bishops of Galloway and Brechin; and there all in one voice, contrary to their promise, ratified and approved the king's proclamation before expressed, and subscribed their ratification with their own hands, except only the king's advocate, who refused to subscribe the same, saying, they understood not well what they were doing, to declare the nobility and body of the common people traitors in such a troublesome time. Now while the council is at this business, the earl of Rothes having quietly stayed behind the rest in the town, and hearing somewhat of the council's proceedings, he and others that were with him chose Arthur Erskine, son to the earl of Mar, and —— Murray of Polmaise, to go to the council, and make a declinator against the bishops, saying they should not be judges in the common cause, whilk they did, and craved an act upon their declinator under the clerk's hand, whilk was refused; and therefore they took instrument in the hands of two notars hard beside, and brought it with them.

Upon the morrow being the 21st of February, the cross of Edinburgh was covered in state; where the foresaid p. 64 proclamation was also proclaimed, but some noblemen and commissioners for the ministry being conveened in multitudes, protested against this proclamation as before, and took instrument in the hands of three notars. Thereafter the nobility, ministry, and thir commissioners, remained and dwelt in Edinburgh, where they had meetings ordinarly at their pleasure, whereat the bishops were highly offended, but could not help themselves. The session sits still in Stirling, but nothing is done in these troublesome times. It was reported that the bishop of Argyle, the dean of Edinburgh, the constable of Dundee, and Sir Thomas Thomson were put off the council, and the lord Down and others put in their rooms.

The bishop of Ross having used the service book peaceably within the chanry kirk of Ross each Sabbath day by the space of two years, he upon the 11th of March, being Sunday, causes (as his custom was) lay down a service book upon the reader's desk, and upon some other gentlemens desks besides who used the same, about the ringing of the first bell to the preaching; but before the last bell was rung, certain scholars came in pertly to the kirk, and took up thir haill service books, and carried them down to the Ness with a coal of fire, there to have burnt them altogether, but there fell out such a sudden shower, that before they could win to the Ness the coal was drowned out. The scholars seeing this, they tore them all in pieces, and threw them into the sea; the bishop hearing of this, miskens all wisely, comes to church and preaches wanting servicebooks. He had soon done with sermon, and thereafter hastily goes to horse and spake with the bishop of Murray, syne spake with the marquis of Huntly, and privately disguised he rode south, and to the king goes he directly; a very busy man thought to be, in bringing in this service-books, and therefore durst not for fear of his life return to Scotland again.

Now the nobles who were against thir service books, and others, began to write and send commissioners to the haill burghs of Scotland, craving their concurrence to resist the same, and likewise sent through the haill kingdom for that effect. Among the rest, the laird of Dun, the laird of p. 65 Morphy, the laird of Leys, and —— Carnegie of —— came to thir north parts, and to New Aberdeen, as commissioners; but they came not speed, but were rejected by Aberdeen constantly abiding by the king, which turned to their great wreck, as ye shall hear. They alledged the king gave no command to subscribe such a covenant.

These nobles sent also the earl of Sutherland, the lord Lovat, the lord Rae, and lord John, oy to this new earl of Caithness elder, as their commissioners, with the laird of Balnagowan, having also in their company Mr. James Baird advocate in Edinburgh, with Mr. Andrew Cant minister at Pitsligo, and divers others. They came to Inverness upon the 25th of April, and conveened the haill township, to. whom was produced a Confession of Faith, and a Covenant to be subscribed by them, and to note up their names who refused to subscribe; but the haill town, except Mr. William Clogie minister, and some few others, subscribed willingly; then they left Inverness, and came to Forres upon the 28th of April, where the haill ministry of that presbytery, except Mr. George Gumming, parson at Dallas, subscribed. Right sune Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, Cromarty, and Nairn, had for the most part subscribed by the industry of the forenamed five commissioners. They came to Elgin upon the 30th of April, the haill people was conveened; Mr. Andrew Cant stood up in the reader's desk, and made some little speech; thereafter the provost, baillies, council and community altogether subscribed this covenant, very few refusing, except Mr. John Gordon minister at Elgin. Thir commissioners removed from Elgin upon the first of May, and as they had gotten obedience, so commissioners were directed out by the nobility through all the kingdom, and got this covenant subscribed, few refusing except Aberdeen and the marquis of Huntly. The bishop of Murray seeing this, begins quickly to furnish his house of Spynie with all necessary provision, men and meat, ammunition, powder and ball, as he who foresaw great troubles to follow; but all in vain.

It was said that the bishop of Caithness, the bishop of Orkney, the bishop of Argyll, the bishop of Dunkeld, and some others, were against thir service books. Thus some p. 66 ministers preached against the same as papistical, others preached against the Covenant, as made up and done without authority, and the subscribers thereof guilty of treason, schism, and sedition; and so was this land drawn in divers opinions, and soldiers learnt in Fife to drill; a forerunner of war. However it was reported the nobility (now called Covenanters) sent up their commissioners with this Confession of Faith and Covenant to his majesty, humbly declaring they were doing nothing but legally, and craving him to discharge thir books of Common Prayer and some other novations creeping in within the kirk. Thir commissioners got not full content, yet his majesty was pleased to appoint a council day to be holden at his own palace at Dalkeith upon the 6th day of June next, where the marquis of Hamilton should be commissioner for the king. The king wrote, desiring the marquis of Huntly to be there. The commissioner wrote for such bishops as were in Scotland to keep this council day, but none durst compear except the archbishop of St. Andrews, who was chancellor. The marquis of Huntly rode over quietly; the commissioners being come, and the council set, compeared the earl of Rothes, and lord Lindsay and lord Loudon as commissioners for the nobles, and rest of the Covenanters, and gave in a petition craving the book of Canons, book of Common Prayer, the High Commission, book of Ordination, Five Articles of Perth, and some other things to be discharged, and that no bishop should have power or place in council, nor admit any minister without consent of his brethren of the ministry within his diocese, for such reasons as was contained in their petition: to the which the commissioner answered, he should do his best that the book of canons, ordination, Common Prayer, High Commission, and Articles of Perth, should be continued, and none to be urged therewith while a general assembly should be kept, and a parliament to follow; as to the rest he said, he had no commission to answer; but this commissioner was according to the Covenanters own mind, being fully assured of his favour; and the only thing that they were seeking was a general assembly, and a parliament, whereof now they had good hopes. The council conveened p. 67 again on the morrow, where the archbishop still sat as chancellor, but there was nothing concluded for the peace of the country. It is said, that the marquis of Hamilton, commissioner aforesaid, after or at the last council day, desired the earl of Rothes, lords Lindsay and Loudoun, to loose and break this confederacy, whilk in presence of the lords of council they refused to do: whereupon he would discharge this their convocations, and bands of confederacy, by open proclamation at the Cross of Edinburgh; but they hearing of this, conveened in great multitudes in arms, to protest against the same. Whereupon the commissioner continued this proclamation till he advertised the king; and the council dissolved. In the mean time the earl of Mar, being constable of the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling, and —— Glenegas, captain under him in Edinburgh, could not get provision but by permission of the Covenanters, who straitly began to watch the same day and night. Marvellous that they should use the king's houses so! but they alleged they did not wrong, because their strengths were devised to defend the country. As this business was a-doing, word comes to the marquis of Huntly that his lady was very sick within the laird of Cluny's lodgings in Old Aberdeen, where she was dwelling for the time; he hasted him home, but before he came she was dead. Great lamentation was made for this matchless lady; she departed upon Thursday the 14th of June about midnight; the marquis comes not till Sunday thereafter; caused shortly convoy down her corpse out of said lodging to the College-kirk, with some company and torch light, where her corpse lay till the twenty-sixth of June thereafter. Her corpse was transported upon the night frae the College to the Chapel upon the Castle-hill of New Aberdeen, and upon the 28th of June, about twelve hours of the day, she was lifted, and at her lifting the town of Aberdeen caused shoot the haill ordnances. She is convoyed with multitudes of people in honourable manner, having her corpse carried upon the bearers of a coach, and led by horses under a mourning pale, and buried in St. John the Evangelist's Isle (or Bishop Leighton's Isle) on the north side of St. Machar's kirk, with great mourning p. 68 and lamentation. He made choice of this burial place, and left the ancient burial place of his forebears and famous father. within the south isle of the cathedral of Elgin, and bought this isle frae the bishop, ministers and elders of Old Aberdeen, to remain a burial place for him and his posterity, and whilk he resolved to re-edify for that effect. Upon the morrow, after her burial, the marquis in high melancholy, lifted his household, and flitted hastily to Strathboggie, having ten children of singular erudition with him.

Ye heard before how the commissioner advertised the king of the proclamation, and of the covenanters convocation to protest; now he gets order, and causes make proclamation at the Cross of Edinburgh to dissolve this covenant and convocation, under the pain of treason; whereof they were timeously advertised, and therefore conveened in multitudes, and made protestation against the same, and took instrument in the hands of notars, whereof the clerk, young Mr. Gibson, was one. Then the marquis of Hamilton, commissioner foresaid, rode back to the king; the session is called back to Edinburgh from Stirling, and sits down upon the 3d of July, but little or nothing was done, in respect of these troublesome times.

Upon the 20th day of July, the marquis of Montrose, the lord Couper, the master of Forbes, the laird of Leys, the laird of Morphie, Mr. Alexander Henderson, minister at Leuchars in Fife, Mr. David Dickson minister at Irvine, and Mr. Andrew Cant minister at Pitsligo, as commissioners for the Covenanters, came altogether to New Aberdeen; the provost and baillies courteously salutes them at their lodging, offers them a treat of wine according to their laudable custom, for their welcome; but this their courteous answer was disdainfully refused, saying they would drink none with them, till first the Covenant was subscribed; whereat the provost and baillies were somewhat offended, took their leave; caused deal the wine in the bead-house among the poor men, whilk they had so disdainfully refused, whereof the like was never done to Aberdeen in no man's memory. p. 69

Upon the morn being Sunday, these three covenanting ministers intended to preach, but the town's ministers kept them therefrae, and preached themselves in their own pulpits; they seeing themselves disappointed, go to the earl Marischal's Close, where the lady Pitsligo was then dwelling, a rank puritan; and the said Mr. Alexander Henderson preached first, next Mr. David Dickson, and lastly Mr. Andrew Cant, all on the said Sunday, and diverse people flocked into the said close to hear thir preachers, and see this novelty. It is said this Mr. Henderson read after his sermon, certain articles proponed by the divines of Aberdeen, amongst which was alleged, they could not subscribe this covenant without the king's command, whereunto he made such answers as pleased him best.

Upon the morn being Monday, they all three preached again after other within the said close; many auditors was there, whereof some subscribed the covenant, such as Patrick Leslie burgess, John Leslie his brother, Mr. Alexander Jaffray, sundry of the name of Burner, and other burgesses of Aberdeen, and likewise Mr. John Lundie master of the grammar school, common procurator for the king's college, Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, Mr. Andrew Melvin parson of Banchory-Devenick, Mr. Thomas Melvil minister at Dyce, Mr. Walter Anderson minister at Kinellar, Mr. William Robertson minister at Footdee; and sic like, contrary to all mens expectation, Dr. William Guild, one of the ministers of the said burgh of Aberdeen, and Mr. Robert Reid minister at Banchoryternan; but thir two subscribed this covenant with some limitations and restrictions, whereof the tenor followeth.

Limitations and Restrictions of Dr. William .Guild, minister at Aberdeen, and Mr, Robert Reid minister at Banchory, anent the subscribing of the covenant.

Doctor William Guild and Mr. Robert Reid have subscribed the covenant made by the noblemen, barons, gentry, and ministers, anent the maintenance of religion, his majesty's authority and laws, with these express p. 70 conditions, to wit, that we acknowledge not nor yet condemn the articles of Perth, to be unlawful or heads of popery, but only promise (for the peace of the church and other reasons) to forbear the practice thereof for a time. 2dly, That we condemn not episcopal government, secluding the personal abuse thereof. 3dly, That we still retain, and shall retain all loyal and dutiful subjection and obedience unto our dread sovereign the king's majesty; and that in this sense, and no otherwise, we have put our hands to the foresaid covenant. These noblemen, barons, and ministers, commissioners, under subscribing do testify at Aberdeen, the 30th of July 1638. Likeas we under subscribers do declare, that they neither had, nor have any intention but of loyalty to his majesty, as the said covenant bears. And so thir restrictions were subscribed in a paper by itself as follows: Montrose, Couper, Forbes, Morphie, Leys, Henderson, Dickson, Cant, and left in the said Dr. Guild's own keeping. This Guild was one of the king's own chaplains of the Chapel Royal, and he sets out a printed paper directed to the nobility, barons, gentry, burrows, and others of the combination of the covenant, printed at Aberdeen, in anno 1639, wishing no arms to be raised against the king. Notwithstanding of all thir cloaks, he subscribed the covenant absolutely without limitation.

But the forenamed commissioners before this went from Aberdeen, down through the presbyteries of Buchan, and got many subscriptions of ministers and laics to their covenant. They past out of Aberdeen upon the 23d of July, and returned back there again upon the 28th of July, and got the subscriptions of Aberdeen, as ye have heard; they were but few in company, about 30 horse, and multitudes resorted to them, besides, out of Buchan, Mar, Mearns and Garioch, who subscribed. In end thir commissioners departed south of Aberdeen.

Upon the 8th day of August John Dugar, of whom mention is made before, came with his companions to the laird of Corse his bounds, and spulzied the ground, and spulzied Mr. Thomas Forbes minister at Lochell's house, p. 71 and oppressed the king's lieges grievously wherever he came in Strathisla, and other places; he would take their horse, kine, and oxen, and cause the owners compensate and pay for their own gear; he gave himself out to be the king's man, and so might take and oppress the covenanters at pleasure. He troubled the merchants at Bartholomew-fair, and caused them to pay soundly; he took out of the laird of Corse's bounds a brave gentlemen tenant dwelling there, and carried him with him, and sent word to the laird, desiring him to send him a thousand pounds, whilk the lords of council granted to his name for taking of Gilderoy, or then he would send his man's head to him. The laird of Corse rode shortly to Strathboggie, and told the marquis, who quickly wrote to M'Gregor, to send back Mr. George Forbes again, or then he would come himself for him; but he was obeyed, and came to Strathboggie haill and found, upon the I5th of August (where the laird of Corse stayed till his return) without payment of any ransom, syne returned home. But this Dugar was slain thereafter.

This Doctor John Forbes of Corse happened, out of zeal and a well meaning mind, to write a treatise, whereof some copies were spread abroad, touching our national Confession of Faith registrated in parliament, and concerning that other little confession, called general which was also called The King's Confession, and the The Negative Confession, containing the oath. This written paper came to the hands of Mr. Alexander Henderson minister of Leuchars, and Mr. David Dickson minister at Irvine, and some brethren of the ministry, who find fault with the same in their Answers to the Replies of the Ministers and Professors of Divinity in Aberdeen concerning the late Covenant, given out in print, in anno 1638, saying, We told you before, that we did no more allow violences of that kind, nor we did allow the foul aspersions of rebellion, heresy, schism, and perjury, put upon the nobleman and remanent covenanters, &c. whilk answers are subscribed by the said Mr. Alexander Henderson and Mr. David Dickson; but Dr. Forbes perceiving his written paper to be quarrelled in manner foresaid, in such dangerous time, sets out another printed paper, dedicated to the marquis of Huntly, called p. 72 A peaceable Warning to the People of Scotland, given in the year 1638, and in the preface he plainly disallows all other copies, and holds to the said only perfect edition, wherein there was no such words set down as rebellion, heresy, schism, and perjury. By this imprinted paper, he thought he might be free of what was written before, according to the privilege granted to writers and pen-men, and to have escaped the severe censure of the covenanters; wherein he was much deceived.

The said Doctor John Forbes of Corse, Doctor Alexander Scroggie minister at Old Aberdeen, Doctor William Lesly principal of the King's College, Doctor Robert Baron minister at Aberdeen, Doctor James Sibbald minister there, and Doctor Alexander Ross minister there, set out a printed paper called, General demands concerning the said covenant, &c. with the brethren their answers to the same, together with the replies the foresaid ministers and professors made to the said answers, all printed in one volume, dated in anno 1638, whereupon followed another printed piece called the answers of some brethren of the ministry to the reply of the ministers and professors of divinity in Aberdeen concerning the late covenant, in anno 1638, subscribed by Mr. Alexander Henderson minister at Leuchars, and Mr. David Dickson minister at Irvine, likeas the ministers and professors at Aberdeen set out another printed paper answering thereto, called Duplys of the ministers and professors at Aberdeen, to the second answers of some brethren, concerning the late covenant, and subscribed by the said persons as follows, viz. John Forbes of Corse doctor and professor of divinity in Aberdeen, Robert Baron doctor and professor of divinity and minister in Aberdeen, Alexander Scroggie minister of Old Aberdeen, D. D. William Leslie, D. D. and principal of the King's College in Aberdeen, James Sibbald, D. D. and minister at Aberdeen, Alexander Ross, doctor of divinity and minister at Aberdeen, but to thir Duplys the reverend covenanting brethren made never answer that came to print, as was thought by some unanswerable. Thir writings pro et contra bred no small trouble to many good Christian consciences, seeing such p. 73 contrary opinions amongst the clergy, with a reformed settled kirk, not knowing whom to believe for salvation of their souls, nor whose opinion they should follow in thir troublesome times.

Now as thir papers are going abroad, the archbishop of St. Andrews, an old reverend man, high chancellor of Scotland, is forced for fear of his life to flee into England for safety and refuge at the king's hands. The bishops of Ross, Brechin, Galloway, and Dumblain, went all to him also for relief; the king was very sorry at their overthrow, but could not for the present mend it; however, he gives order for their maintenance. The bishop of Edinburgh goes also; the archbishop of Glasgow lying bedfast, might not move; the bishops of Aberdeen, Murray, and the rest, bide at home for a while in rest.

The glorious organs of the chapel royal were broken down masterfully, and no service used there, but the haill chaplains, choristers, and musicians are discharged, and the stately organs altogether destroyed and made useless. These uncouth alterations bred horrible fears in the hearts of the country people, not knowing what to do, or whom to obey.

Upon the 6th of August James earl of Murray departed this life in his own place of Darnway, and upon the morn was quietly buried at the kirk of Dyke without convocation, pomp, or worldly glory, as himself had directed before his decease. He left two children behind him, the one of of whom succeeded Earl, the other was a daughter married to the laird of Grant. His lady lived not long after him.

Upon the 13th of August the lord Gordon came frae court home to Strathboggie: he brought a pacquet of letters frae the king to the marquis his father, wherein was also packed letters direct from his majesty to both Aberdeens, and to the professors of divinity and doctors of divinity of both towns, with the marquis of Hamilton's letter to the said towns and doctors, which are both copied verbatim as follows: p. 74


Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Having understood how dutifully you have carried yourselves at this time in what concerns the good of our service, and particularly in hindering some strange ministers from preaching in any of your churches, we have taken notice thereof, and do give you hearty thanks for the samen, and do expect that as your carriage hitherto hath been good, so you will continue, assuring that when any thing that may concern your good shall occur, we will not be unmindful of the samen, we bid you farewell.

From our Court at Oatlands the last of July, 1638.

This letter on the back is directed thus, To our trusty and well beloved the provost, baillies, and council of Aberdeen.

The Copy of the Marquis of Hamilton's Letter to the Town of Aberdeen.

Very loving friends, I hold it my duty to accompany this his majesty's letter with these few lines. Having heard since my coming hither, of the great zeal you bear to his sacred majesty's service, and likewise not only you, but your whole town are pressed still for to subscribe a covenant noways acceptable to his majesty, and therefore as his commissioner, I do earnestly require you carefully to avert, and as far as lies in your power in a fair and peaceable way, that ye hinder the subscription thereof by any within your town, as you would deserve thanks from his majesty, and receive favour frae him as occasion shall offer. Thus with my hearty wishes for your prosperity, I rest

Your very loving and affectionate
friend (sic subscribitur)

Holyrood-house, 10th of August, 1638.

This letter is also directed upon the back thus, For my very loving friends the provost, baillies, and council of Aberdeen. p. 75

The King's Letter to the Doctors and Ministers of Aberdeen.


Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. As we did hear with great discontent of the carriage of those who call themselves Covenanters in your cities, which are your charges, so we did with as great content receive the news of your discreet and peaceable opposing them; and though we have not yet had time to recommend the perusing of your printed queries to some of your own profession, whose judgment we purpose to ask therein; yet upon our own reading of them we find ourselves satisfied; and thought good presently to shew our gracious acceptation of the samen, and that we do hold them both with learning and a peaceable moderate style answerable to men of your profession and place, assuring that if you shall continue according to your power in this way, which ye have begun, you shall therein do us very acceptable service, which shall not be forgotten by us; whereof no ways doubting, we bid you heartily farewell.

From our Court at Oatlands, the 4th of August, 1638.

Directed on the back, To our trusty and well beloved the professors and preachers of both Aberdeens.

The Copy of the Marquis of Hamilton's Letter to the said Doctors and Ministers.

Reverend gentlemen, so soon as I understood from my lord marquis of Huntly of the late proceedings at Aberdeen, I dispatched unto his majesty the same (for I met with his lordship's pacquet in my way to Scotland, with all your printed queries) which how well they are accepted by his gracious majesty, you will easily perceive by his own letter, which here I send you. I hold it my part to let you know how acceptable to myself your haill carriage has been, and with what content p. 76 I read both your first quaeries, which I sent to his majesty, and likewise your second reply, which I have received since my coming hither, and am now sending to my most gracious master. In their answer to your first demand, I am infinitely wronged by these three ministers, who (without the least suspicion of truth) have averred that I was well pleased and contented with the explanation of the covenant which was presented to me as a humble supplication of the nobles and other covenanters; and I being enjoined by his sacred majesty to receive the petitions of his subjects, and to give answers to them, but to that I could give no other answer than that I mould acquaint his majesty therewith, who hath as yet returned none to them; though I will assure you his majesty is far from receiving any satisfaction by what was contained in their supplication or explanation; and reason hath he so to think of it; and what was my sense and speech to those that did deliver it, and how far contrary to that they alleged, diverse of the lords of his majesty's council can bear me witness, most of which number they have wronged also, by inferring untruths in the answers to your quaeries; and if justice be not quite banished out of the land, I hope I shall not be denied against such calumnies, as they have raised of me. Your last book of demands, and reply, with your answer, I purpose presently to print here, and you shall see that I shall clearly vindicate myself from so foul an aspersion; in the meantime I end with your hearty thanks for your learned pains, and pious and peaceable style, and my earnest suit unto you for the continuance in the same, as occasion shall be offered, with assurance that I shall be a faithful recommender of all your endeavours to our most gracious sovereign, as being the duty of him to do, which will ever approve himself to be

Your very respectful friend,
(Signed) J.HAMILTON.

Holyrood-house, l0th
of August, 1638.

Directed on the back, For my very loving friends the professors and preachers of both Aberdeens.

By this letter you may see the marquis of Hamilton is offended with Mr. Alexander Henderson, Mr. David Dickson, p. 77 and Mr. Andrew Cant, their answers to the doctors of Aberdeen their first demand; but howsoever he was guilty or innocent, yet nothing followed by justice against the ministers, as he writes.

In the meantime both Aberdeens and their doctors are so far encouraged by thir letters written to them by his majesty and his commissioner, backed also with the marquis of Huntly's letter of recommendation (who knew nothing but honesty) that they stood out against the Covenanters, and bade by the king constantly to their great wreck, while the rest of the burghs subscribed this covenant and lived in peace, but wilfully Aberdeen stood out (except some who already subscribed, as ye have heard) looking for help frae the king, but he and they both were borne down, as may be seen in the sequel of this history.

Ye heard how the marquis of Hamilton rode to court; he returns back about the first of August, and conveens a council at Holyrood-house, and in presence of the lords he produces sundry articles frae the king for reformation of some escapes, and settling of the country, whereof the tenor is thus: Imprimis, That all ministers deposed since the first of February be reponed in their places to their former functions. 2do. That all ministers admitted without consent of their own ordinary be deposed. 3tio. That all moderators of presbyteries deposed be reponed, and those that are in their places deposed. 4to. That all parishioners retire to their parishes and sessions, that they may concur with and assist their ministers in ancient form. 5to. That all bishops and ministers be paid their stipends. 6to. That all presbyteries choose their moderators, whereof the moderator must be one. 7mo. That all ministers go home and preach to their own parishioners. 8vo. That all bishops and ministers be secure in their persons from all hostile invasion. 9no. That no laicks vote in choosing commissioners of parliament frae the assembly. l0mo. That all convocations cease as well of nobility and gentry as bishops and ministers, and repair to their own homes, that matters may be settled in peace. 11mo. To advise to give satisfaction to his majesty anent the covenant, or to remedy the same. p. 78

It is also said, that the commissioner brought with him power to indict a general assembly, with a parliament to follow thereupon, if the Covenanters would break and dissolve their band of combination, otherwise to charge them under pain of treason by open proclamation to that effect, but the Covenanters would noways yield to the dissolving of their band; whereupon the commissioner caused charge them by open proclamation at the mercat cross of Edinburgh to brake the said band, under pain of treason; but they protested against the same, and took instrument in the hands of one of the clerks of session; whereupon the commissioner desired the lords of council to ratify and approve the foresaid proclamation as lawfully done, and done by their counsel and advice. The Covenanters hearing of this, presently gave in a supplication before the lords of council, desiring them noways to approve the foresaid proclamation, for divers reasons therein contained. The commissioner hearing thir reasons, desired a competent time to acquaint his majesty therewith, and in the meantime all matters to cease while his majesty's advertisement; whilk was granted. The before-written articles sent down by the king were not without good cause, for the ringleaders of this covenant amongst the ministry left their own kirks and went through the country preaching at other ministers kirks who were contrary to the covenant, deposed whom they pleased, and admitted in their rooms others of their own faction; but the commissioner received no satisfactory answer from them anent the articles, to carry back to the king. However he passes to court with the Covenanters reasons of their supplication to shew his majesty, and withall forgot not to write to the doctors and preachers of both Aberdeens, desiring them to continue constant and remove all fear, assuring them of his majesty's favour and protection against the Covenanters.

No. doubt but the doctors of both Aberdeens were encouraged by the marquis' missive; but it turned to their grief and sorrow, and wreck of both Aberdeens, as you may hereafter see.

Now while his majesty's commissioner is riding to court, the Covenanters begin most carefully to provide for men p. 79 in Fife, and other parts, and held their public meetings and conventions against the laws, and without authority, in the Gray Friar kirk of Edinburgh, to the marvel of many.

The lord Deskford about this time was made earl of Findlater, whereat the lord Ogilvie took exception, being nearest the stock, to wit, the laird of Purie-Ogilvie, and nobilitate before him.

Upon the 8th of August a convention of burrows was held at Stirling, where it was enacted, that no magistrate should be chosen through all the burrows of Scotland but such as had subscribed the covenant; the burgh of Aberdeen had no commissioner there, because they were not advertised with the rest as the custom was; an extract was sent to them of this act from this convention, without any missive, whereat they marvelled.

About the 15th of September the commissioner returns back from court to Scotland, bringing with him the Confession of Faith and Band of Maintenance, word for word, conform to the first, and in presence of the lords of council produced his majesty's letter, declaring he was most unwilling to bring innovations or alterations of religion within the kirk, but to maintain the Confession of Faith, whilk he sent down first to be subscribed by his commissioner, and next by the lords of council. This Confession the commissioner also produced before the said lords, with the Band of Maintenance, requiring and demanding the said lords to subscribe the samen, conform to his majesty's letters of date at Oatlands the 9th of September 1638, and likewise that the senators of the college of justice; judges or magistrates of burgh or land, and all other subjects whatsomever to renew and subscribe the said Confession of Faith and Band of Maintenance, whereby all fears, of alteration of religion might be removed out of the hearts of his good subjects; in the which letters also was contained a discharge of the service books, book of canons, and high commission, and discharging all persons from practising the Five Articles of Perth; that ilk minister at his entry should. be sworn conform to act of parliament, and no otherwise; that his majesty would forget and forgive all former disorders, moved anent thir businesses; and if they do the like, p. 80 to be liable to a parliament-trial, general assembly, or any other judges competent, as the said letters of the date aforesaid, and imprinted at Edinburgh, at more length contained. Attour his majesty gave his commissioner warrant to indict a general assembly to be holden at Glasgow the 21st of November 1638, and a parliament to be holden thereafter at Edinburgh the 15th of May 1639, for setting a perfect peace within the kingdom both in church and police; further the saids letters were ordained to be published at the mercat crosses of the head burghs of Scotland.

The lords of council having considered his majesty's great goodness in. granting them more than they looked for, and as would seem more than enough, they found themselves fully satisfied therewith, and made an act thereupon, promising to use their best means to make his majesty's haill subjects to rest content therewith, and all and every one should testify their thankfulness for so great goodness received at his majesty's hands, and to offer their lives and fortunes in his defence, and maintenance of religion, whilk act was subscribed by the said lords at Holyrood-house the 22d of September 1638, sic subscribitur, Hamilton, Traquair, Roxburgh, Marischall, Mar, Murray, Linlithgow, Perth, Wigton, Kinghorn, Tulliebardine, Haddington, Annandale, Lauderdale, Kinnoul, Dumfries, Southesk, Belhaven, Angus, Lorn, Elphinstone, Napier, Dalziel, Amont, J. Hay, S. Thomas Hope, S. William Elphinstone, Ja. Carmichael, Jo. Hamilton, Blackball. Attour, by another act of council of the same date, the commissioner foresaid and lords of council unanimously sware and subscribed the Confession of Faith and Band of Maintenance, whereupon Sir Thomas Hope, in his majesty's name, took instrument, like as the said lords of council let out another act, ordaining letters to be published at the head burghs of Scotland, shewing that his majesty had indicted a general assembly to be holden at Glasgow the 21st of November next, and to warn the haill archbishops, bishops, commissioners, and others, to keep and attend the said general assembly; and by another act of the same date, letters are ordained to be published in form foresaid, declaring a parliament to follow at p. 81 Edinburgh the 15th of May next to come; and further the said lords of secret council caused warn (by open proclamation) the haill nobles, prelates, barons and burgesses to keep the said parliament.

Upon the 24th of September the said lords ordained his majesty's lieges of whatsomever estate, degree, or quality, ecclesiastical or civil, to swear and subscribe the said Confession and General Band, whilk Confession and Band shall be marked and subscribed by the clerk of council, and produced before them to be subscribed.

Now the commissioners and lords of secret council having taken so much pains to see the Confession and General Band (sent down by the king) to be subscribed by the king's haill lieges, as well as themselves had sworn and subscribed the same; it fell out shortly, that they changed their minds, contrary to their oaths and subscriptions, alleging, in the king's Confession Episcopacy was abjured (whilk was not) nor in their minds was so to do, however they renounced the Confession and Band sent down by the king, and adheres to the Confession and Covenant, abjuring episcopacy, to the grief of the king and wreck of this country, as ye may hear; albeit it is well seen, his majesty, to give them content, granted diverse orders partly to his own prejudice, and against standing laws, done as was thought by persuasion of the marquis of Hamilton, more faithful to the Covenanters than to his loving master the king, by craft and unparalelled policy, whereof his majesty had never information. However still the Covenanters could not be pleased while their cup was full, conform to the conclusion betwixt them and the Covenanters or malecontents of England, cunningly and obscurely covenanted, as hereafter may appear, and whereof you have heard some before. The Covenanters understanding thir haill proceedings, laid compt before the incoming of this general assembly to bear down episcopacy; and to that effect drew up seven articles, and sent them to the moderators of the haill presbyteries of Scotland, standing to their opinion, whereof the tenor follows, 1mo. If any man enter in process with ministers erroneous in doctrine and scandalous in life, that they be not chosen commissioners; and if the presbytery refuse them process, that p. 82 they protest against thir refusers, and thereafter against the election of these ministers to be commissioners, and thereupon to take instrument, and extract the same. 2do. To have a special care that information be timeously made against every bishop, with the sure evidences thereof, anent their miscarriages in sundry presbyteries and high commission, urging entrants to subscribe unwarranted articles, receiving of bribes from entrants, staying of censure against Papists, giving licence to marry without banns, the profanity of their own lives, by drinking, whoring, carding, dicing, breaking of the sabbath, the purchasing of the bishopricks by bribes, their unhonest dealing in bargains, and abusing of their vassals; all these and such like, common to all, and proper to any. 3tio. To remember the ministers to be ready for disputation about the heads which are like to be agitated at the assembly, as, de episcopatu, de senioribus, de deaconatu, de potestate magistratus in ecclesiasticis, præsertim in convocandis concilijs, et qui debent interesse in concilijs, de civili jurisdictione ecclesiasticorum> eorumque officijs civilibus, de rebus adiaphoris, et potestate magistratuum in illis, de liturgia præsumpta, de litibus ecclesia, seu liturgia Anglicana, de juramento, de corruptelis liturgia Scoticanæ canon. de quinque Perthensibus articulis. 4to. To choose three commissioners in every prebytery where they can be had well affected, and to use all means how few be chosen. in evil-disposed presbyteries; let well-affected barons and ministers next adjacent endeavour for this. 5to. Consultation should be had by the best affected amongst themselves before the election, that in their choosing their voices be not divided, but may condescend together upon the same person. 6to. To use all means for eschewing in the election, as far as may be, chapter men who have chosen bishops; these who have sitten in the high commission; chapel men who have countenanced the chapel ceremonies and novations; all who offered to read and practise the service-book, book of canons; ministers who are justices of peace, although they have subscribed the covenant, unless they have desisted and acknowledged the unlawfulness of their former dealing, because these and such like will be ready to approve these corruptions in the assembly. 7imo. That where any prime nobleman and well p. 83 qualified gentleman may be chosen in sundry presbyteries, that he be chosen in that presbytery where there is greatest scarcity of able men.

Now his majesty's letters of the date, at his court of Oatlands, the 9th of September 1638, are published, read and proclaimed at the Cross of Edinburgh, discharging the service-book, book of canons, and high commission, and dispensing with the Five Articles of Perth; that the minister at his entry shall give no other oath but such as in contained in the acts of parliament; commanding also the lords of privy council and all his good subjects to subscribe and renew the Confession of Faith, with warrant to indict an assembly and a parliament thereafter; and that his majesty forgave all bygones, and ordained a solemn fast. But this gracious proclamation was not accepted nor allowed, but solemnly protested against; for how soon they were read, there compeared at the Mercat Cross diverse noblemen, barons, gentlemen, ministers, and commons, with a protestation in write against the said proclamation, whilk was made upon the 22d of September, read out by Mr. Archibald Johnstoun publicly, saying that the service book and book of canons were not so far discharged as they have been urged by preceeding proclamations which gave approbation to the said books; that the practice only of the Perth articles are discharged or dispensed with; that prelates were warned to keep the general assembly, contrary to the acts of the kirk and their declinator and supplications, craving a free general assembly without limitation, using diverse reasons; therefore, they plainly refuse the subscribing of the covenant sent by the king; and give the following reasons therefore, that archbishops and bishops shall have no place nor voice in the assembly, nor that they be present, but to compear and underly trial and censure in life, office and benefice; that none who have subscribed the first covenant be charged or urged either to procure the subscriptions of others, or to subscribe themselves to any other confession or covenant; and appealed frae the lords of council to the next free general assembly and parliament, as only supreme national judicatories competent; that no subscription, whether by the lords or others, by any ways p. 84 prejudicial to the first, covenant, withal warning and exhorting all men to hold their hands from all other covenants till the next general assembly, for saving the country from contrary oaths; that as to the king's forgiveness, they protested what they had done was lawful. Thus is this protection publicly read out by the said Mr. Archibald Johnstoun, whereupon James earl of Montrose, in name of the noblemen, and Mr. Alexander Gibson younger of Durie, in name of the barons, George Porterfield merchant burgess of Glasgow in name of the burrows, Mr. Henry Rollock minister at Edinburgh in name of the ministers, and the said Mr. Archibald Johnstoun, in name and behalf of all who adhered to the Confession of Faith and covenant lately renewed within this kingdom, took instrument in the hands of three notars present at the said Mercat Cross of Edinburgh, before many hundred witnesses; and what his majesty had most graciously done and pleasantly accepted by the lords of privy council, is altogether misregarded by thir Covenanters, as by the particular condescendence contained in their imprinted protections at large does appear. After they had done with protesting and taking instruments, they dissolved.

Ye hear a little before of an act of council made anent the king's proclamation for subscribing the Confession of Faith and Band of Maintenance; the samen was directed amongst the rest to the marquis of Huntly, the earl Marischall, the earl of Kinghorn for himself, and as tutor to the earl of Errol, the lord Forbes, lord Fraser, the laird of Drum, commissioners for the shires of Aberdeen and Banff, &c. with power to them to pass to the several bounds above written, and exhibit the said Confession of Faith and Band above specified, marked and subscribed by the clerk of council, and to require his majesty's lieges of whatsoever rank or quality, to subscribe the samen, and to make report of their diligence betwixt and the 13th day of November next. How soon this proclamation with the covenant above exprest was sent to the marquis of Huntly, he most willingly obeyed and accepted the charge (albeit the rest of the commissioners refused ilk ane after another) and in peaceable manner upon the 4th of October, being Thursday, p. 85 came to New Aberdeen, accompanied with his two sons the lord Gordon and lord Aboyne, the laird of Cluny, and sundry other barons and gentlemen, and produced and exhibited the Confession and Band above exprest in presence of the town's people, conveened for that effect, who very willingly subscribed the same (except such as were Covenanters) upon paper copied from the print.

Upon Friday the 5th of October he sent John Spence, a herald, with his coat of arms, to the mercat cross of Aberdeen, to publish the same proclamation above exprest; but there were standing on the cross attending the same, the lord Fraser and master of Forbes, with three notars called Mr. Robert Keith, Mr. Alexander Forbes, and Mr. James Cheyne, with multitudes of people about them. The herald seeing such a convention, before he began his proclamation, charged them in the king's name to go down from the cross, whilk they did, and stood upon the street hard beside. How soon the people were put off the cross, the lord marquis comes frae his lodging with his sons and friends and the laird of Drum, sheriff of Aberdeen, as one of the foresaid commissioners, and ascended up the cross, standing beside the herald uncovered, the drum beat and the proclamation published, and the lord Fraser and master of Forbes came to hear at the south side of the cross where they stood first. The proclamation ended, the marquis gave a great shout, saying, God save the king, syne peaceably left the cross; but immediately the lord Fraser and master of Forbes came to the same place where the marquis stood, and made protestations against the samen, set down in write and took instruments, throwing the paper whereon the protestation was written, out of his hand into the air, and gave also a great shout saying, God save the king, the people cried out with great joy at the marquis' shout, but few or none cried out with the lord Fraser. Then they went home to their lodgings.

Upon Monday the 8th of October the marquis came over to the bishop's house of Old Aberdeen, where the bishop himself was present, with the principal and regents, and haill body of the town, and there caused publickly read out the foresaid Confession and Band of Maintenance; p. 86 after reading whereof, the bishop, principal, regents, gentry and haill commons of the town willingly obeyed and subscribed the same, whose names were (besides their subscriptions) written and noted upon another paper; but Mr. John Lundie master of the grammar-school subscribed not this Covenant. Whilk being done, the marquis rode from Aberdeen upon the 9th of October, and directed the foresaid herald, with the town's drummer, to Banff and Inverness, to make the same publication, with a discreet man to receive the people's subscriptions, which were gotten there, without protestations and instruments taken as formerly; and this noble marquis was ill rewarded for all his pains, as ye shall hear afterwards; however he reported his diligence to the lords of council before the 13th day of November. It was reported that his majesty liked well both Aberdeens and their doctors constancy, whereupon he makes New Aberdeen sheriffs within themselves, which they never had before, and that heritably; he gave them the superiorities of the haill temple-lands within their burgh, and ratified their haill liberties in ample form, but dear were thir favours bought, as ye may see in divers parts of this story.

It was said the king wrote to the doctors of Aberdeen, to go to this ensuing general assembly, and to contribute their best affections for settling all matters, and that the marquis of Huntly (advertised thereof by the commissioners) directed them also to go to this assembly, but none obeyed for plain fear; however there were chosen commissioners, Doctor Baron and Doctor Sibbald, Doctor Guild and Mr. David Lindsay, with whom went also Mr. John Lundie master of the grammar school, and common procurator of the King's College, for such affairs as concerned them, and to answer to such complaints as happened to be given in against the principal or members thereof, but had no further commission, but went beyond his warrant, as ye may hear. Mr. James Harvie minister at the New Kirk went also commissioner for the doctors of Aberdeen and anti-covenanting ministers within the presbytery thereof.

The laird of Frendraught in the month of October maliciously said on three several summonses against the marquis p. 87 of Huntly, as heir to his umquhile father, to hear a decreet transferred against him for 200,000 merks for his skaith sustained by the light horsemen, and another decreet transferred for 100,000 merks of spoilziation of the teinds of Drumblate; a third decreet transferred for making of a new tack of the said teinds, whilk decreets had been obtained before at Frendraught's instance against the marquis' father; but little followed upon thir charges.

Upon the third Tuesday and 16th of October, the provincial synod sat down in the College Kirk of Old Aberdeen; the bishop was present, with many covenanting and anti-covenanting ministers. Thomas Crombie of Kemnay and Mr. William Davidson sheriff depute of Aberdeen, came there, directed frae the marquis of Huntly, to the brethren to subscribe the king's covenant and band; some obeyed, some refused, and some made delaying answers; at last they dissolved in peace.

Upon Sunday the 28th of October the parishioners of St. Machar's Kirk were warned after sermon by the reader to come in on Wednesday next, and subscribe the king's Covenant and Band of Maintenance , but few came, and siclike a fast was proclaimed to be keeped upon Sunday thereafter before the downsitting of the General Assembly, which was solemnly kept.

Upon the 1st day of November the court of session sat down, but there were none of the lords subscribed this covenant of the king's, except Craighall, Burie, Cranston, and Innerteill.

Now the Covenanters are careful to try what complaints or faults could be found in the bishops, and speak out many things against them, which drew their names to be odious among the common people; amongst the rest the master of Forbes moved some complaints against the bishop of Aberdeen, his own father's brother upon the mother's side, before the presbyteries of Alford and Turriff; which were referred to the General Assembly, and the bishop warned thereto.

About this time the earl of Mar, constable of the Castle of Edinburgh, disposed his right of the samen constabulary, as is supposed, to the marquis of Hamiltoun; allways p. 88 it was watched by the Covenanters, suffering nothing to be imported therein but at their discretion; but how or whom till, this disposition was made by Mar, is uncertain, but he quits the place.

Upon the 16th day of November, proclamation was made at the Cross of Edinburgh, discharging convocation of the king's lieges to go to the ensuing General Assembly, and none to come there but the chosen commissioners and their ordinary servants, and that in peaceable manner without weapons, as hagbutts, pistols, and such like, under the pain of treason. But the Covenanters protested against the samen, saying, it was lawful for all men upon their own charges to resort to a national assembly for instructing of their minds in matters of religion; and it was lawful for them to wear weapons as well as those of the contrary faction did. Thus without regard to the king's proclamation, they went on as pleased themselves.

In the mean time, before down-sitting of this assembly, the haill archbishops and bishops were cited to compear before the presbytery of Edinburgh, to answer to the complaint of John earl of Sutherland, John earl of Athol, and divers others noblemen. The complaint was odious if it had been true, grounded upon corrupt doctrine, Arminianism, popery, superstition, and will-worship, evil life, and many other points. They are called before the presbytery of Edinburgh, who could not well be judges, and in respect of their not compearance, this complaint is referred to the General Assembly, before whom they durst not compear for fear of their lives, albeit the king had commanded them to come. The complainers of set purpose were holden out as commissioners, to the effect they might compear as parties, and upon the next sabbath being the 28th of October, the said complaint was read out in the kirks of the presbytery of Edinburgh to make this business odious, and therewith warned them to compear before the General Assembly, to be holden at Glasgow the 21st of November, according to an act of the said presbytery, which was but short citation, many of the said bishops dwelling far distant.

Upon the 21st day of November James marquis of Hamilton, as his majesty's commissioner, and haill lords of p. 89 council, with many other nobles, barons, burgesses, and clergy, conveened in Glasgow, where the most eminent preacher of the town preached in the High Church of Glasgow in the morning, and after sermon desired all present to begin the action by choosing of a moderator within the said church; a while after the assembly sits down, the church gates were strictly guarded by the town, none had entrance but he who had a token of lead, declaring he was a covenanter. There came out of ilk presbytery of the kingdom to this assembly, one, two, or three covenanting ministers, with two or three ruling elders who should vote as they did. Now all being set, the doors closed and guarded, after prayer, as use is, they began to choose a moderator; but first the commissioner desired his commission to be read, whilk was done, and that day dissolved. The next day a moderator is urged, but first the commissioner desired his majesty's letter sent to them to be read, whilk was done, and then fell to choose a moderator, but Doctor Hamiltoun minister of Glasford, having by moyan won in, stands up as commissioner for the archbishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow, the bishops of Edinburgh, Galloway, Ross, and Brechin, by virtue of their subscribed warrant, dated at Holyrood-house, Newcastle and Glasgow the 16th, 17th, and 20th days of November 1638, and presented unto the commissioners grace, declinators on paper against the unlawfulness of this assembly, and desired the same to be read, whilk was refused, till first the moderator should be chosen; whereupon the commissioner and said Dr. Hamilton both took instrument in the hands of the clerk register, and protested against any such election, and that the samen should not be prejudicial to the king nor laws of the kingdom. Mr. Alexander Henderson was chosen moderator, and the Assembly books had to Edinburgh by Mr. Thomas Sandilands, and frae that to Glasgow, which gave them information how to rule bishops. His father wanted his clerkship, but was well paid his pensions out of the bishoprick of Aberdeen, for sending thir books; but Mr. Archibald Johnston was chosen clerk in his place. The moderator and clerk being chosen, the commissioner desires the earl of Traquair treasurer, the p. 90 earl of Roxburgh lord privy seal, the earl of Argyle, the earl of Lauderdale, the earl of Southesk, all lords of secret council, and. Sir Lewis Steuart advocate, to be joined with him as assessors, and to have voice as he had in matters questionable, as was used in king James' time; but this desire was absolutely denied, saying his grace had power to consult with his assessors, but had not voice in the assembly, and if the king himself were there, he should have but one voice, more than any member of the assembly had, marvellous to see! whereof the like was never before at our Scottish assemblies, but thir articles was foreseen by the tables at Edinburgh, and order given to refuse the same, which the commissioner beheld patiently. The 4th day they began to read their several commissions; the 5th day they went on in their elections; the 6th day being the 27th of November, the commissioner urges again the reading of the bishops declinators and protections, which was done by Mr. Archibald Johnston clerk, whereat there was much laughter by the brethren, and much reasoning betwixt the commissioner and them. Upon the morrow the moderator desired the clerk to read their answers to the said declinators, and concludes to establish the assembly as a lawful judicature against bishops, without the king's authority or consent of his commissioner, who made still opposition against the same, and finding lay elders brought in to give voices in the said assembly, as the ministers whom they had chosen commissioners before them would voice, and no assessor granted to the king, and the bishops were cited to compear before such judges as were their mortal enemies; for these reasons, and other disorders of this assembly, the commissioner appeared to become impatient, and required and commanded them, in his majesty's name and authority, not to proceed any further, and to say prayer and dissolve the assembly, protesting, what they had done or should do might nowise touch the king's prerogative or oblige his subjects, nor that their assembly acts should be esteemed lawful, but declared null. But the moderator desired his grace to forbear to dissolve the assembly, in simulate manner, and withal to hear their answers to his protestation, whereof it appears they were well enough p. 91 acquainted. The commissioner refused to hear the samen read, and commanded them to rise under the highest pains, whilk they plainly disobeyed, and sat still; whereupon he suddenly starts up, and goes to the door, whom the lords of council followed, leaving their clerk reading their answers; and immediately causes an herald to go to the cross of Glasgow in his coat of arms, with a proclamation made up by him and the lords of council, and subscribed with their hands and given under his majesty's signet, dated the 29th of November, and by sound of trumpet discharged the said General Assembly, and in his highness' name commanded the said moderator, commissioners, and ruling elders, and all other members thereof, not to treat, consult, or conclude any further in the said assembly, under the pain of treason, and that they should rise up and dissolve out of the town of Glasgow within 24 hours; discharging also all his majesty's good subjects from giving obedience to their pretended acts, as the letters raised thereanent more fully purport; and the commissioner standing at the cross, hereupon took instrument. But the covenanters protested, and took instrument in the contrary, saying, his majesty had indicted this General Assembly, whilk he nor his commissioner could not dissolve without consent of the same Assembly.

The commissioner directed the said letters to be published at Edinburgh, and sends his own declaration therewith, and to the marquis of Huntly, to cause publish; syne goes to horse towards Hamilton; but at his onlouping the earl of Argyle, the earl of Rothes, and lord Lindsay, three pillars of the covenant, had some private speeches with him, whilk drew suspicion that he was on their side.

Here it is to be marked, that there was an act of council, dated at Holyrood-house the 24th of September 1638, whereof the tenor follows: The whilk day ane noble earl, James Marquis of Hamilton, his majesty's commissioner, having produced before the lords of secret council upon the 22d of this instant, a warrant signed by his majesty, of the 9th of September, wherein amongst other of his majesty's gracious expressions, for preservation of the purity of religion, and due obedience to his authority, in maintenance thereof his majesty did will and ordain, p. 92 that the lords themselves should subscribe the Confession and Band mentioned in his majesty's said warrant, and also should take such order, as all his majesty's subjects may subscribe the samen. And the said lords of Council, acknowledging his majesty's pious and gracious disposition and affection to the purity of God's truth, did upon the 22d of this same instant September unanimously, and with all humble, hearty and sincere affection, swear and subscribe the Confession of Faith dated the 2d of March 1580, according as it was then professed within this kingdom, together with the foresaid general Band, dated in anno 1589; and now to the effect that all his majesty's lieges may give the like obedience to his majesty's pious desire, therefore the said lords have ordained, and ordain all his majesty's lieges of whatsomever estate, degree, or quality, ecclesiastical or civil, to swear and subscribe the said Confession, and that according to the tenor thereof, and as it was then professed within this kingdom, together with the said general band of the date foresaid, as they will answer at the contrary upon their obedience; and ordains officers of arms to pass to the Mercat Cross of Edinburgh, and other places needful, to publish the same.

Upon this act the Covenanters alleged, that the foresaid Confession of Faith was understood to be as it was then professed and received when it was made, and that in that Confession defences both of doctrine and discipline then established is sworn, at which time episcopal government being (as they alleged) abolished, it must needs follow that the same government is by this late oath abjured. This act, so set forth to give contentment, turns our Covenanters quite contrary to the king's opinion, who still maintained episcopacy, but they set to bear it down, and that this act should carry the sense of abjuring episcopacy; whereat the commissioner let out a declaration in print, purging himself of any suspicion which could arise from the said act, and maintaining episcopacy to be good and lawful; whilk imprinted declaration he caused publish and spread, to make his own part good at the king's hand, albeit he was very p. 93 much suspected to be on the Covenanters side. The marquis of Hamilton rides directly from Glasgow to Hamilton, and writes to the king of the General Assembly's and his own haill proceedings, where we will leave him and return to the Assembly. They sit still, but many flee home for fear of this proclamation, such as John Kennedy of Kenmuck, a ruling elder for the presbytery of Ellon, Mr. John Annand parson at Kinoir, Mr. Andrew Logie parson of Rayne, Mr. Joseph Brodie minister at Keith, Mr. Thomas Thoirs minister at Udny, and diverse others, but their removal was marked. Mr, John Lundie being sent over as agent for the College of Old Aberdeen, to attend such affairs as happened to occur concerning them, went beyond his commission, and gave in a petition to the Assembly, desiring Mr. James Sandilands canonist, the cantor, the choristers and chaplains to be removed as unnecessary members lying upon the College rents, brought in against the king's foundation. It was heard, and a committee appointed to visit the said college.

The assembly goes on and abolishes the haill bishops of Scotland by their acts as follows: The General Assembly having heard the complaints, and lybels given in against Mr. John Spotswood pretended archbishop of St. Andrews, Mr. Patrick Lindsay pretended archbishop of Glasgow, Mr. David Lindsay pretended bishop of Edinburgh, Mr. Adam Bellenden pretended bishop of Aberdeen, Mr. Thomas Sydserf pretended bishop of Galloway, Mr. John Maxwell pretended bishop of Ross, Mr. Walter Whitefoord pretended bishop of Brechin, and Mr. James Wedderburn, pretended bishop of Dumblain; therefore the said Assembly hath ordained these pretended bishops to be deposed, and by thir presents deposes them not only of the office of commissionary, to have vote in parliament, counsel, or convention in name of the kirk, but also of all functions, whether of pretended episcopal or ministry, declareth them infamous, and likewise ordains the said pretended bishops to be excommunicated and declared to be of those whom Christ commandeth to be holden by all and every one of the faithful as ethnicks and publicans; and the sentence of excommunication to be pronounced by Mr. p. 94 Alexander Henderson, moderator, in face of the assembly in the High Kirk of Glasgow, and the execution of the sentence to be intimate in all the kirks of Scotland by the pastors of every particular congregation, as they will be answerable to their presbyteries and synods.

And siclike by another act of the said assembly as follows, viz. The General Assembly having heard the lybels and complaints given in against Mr. Alexander Lindsay pretended bishop of Dunkeld, Mr. John Guthrie pretended bishop of Murray, Mr. John Graham pretended bishop of Orkneys, Mr. James Fairley pretended bishop of Lismoir, and Mr. Neill Campbell pretended bishop of the isles; therefore ordains the said bishops to be deposed, and by thir presents deposes them not only of the office of commissionary, vote in parliament, counsel or convention in name of the kirk, but also of all functions whether of pretended episcopal or ministerial calling; and likewise in case they acknowledge not this assembly, reverence not the constitutions thereof, obey not the sentence, and make not their repentance conform to the order prescribed by this assembly, ordains them to be excommunicated and declared as ethnicks and publicans, and the sentence of excommunication to be pronounced upon their refusal, in the kirks appointed, by any of those who are particularly named to have the charge of trying their repentance or impenitency; and that the execution of this sentence be intimate within all the kirks of this realm by the parsons of every particular congregation, as they will be answerable to their presbyteries and synods, or next General Assembly in case of negligence of presbyteries and synods.

Thus by thir two acts are our haill bishops of Scotland deposed, degraded, and ordained to be excommunicated in manner foresaid, without hearing of the bishops themselves, who might not come in regard of the shortness of their citations, and durst not compear before this assembly for fear of their lives to make their own part good, and without the king's warrant and authority, which was strange to see. However, upon the 13th of December, Mr. Alexander Henderson moderator, after sermon in the High Church of Glasgow, in presence of the Assembly and haill auditors, read out openly the said two acts, and therewith p. 95 excommunicated the said Mr. John Spotswood archbishop of St. Andrews, Mr. Patrick Lindsay archbishop of Glasgow; Mr. David Lindsay bishop of Edinburgh, Mr. Adam Bellenden bishop of Aberdeen, Mr. Thomas Sydserf bishop of Galloway, Mr. John Maxwell bishop of Ross, Mr. Walter Whitefoord bishop of Brechin, and Mr. James Wedderburn bishop of Dumblain; the rest of the bishops were not at this time excommunicated. This being done, and all closed, they begin to establish committee courts, consisting of nobles, barons, burgesses, and ministers, to sit at Edinburgh, for taking order with refusers to subscribe the covenant, refractory ministers and other disobedients, and of all other matters which could not be overtaken at this time by the assembly. This was the first incoming of committees that ever was heard of in like fashion within this kingdom, and which bred thereafter mickle sorrow against the king and his loyal subjects; for within the haill burrows of Scotland the chiefest men of the covenant dwelling within ilk shire, barons, burgesses and ministers, had their committee courts sitting, abusing the king's lieges with grievous burthens, levy of men, money, horse, arms, and taxations and other charges, to assist England in defence of the covenant and religion; and besides, if any subject minted to rise in defence of the king's authority in any part within Scotland, advertisement ran frae county to county, while it came to the estates, and suddenly rose in arms against such persons. Many evils wrought thir committee courts, which here I cannot express.

This assembly (without warrant of the king) indicts another general assembly to be holden at Edinburgh the 13th of August 1639. Upon the 20th of December they rose up and dissolved frae this Assembly, wanting the king's or commissioner's ratification and approbation, without which it was simpliciter null; but they got all their wills: likeas the committee of the said Assembly sitting in Edinburgh deposes Dr. Elliot, Dr. Hanna, Messrs. Alexander Thomson, and David Mitchell, all ministers of Edinburgh, of their offices and functions, for not subscribing the covenant.

Ye heard before of the commissioner's discharging this Assembly, and of his writing to the king of their haill p. 96 proceeding. The king is highly offended, and sends down to him a proclamation, dated at Oatlands the 8th of December 1638, declaring that this Assembly was holden without bishops, and they choosed their commissioners of the ministry and laity, and elected their moderator, and after this Assembly was charged to rise up and dissolve under the pain of treason, that they disobeyed and sat still, deposed bishops, and made sundry other acts without authority; therefore his majesty commanded and charged his good subjects not to give obedience to the said Assembly acts or committees direct therefrae, declaring them safe and free of all pain or censure that might follow thereon, charging also all presbyteries, kirk sessions and ministers within this realm, at their meetings or in their sermons, that they in no ways approve or allow of the said Assembly, under the pain of punishment, commanding all such as heard their approbation in their sermons, to relate the samen to the council, as also charging all judges, clerks, and writers, not to pass or grant any bill, summons, letters or execution upon any act of the said pretended assembly, and all keepers of the signet, that they should not signet the same, shewing also his majesty never intended to exclude episcopacy, discharging his subjects from subscribing of band, giving oath or swearing and subscribing the said Confession of Faith, in any other sense than what is contained in the declaration manifested and emitted by his highness' commissioner; likeas his majesty promised, and on the word of a king obliged him by all the royal authority and power wherewith God hath endowed him, to protect and defend his good subjects that refused to acknowledge the said pretended assembly, from any just ground of fear or danger for doing thereof, and to defend them in their persons and goods against whatsomever person or persons who should dare to trouble or molest them, as the said letters at more length purport.

The marquis of Hamiltoun caused proclaim thir letters at the Cross of Edinburgh, but solemn protestation is made against the same; he sent likewise the double of the said letters, and letters which were proclaimed at Glasgow before dissolving of the assembly, to the marquis of p. 97 Huntly, who upon the 29th of November was come to his own house in the Oldtown to dwell, desiring him to cause make proclamation thereof, and of his own declaration, at the cross of Aberdeen, Stonehaven, and other burrows in the North, and caused, at the commissioners desire, Raban the printer in Aberdeen imprint diverse copies; but still protestations were made again it the same, except in Aberdeen, where the marquis himself was present at the proclamation thereof. Thus the marquis diligently upon his own great expences, caused use thir proclamations, which get no obedience, but in the end turned all to nothing; and in the mean time the Assembly acts are boldly published through all the parish kirks in Scotland, as well against the depositions and excommunications of the bishops in manner foresaid, as otherwise, except brave Aberdeen, that would in no ways hear nor suffer the said acts to be published within their kirks, till they were compelled thereto, sore against their wills, as after ye shall hear.

Likeas the committee of the Assembly craved letters of horning against the excommunicate bishops; but how soon they were granted, Mr. James Gordon, keeper of his majesty's signet, would in nowise signet the samen, but went his way into England with the signet, where his master the earl of Stirling, secretary of Scotland, was remaining, because the king had forbidden the samen by proclamation, and staid there while October 1639. During his absence the lords of council devised all letters passing the signet to be supplied by the subscription of one named George Hadden; such was the order observed then in this kingdom.

Now the bishop of Aberdeen, misregarding his excommunication and assembly acts, preaches ordinarily after his accustomed manner at Old Aberdeen, and upon the 23d of December being Sunday, gave the communion at the said kirk to such of the parishioners as was conveened, and to the marquis of Huntly, being dwelling in Old Aberdeen, his two sons and other friends, and to the regents of the King's College; but thir regents were thereafter censured for taking the communion out of an excommunicated man's hands, likeas this bishop's mouth was shortly closed, he forced to leave the country. p. 98

The doctors of Aberdeen were mainly encouraged by the king's proclamations; but they suffered the smart of their writings; and as ye heard before how gladly the lords of secret council had subscribed the king's confession, seeing him maintain episcopacy, they all turn and adhere to the confession and covenant whereby episcopacy was abjured, to the king's great grief.

About this time John Dugar and his accomplices took Alexander Forbes alias Plagnie, out of his own house of Bog-side, spoiled his goods, bound his hands, and took him sworn to pay a certain sum of money; syne left him at liberty. He meaned himself to the marquis of Huntly, who made him free of his oath, but he was ill requited therefore. This John Dugar was the father of Patrick Ger, whom James Grant slew, as is said before' he did great skaith to the name of Forbes, such as the lairds of Corse, Lesly, and some others, abused their bounds and plundered their cattle, because they were the instruments of Gilderoy's death, and the Forbesses concluded to watch him coming and going, and get him if they might. This made him oppress the Forbesses bounds by all the rest of the country.

Upon the —— day of —— Alexander Keith of Balmuir brake ward, and was convoyed out of the tolbooth of Aberdeen in a trunk to a boat ready lying at the more, and transported him hastily away, and lands him in Angus, where he goes to the place of Inverbrucky, and lies quietly there; the town of Aberdeen hearing this, and that they were in great danger of mikle debt for which he was warded,sent shortly a company of brave men, and took him out of that place perforce, delivered him to the magistrates of St. Johnstoun, where he was warded, and in great misery lived two or three years, syne died.

The Covenanters now begins to watch the castle of Edinburgh more straitly than ever, both day and night, and suffered nothing to come in or out but by their leave.

Doctor Scroggie gave the communion on Yoolday in Old Aberdeen, notwithstanding of all the assembly acts. The marquis of Hamilton caused transport by sea in one of the king's ships called the Swallow, the King's plate, and other tapestry lying in Holyrood-house, together with his p. 99 own plate and plenishing out of Hamilton, and had to London about the last of December, and upon Yool-even takes journey towards London, where he remained some time.

Upon the 24th of November Mr, David Bellenden, son to the bishop, and parson of Kincardine, departed this life in his father's house, and without any funeral sermon was buried.

Anno 1639.

Upon the 3d of January 1639 the Constable of Dundee directed messenger at arms to publish the declaration and king's proclamation aforesaid at the cross of Dundee, as the marquis caused do at Aberdeen; but there came two baillies, the one called Cochran, the other called Simpson, and protested against the samen, and took instrument thereupon, and in the end after some speeches between them and the messenger, they violently take and ward him in their tolbooth, without regard to the king or his laws, where he remained a long time, and when their will came, was put to liberty.

Upon the 5th of January, Doctor Guild returns frae the assembly home to Aberdeen; upon the morn being Sunday he intended to read the assembly acts after sermon, and names of the excommunicate bishops, but the town of Aberdeen sent him word they would not hear them read out of their pulpits, saying, the king's proclamation charged his loyal subjects not to hear nor obey the samen; whereupon Dr. Guild went and preached, but made no publication, but he wrote to the table at Edinburgh, whereupon mikle sorrow followed upon Aberdeen.

Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie likewise came home with him, having the like direction, and upon the same Sunday he went to the pulpit in his own kirk of Belhelvie, but before the sermon the marquis of Huntly had there a messenger, with a notar, publishing in presence of the haill parishioners the declaration and proclamation p. 100 foresaid, inhibiting them to hear or obey the assembly acts; and hereupon instrument was taken by the messenger in the notars hands, syne departed; but the said Mr. David Lindsay boldly misregarded thir proclamations, and after sermon read out the haill assembly acts with the names of the bishops who were deposed and excommunicate, as ye have before, and all the rest of the bishops were only deposed but not excommunicate, likeas the index of their haill acts was directed by the table (as it was now called) sitting in Edinburgh, to the haill kirks within the diocese of Aberdeen, to be intimate publickly in manner aforesaid, and order given for holding a committee, to try and censure such of the ministry as would not subscribe the covenant; whereupon some fled the country, some were deprived of their benefices, but most of all came in, sware and subscribed the covenant.

Ye heard before of the clandestine band, made betwixt the nobility, ministry, and others of Scotland, and some of the nobles, knights, clergy and others of England. The truth is, there were abuses in both kingdoms that needed reformation in kirk and policy, whilk the country could not get repaired, so long as bishops stood, who were one of the three estates in parliament, followed still the king, and in matters questionable their voices cast the balance; therefore they conclude to go on upon a course and sweep off the bishops of both kingdoms, crop and root, and for that effect to make the Scots begin the play against established laws, and whether the king would or not, to cast out cur bishops, and they should follow, and in the meantime to fortify and assist us quietly, and not suffer the king to be able to correct us, do what we pleased. Now the principal men of our Scots were the marquis of Hamilton, the earls of Argyll, Rothes, and Cassilis, the lords Lindsay, Balmerinoch and Couper; having drawn in the body of puritan ministers of the burrows of Scotland, who first devised the abuse to begin at the bishop of Edinburgh, and then to ascend by degrees as ye have heard, which tended to mikle sorrow, blood and mischief throughout the king's haill dominions before all was done, and to the unspeakable grief of our gracious sovereign, whom they mightily abused without respect to his authority. p. 101

Now about this time, or a little before, there came out of Germany, from the wars, home to Scotland, a gentleman of base birth, born in Balveny, who had served long and fortunately in the German wars, and called to his name Felt Marischal Lesly his excellency. His name indeed was —— Lesly, but by his valour attained to this title Excellency, inferior to none but the king of Sweden, under whom he served amongst his cavalry. This Lesly having conquest frae nought, wealth and honour, resolved to come home to his native country of Scotland, and settle himself beside his chief the earl of Rothes, as he did indeed, and bought fair lands in Fife; but the earl foreseeing the troubles, whereof himself was one of the principal beginners, took hold of this Lesly, who was both wise and stout, acquainted him with the plot, and had his advice for furtherance thereof to his power, and first he desired cannons to be cast in the Potter-raw by one captain Hamilton; he began to drill the earl's men in Fife, he caused to send to Holland for ammunition, powder and ball, muskets, carabines, pistols, pikes, swords, and all other sort of necessary arms fit for old and young soldiers in great abundance; he caused send to Germany, France, Holland, Denmark, and other countries, for the most expert and valiant captains, lieutenants, and other officers, who came in great haste upon hope of bloody war, thinking, as they were all Scots soldiers that came, to make up their fortunes upon the ruin of our kingdom, but the Lord did otherwise, blessed be his name. He establishes a council of war, consisting of nobles, colonels, captains, and other wise and expert persons, and in the beginning of this month of January began to cast trenches about the town of Leith.

Ye heard before how the king's covenant was subscribed at Aberdeen, yet Mr. John Lundie master of the grammar school of Aberdeen, did not (upon his own reasons) subscribe the same at that time, but upon the 15th of January he came to the marquis of Huntly's house in Old Aberdeen, and willingly subscribed the Confession of Faith and Band of Maintenance of his own accord, fearing trouble.

Upon the 14th of January the name of Forbes had a great meeting at Monymusk, about their own business. p. 102 The marquis of Huntly hearing of this meeting, conveened his friends, about 300 men, at Kintore, upon the 18th day of January. It is said he wrote for Monymusk and others his vassals, but none came to him except the laird of Brux, of the name of Forbes; they advised the marquis to remove out of the Oldtown and go dwell in New Aberdeen, for some appearance of troubles whilk was likely to fall out in the country, and that his friends might be better eased to dwell beside him in New Aberdeen than in Old Aberdeen, and divers of his friends should come in competent number, time about, and attend him upon their own expences; whilk council the marquis followed.

Now the committee of estates and kirk, finding their covenant subscribed, and acts of assembly proclaimed and intimate in peaceable manner, except by some of the ministry, the haill bishops, and in special the marquis of Huntly and some of his friends, and most part of the town of Aberdeen and doctors thereof, who wilfully stood to the king's opinion, misregarding their covenant and assembly acts, and not suffering the samen to be intimate by Dr. Guild within their kirk, as was done through the haill kirks of Scotland, obediently; and that the marquis opposed all their doings, by publishing the king's proclamation through the North, thereby bringing the people to mislike their covenant and haill procedure: these and the like motives the nobility, barons, burgesses, and ministers take to heart, and after mature deliberation, resolve to raise arms, and to cause the marquis and burgh of Aberdeen, doctors, and all other outstanding ministers, to come in, and do that perforce whilk they would not do willingly, as indeed came over true to pass, to their great grief and high displeasure.

The burgh of Aberdeen biding by the king more stoutly than wisely, and hearing daily of great preparations making in the south, began to look to themselves, and to use all possible means for their defence; likeas upon the 17th of January they began to watch their town, and nightly had 36 men in arms for that effect; they made up their catbands through the haill streets; they dressed and cleansed their cart pieces, whilk quietly and treacherously were altogether p. 103 poisoned by the Covenanters within the towns, and rammed with stones that they were with great difficulty cleansed. Thus the town being nightly watched, there came down the street certain of their own collegioners who were all Covenanters sons within and without the town, whereof Patrick Lesly burgess, and Mr. Andrew Cant minister their sons, were principal ones; the watch commanded them to their beds, whilk they refused, whereupon they presented hagbutts to these scholars, syne went their way. Complaint was made against them upon the morrow for troubling the watch; they are forced to come in and acknowledge their offence, and come in the town's will, but sundry of them left the town, and went to their covenanting fathers.

Now about that time there came warrant from about 29 earls and lords, by and attour barons, burgesses, and ministers, in written missives, and sealed with a common seal, as report passed. Signifying through all Scotland to thir Covenanters the great danger they were in for religion, and that they feared England would rise against them, willing them therefore to take up the haill rentals of Scotland, ay well of friend as foe, and to raise 13s. 4d. out of ilk chalder of victual or silver rent, for raising of men, and that ilk sheriffdom should try the number of their men, and arms, and to have all in readiness as occasion should offer, and to levy colonels, captains, ensigns, and serjeants, and other officers to train up the men; and they order how commissioners should be chosen to sit three months at the council table in Edinburgh their time about, and likewise how commissioners should be chosen for ruling each presbytery and parish in the land, and set down instructions in write about all thir businesses, whilk bred great trouble in uptaking of the rental, and number of men and others above written.

Upon the 25th of January Sir Thomas Burnett of Leys, a faithful lover and follower of the house of Huntly, and a great covenanter also, came to Aberdeen, and in friendly manner declared to the marquis that there was a committee directed frae the council table of Edinburgh to make publication of the assembly acts at the mercat cross of Aberdeen, p. 104 and likewise to visit the College of Old Aberdeen, and repair the faults thereof, and demanded of his lordship how he was pleased therewith; to whom the marquis gave no contented answer, as done against the king's command; then Leys said, 'My lord, I fear these things will be done by an army,' but the marquis hearkened not thereunto, and so they parted, but it came over true to pass notwithstanding the king's proclamations.

Upon Thursday the penult of January the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, with their friends the laird of Frendraught, the laird of Strichen, the baillie of Slains (by direction of the earl of Kinghorn, the lord Yester, and laird of Auldbar,as tutors to the earl of Errol) with many others, conveened at Turriff, for choosing their commissioners, to go to Edinburgh and remain for three months upon the common expences of the country. The marquis hearing of this meeting, sent before an herald and caused proclaim at the cross of Turriff the proclamation and declaration foresaid; but at their coming they made protestations against the same, and took instrument thereupon, and went to the election of the commissioners, and elected the laird of Frendraught and laird of Strichen commissioners; syne dissolved in peace.

There were also meetings in Banff, Elgin, Forress, Nairn, Inverness, Dornoch, and Thurso, for choosing of the commissioners, but before their meetings the marquis caused most carefully proclaim the foresaid proclamations and declaration by an herald by tuck of drum, but still protestations were made, and instruments taken.

The town of Aberdeen, seeing thir committees, conveened the township within the tolbooth, and began to choose out captains, ensigns, serjeants, and other officers for dreilling of their men in the links, and learning them to handle their arms; but they lost their travel, as ye shall hear.

Ye heard how the marquis of Huntly was advised to dwell in New Aberdeen; it is said he wrote to his cousin the earl Marischal for the lend of his house in Aberdeen to dwell in for a time (thinking and taking Marischal to be on the king's side, as he was not) but he was refused; but p. 105 the laird of Pitfoddels kindly lent him his house, and upon the last of January he flitted out of Old Aberdeen, with his haill family and furniture, and there took up house. It was condescended among his friends, that 24 gentlemen, whereof there should be three barons, should weekly attend and serve this marquis in Aberdeen their week about; and when 24 went out, other 24 to come in, and daily to eat at the marquis' table, and siclike there was eight gentlemen appointed to watch his lodging in the night their time about, with fire and caudle still burning within the house. This order began to be kept upon the 4th of February, to the marquis' great expence, and fashery of his kin and friends; but it did no good. A friend, as was thought, wrote to the marquis, desiring him to have a care of his own person, whereupon this order followed, as is above written, but it continued not long, for the marquis left Aberdeen, as ye shall hear afterwards.

Upon the first day of February the earl of Montrose, the earl of Kinghorn, the laird of Auldbar, and diverse other barons of the Covenanters and gentlemen, came to Forfar, head burgh of the shire of Angus, and held a committee (by direction of the tables) within the tolbooth thereof, to whom came the earl of Southesk, the lord Ogilvie, the master of Spynie, the constable of Dundee, and sundry others of the king's faction: they were desired to subscribe a new covenant, abjuring episcopacy, &c. which simpliciter they refused; then they began to stent the king's lieges within the shire of Angus. Southesk asked by what authority they were thus stenting the king's lieges? Montrose (being his son in law) answered, their warrant was from the table (for so were their councils at Edinburgh now called) requiring him also and the rest that were present to number their men, and have them armed, and in readiness to assist the table. Southesk answered, they were all the king's men, subject to his service, but to no table nor subject sitting thereat, and that their lands were not subject to be stented nor their men numbered, but at the king's command, and in his service; and so they went away, leaving Montrose and the rest in the tolbooth of Forfar at their committee. p. 106

Upon Sunday the 3d of February a solemn fast was kept at Aberdeen anent the apparent troubles of the kingdom.

Upon the 7th day of February, Thomas Fraser younger of Strichen, James Fraser brother to the lord Lovat, Mr. Alexander M'Kenzie of Cultowie, brother to the earl of Seaforth, with the town of Inverness, and many countrymen, conveened at the said burgh, hearing of the coming of William Gordon of Knockespock at command of the marquis of Huntly, to furnish and provide the castle of Inverness with men, meat, and munition, and had with him muskets, powder, ball, and other necessaries for that effect; but they gathered together, went betwixt him and the castle, and would not suffer him to enter, and violently and masterfully reft and took frae the gentleman his haill arms, &c. saying this house pertained not to the marquis nor to the king, but only was built for defence of the country. The gentleman could make no pleasant answer, but took instrument against them, and was blyth to win away. In the mean time there was a strait watch of 50 men set nightly to keep this castle, furnished by the M'Kenzie's and Frasers, Rosses, Monros, and other country people and clans, and by the town of Inverness, night about, and they brake up the gates, doors, and windows of that stately castle, spoiled the pleasant plenishing and rich library of books, and brought all to nought within that house, inferior to few in the kingdom for decorement. The gentleman returned back, told the marquis, but he was forced patiently to suffer this oppression, to his great grief and skaith.

The table had appointed a committee also at Turriff for stenting; the country and numbering the men, as was done before at Forfar, and to this effect there conveened the earls of Montrose and Kinghorn, the lord Couper, with sundry other barons and gentlemen, about nine score, well horsed, and well armed with buff coats, carabines, swords, pistols, and the like arms; they came not by Aberdeen, but upon Wednesday the 13th of February they lodged with the lord Fraser at his place of Muchalls, and in the country about, and upon the morn being the 14th of February, p. 107 they rode from thence to Turriff, having the lord Fraser, one of the committee, with them, and his friends; where there met them the master of Forbes with his friends and followers, another of the said committee; the earl of Marischall was not there himself, but his men, tenants, and servants of Buchan and Mar was there, and likewise the young earl of Errol, his men, tenants and servants of Buchan were there, albeit himself was but a bairn, about the number of 800 men, well horsed and well armed, together with buff coats, swords, corslets, jacks, pistols, carabines, hagbutts, and other weapons; thus they took up the town of Turriff, and placed their muskets very advantageously about the dykes of the kirk yard, and such as were of the committee sat down within the kirk thereof, viz. Montrose, Kinghorn, Couper, Fraser, Forbes, as is before mentioned.

Now the marquis of Huntly being at the burial of his aunt the lady Foveran, and daughter to the laird of Gight, short while before this time, and hearing of this committee to be holden at Turriff, some evil disposed person informed him that he durst not be there that day. The marquis incensed hereat, came frae the burial to his house at Aberdeen, and shortly writes to his friends to meet him without any arms except swords, and upon the said Wednesday the 13th of February, he loups on in Aberdeen, having his two sons the lord Gordon and lord Aboyn, the earl of Findlater, the master of Rae, who was by accident in Aberdeen, the laird of Drum, the laird of Banff, the laird of Gight, the laird of Haddo, the laird of Pitfoddels, the laird of Foveran, the laird of Newtoun, with many others that meet him. However he lap on in Aberdeen, about 60 horse with him, with swords, hagbutts, and pistols only, and upon Wednesday he came to Kelly, the laird of Haddo's house, at night. Upon the morrow being Thursday, and the 14th of February, he lap on, and at the Broad Foord of Towie, two miles distant from Turriff, the marquis himself began to rank and put his men in order, and to take the number of them, which was estimate to be about two thousand brave well horsed gentlemen and footmen, albeit wanting arms, except sword and shot, as I have said. p. 108 Thus the marquis came forward in order of battle upon the north-west side of Turriff in sight of the other company, looking to one another, without any kind of offence or injurious words; the marquis having thus peaceably past by, dissolved his company, ilk man to go home, and himself went that night to Forglen, pertaining to the laird of Banff. The Covenanters heard indeed of the marquis coming, and therefore they took in the town and busked the yard dykes very commodiously as I have said, and seeing there was nothing but peace, they hold their committee within the kirk of Turriff, stented, taxed and numbered the men, ordaining them to be in readiness. with their arms to attend the table. There came to assist this committee out of Murray, the laird of Innes, the sheriff of Murray, the lairds of Pluscarden, Tarbett, Brodie, and others, about 12 score brave well horsed gentlemen. Upon the said 14th of February this committee dissolved in peace, and the lords returned back to Muchalls, the rest lodged that night at Inverury and Kintore; upon the morn they rode to Dunotter, where they were made welcome, and Marischall there declared himself clearly to be a Covenanter, whilk was doubtful before, and so ilk man went home. The marquis of Huntly came frae Forglen to Kelly upon Friday at even, and upon Saturday he returned to his own lodging in New Aberdeen.

This business did no good to the marquis, who was evil advised and counselled to make a show of his strength and power, without doing any other service; for the whilk and other his doings, he was with his friends pitifully borne down and oppressed, as ye may hereafter see. It was said the marquis, the bishop, and town of Aberdeen, and doctors of both Aberdeens, had received letters frae the king, thanking them for their constancy, intreating perseverance to the end, and approving the doctors for their writings, promising to remember their pains, and desiring the marquis in a special manner to stand stedfast to his loyalty, and that he would send to Aberdeen 3000 soldiers to defend the town and north country round about, with money, powder, ball, ammunition, and all other things necessary by sea, whilk letters encouraged the marquis, the p. 109 town, and all; likeas the marquis read this letter to his people whom he loved, going to Turriff, whereat they mightily rejoiced, and made them to stand out against the Covenanters to the uttermost, to their great shame and disgrace, as ye may hereafter see.

The town of Aberdeen fearing that this committee should be holden in their town coming back frae Turriff, began to make preparations for their own defence, resolving not to give them entrance if they happened to come; and to that effect began to big up their own back gates, closes, and ports, have their cat-bands in readiness, their cannon clear and in good order to gainstand them and their doings (if they came) to the uttermost, but they were shortly pacified, because thir people neither came nor went past by Aberdeen, but rode the highway by Muchalls.

Right suae the members of the King's College of Aberdeen, possest with the like fear that they should come and hold a committee within their college, by procurement of Mr. John Lundie, as ye have heard, who without warrant desired the bishop of Aberdeen as alleged chancellor, Mr. James Sandilands canonist, and Doctor William Gordon Doctor of Medicine, to be removed, as unnecessary members, frae the said College, and unlawfully brought in and established by umquhile Patrick bishop of Aberdeen against the foundation set down by umquhile king James, taking up the rents without any lawful service, whilk rather belonged to the masters and inward members of the said College, who carefully attended their classes for upbringing of youth. The foresaid petition was given in before the General Assembly without warrant of the College members, yet was well heard by the assembly, who ordained a committee to come and visit the said College; the which coming to the masters ears, they accused Mr. John Lundie for parting by his commission, and giving in such a petition, and accused him before bishop Belienden and other outward members of the said College, alleging he had wronged the liberties of the house, by drawing them under censure of a committee of the assembly, who were only answerable to the king and council for any offence or oversight; but the said Mr. John Lundie pleaded guilty and confessed his error, p. 110 and by an act (not subscribed with his hand) confessed he had no warrant nor commission to the effect aforesaid. But the matters being under fear that the committee holden at Turriff would come and visit their College in their home-going, therefore they set their haill students to liberty, closed up the gates, and ilk man went a sundry way, thinking if they came they should find fast gates, and no man there to abide their censure; but they were disappointed of their expectation, and seeing they came not, they conveened their scholars, and ilk man fell to his own study and charge calmly and quietly.

About the 9th of March there came to Aberdeen an imprinted declaration, declaring how his majesty with patience had suffered our Scots Covenanters' disloyal procedure, who under pretext of religion had turned rebels, without any ground of religion for their warrant; how they had used frequent convocations of his lieges, guarded his castles, kept assembly after they were discharged, set down stents, taxations, and impositions upon his good subjects for maintenance of war against the laws of the kingdom; how seditious pasquils were daily written and printed and sent to England, whereof his majesty had seen the principal missive directed out of Scotland. It likewise declared how by subscribing of this covenant the English preachers denied his majesty's supremacy and oath of allegiance; that his majesty would maintain episcopacy, and that he had no mind to alter or charge any material point of religion; that his Confession and our Confession of Faith was but one; that the inbringing of the service books, was to make God to be worshipped throughout all his dominions, after one form and manner; declaring also the haill Covenanters, for this illegal procedure, to be traitors; and ordained this proclamation to be read at the church doors of every parish church in England, that the Christian world might see how he was abused, and how his majesty was forced to take up arms, charging therefore and commanding the nobles, earls, lords, knights, &c. throughout all England to muster their men and inroll their names, that his majesty might know their number, and to meet him at York in their best arms upon the —— day of March p. 111 next. Thir letters were dated the 27th of February. How soon this proclamation was published to the town of Aberdeen, they rejoiced heartily thereat, but all their mirth soon turned into mourning. They desired this proclamation to be published at the Scots parish kirks also, but none durst offer to do the samen.

Upon Sunday the 24th of February, about 18 gentlemen of the names of Fraser, Ross and Cutrunine, passing the water of Findorn in a fish-boat, were pitifully drowned.

Upon the 27th of February the earl Marischal mustered his men, tenants, and servants within his lands of Kintore and Skene, and inrolled their names so strictly, that few men were left to hold or drive the plough. There was also a meeting amongst the Forbesses and Frasers at Monymusk about this time.

The town of Aberdeen, still trusting to the king's letters and protection, and hearing the Covenanters were raising forces to come to Aberdeen and compel them to yield to their will, whether they would or not, resolved to bide the worst, and by the marquis' advice began to try what provision was within the town, in case they were besieged; next they began to cast ditches by his advice, and advice of Colonel Johnstoun, who all this time was in the town drilling up the town's soldiers, and upon the first day of March fell to work and digged deep ditches frae the Gallowgate port, down the north side of the town to the Castle-hill, and about the hill, and upon the south-side of the town they raised up timber sconces anent the loch, whereby the town's musqueteers might safely stand and molest the enemy; they had the like sconces upon the Gallowgate port upon the hill; they had eleven pieces of ordnance, which was planted most commodiously upon the town streets, ilk piece having a timber sconce for soldiers to defend the same; and thus were they busy man and woman making great preparations to hold them out who would not be holden out by them, as ye may shortly hear.

Upon the said first of March Mr. Andrew Cant minister at Pitsligo, came with his wife and children to Old Aberdeen, where he lodged all night, and upon the morn being Sunday, on his journey preached at Banchory Devnick, p. 112 to whom flocked several puritans out of Aberdeen to hear him; he was transported from Pitsligo to Newbottle, and was now upon his journey thither; a great Covenanter, very busy in thir alterations, and a mortal enemy to the bishops: he was thereafter transported from Newbottle to Aberdeen.

Now the Covenanters have daily meetings at their council table at Edinburgh, men taken up in the south country, and daily mustering, commissioners also appointed to take up their number, and see their order and armour; they omitted no occasion to advance their purposes. But the bishops lay still and beheld all stedfastly, depending on the king's protection and defence, as he had often promised, and in the mean time the country is brought under great fear.

About this time Mr. John Hay minister at Rafford, Mr. David Dunbar minister at Ardclash, and William Rois provost of Nairn, all Covenanters and commissioners of the General Assembly, came to Elgin, met with the bishop of Murray coming frae sermon at the kirk door of Elgin, and there publicly intimate to him of his deprivation, charging him also to make his public repentance; whereupon they took instrument. The bishop seeing matters to go so, left off to preach any more, albeit he preached after his deprivation till now: he left off to preach ilk Sunday, according to his custom, and resolves to keep his castle of Spynie close, and come no more out, having furnished the same with men, munition, and victuals, and resolved to keep this strength to the uttermost, but he forced to give it over before all was done.

The king's proclamation was not suffered here to be published as in England, but altogether supprest, alleging they were there all called traitors who were of the covenant, against all order, for none should be proclaimed traitors till first they be tried, assized, and legally convicted of treason, in council or parliament, according to the Scottish laws, and that his majesty ought not upon evil information of their enemies go about to proclaim them traitors without advice of the lords of council; and so would not suffer them published. p. 113

Upon the 14th of March there was a. meeting among the nobles and others at Perth, where the earls of Argyl and Montrose, the lord Couper and master of Forbes, and some others were. It was said Argyl wrote to his goodbrother the marquis of Huntly, desiring him to be at this convention, or then send his eldest son; but he wrote back his excuse, saying, he could not come himself, and his son was but young; but he should send a commissioner there, as he did, and sent Doctor Gordon to Perth. This convention continued till the 18th of March, syne dissolved. It was said the marquis of Huntly was desired by Argyl's letter to meet him at Brechin, but the marquis excused himself, saying, he could not win. Argyl urged a meeting with him quietly, either at Brechin or Fettercairn, to have communed about thir affairs, but he still refused. He was also divers times advertised by some of his friends, that if he would not concur and assist. the Covenanters designs, he should be carried to Edinburgh and warded in the Castle thereof, but he misregarded all counsel, albeit it assuredly came to pass to his shame and skaith. He would not leave the king, but daily looked for help from his majesty, wherein he was deceived. The earl of Argyl seeing he could get no meeting of the marquis, let him alone, and from this convention rode to Argyl. Ilk ane of the rest rode a sundry gate, and Dr. Gordon came home to the marquis to Aberdeen.

About this time the Covenanters began also to cast fortifications and trenches about Leith, by advice and direction of the foresaid Felt Marischal Lesly, both men and women came running to the work. This Lesly wrote also to Germany, France, Holland, and divers other parts, for expert captains and other officers, to whom came a number of brave officers, thinking to make up a fortune in their native kingdom, how soon the troubles began that were daily looked for.

Sir Alexander Gordon of Cluny, knight baronet, being sent by the marquis to go to the king by land, returned to Aberdeen by sea in one of the king's yachts upon the 9th of March. This yacht guarded and convoyed another merchant ship to the port of the said burgh, wherein there was p. 114 2000 muskets, bandeliers and musket staves, 1000 pikes with harness and arms both for footmen and. horsemen, carabines, pistols, lead and match and powder; thir arms were brought on shore, and delivered to the marquis upon the 17th of March. The town of Aberdeen entertained the captain of this yacht kindly, and had a night watch of fourscore musketeers to save and defend her from all danger so long as me lay within the harbour; the laird of Cluny brought the captain over to his own house in the Old town, and made him good chear. Now thir arms came frae the king to the marquis, whilk he distributed to such as would buy, and give their tickets for payment at Martinmas of such sums as were agreed on, or then to restore such arms as they bought, back again to the said marquis at the said term. The laird of Cluny brought letters also frae the king to the marquis, with a lieutenantry. Diverse came and bought of thir arms, and gave their tickets for payment of what they bought. Now this lieutenantry coming home (whether past our Scots seals or not, I cannot tell) but he accepted the same gladly, and sent for such men as wanted arms, of his own, dwelling in Strathboggie, Gartly, Enzie, and Auchindown, who came to Aberdeen, about 530 men, on foot for the most part, whom he furnished; they came to the town in good order and array, and shortly returned back to their own houses, about or upon the 19th of March.

Upon Friday the 22d of March the bishop of Aberdeen flitted and removed from his own house in Old Aberdeen over to the town, and dwelt in Thomas Cargill's house in these troublesome times for his better security; but he was forced at last to flee the country also.

The marquis' lieutenantry extended from the North water to Caithness inclusive, which he caused proclaim at the cross of Aberdeen upon the 16th of March, bearing these words, George marquis of Huntly, earl of Eugie, lord Gordon, &c. his majesty's lieutenant in the North, from the North Water of Esk to Caithness inclusive, to our lovites and heralds, pursuivants, messengers, conjunctly and severally specially constitute, greeting.—Forasmikle as it concerns his majesty's lieges of whatsomever quality, p. 115 rank, or condition, to be sufficiently provided, and be in readiness prepared with all diligence to repair when and where he thinks fitting, upon 48 hours advertisement, with 15 days lone. These are therefore to require and command you, or any of you, upon sight hereof, that ye pass to the mercat cross of New Aberdeen, head burgh of the shire thereof, and there by open proclamation in his majesty's name and authority, make due and lawful publication of the premises, and withal, in his said majesty's name, and in our name as his lieutenant, to require, command, and charge all and sundry earls, lords, barons, heritors, sheriffs, provosts, and baillies within burrows, and all other his majesty's lieges as well in burgh as land, regality as royalty, of whatsoever quality, rank or condition, betwixt 60 or 16, to be sufficiently provided in arms, and to be in readiness, and prepared with 15 days provision, to rise, concur, assist, and set forward with his majesty's lieutenant in his majesty's service, or with any others authorised by us, whensoever we shall cause give due and lawful advertisement upon 48 hours to that effect; as also we require and command you in our sovereign lord's name, and in our name, as lieutenant aforesaid, expressly to inhibit and discharge all convocations whatsomever of his majesty's good subjects, at whatsomever time or place hereafter, not being authorised by our warrant, as they will answer at their highest peril, whereanent thir presents shall be your sufficient warrant. Subscribed at Aberdeen the 16th of March 1639. Sic subscribitur, Huntlie. He sent out the like charges against the lord Fraser, the lairds of Monymusk, Leys, Kenmuck, and divers others of the prime Covenanters in the country of Buchan, Mar, Mearns, Garioch, and divers other parts in the North; and siclike charging the anticovenanters, nobles, barons, and gentry, to meet him as lieutenant, and in their best arms with 15 days provision, upon the 25th of March, conform to the charge above-written, at Inverurie, as the place appointed; likeas in all haste he sent and caused make proclamation in manner foresaid at the mercat cross of Banff, Elgin, Forres, Nairn, and other burrows North.

Notwithstanding of this lieutenantry, and charges and proclamations following thereupon, there was little or no p. 116 obedience given thereto, but the Covenanters (having their own intelligence from the council table) misregarded the same entirely, thinking once to be masters of the arms that were come to the marquis, as they were indeed hereafter. Now as the marquis is thus occupied, the Oldtown and Spital bounds was mustered upon the 22d day of March, and ranked and numbered with the men of Seatoun, in presence of the bishop of Aberdeen and the laird of Clunie his baillie depute, at the Dovecoat Green, and estimate to the number of eight score men, for the most part feeble, weak, and unarmed; the marquis directed threescore muskets and staves, powder, lead, and match, and thirty pikes for helping to arm thir people, and took their tickets for the price or restitution foresaid. Now the Oldtown people thus armed with the people of Spital and Seatoun, were all charged to go meet the marquis of Huntly the foresaid 25th of March at Inverurie, with 15 days lone, which they obeyed, and went out of the Spital, Oldtown and Seatoun 200 men, with divers musketeers of New Aberdeen; thus were the country people drawn to such extremity that they knew not whom to obey, whether the king's proclamation and lieutenant's charges, or the Covenanters commands.

Upon the foresaid 22d of March the College of Old Aberdeen was left desolate; the masters, members, and students took all the flight, hearing the Covenanters coming with irresistible forces, and closed up the College gates. They had received before of the marquis' armour 20 muskets, and 30 pikes, for defence of the College, but they did little service, being plundered from them afterwards.

Upon the 25th of March being Monday, the marquis went to horse at Aberdeen with 100 horse, having the lord Seatoun then in his company, with his children, and rode altogether that same day to Inverurie, and left orders to transport the haill family out of Aberdeen to Strathboggie, whilk was done, because he had gotten sure information that the Covenanters were coming with an army in all haste to Aberdeen, and against himself also. However he rides forwards to Inverury upon the hearing of the Covenanters coming, and for the particular reason following; p. 117 which was, he being in Aberdeen, there came to him James Burnett of Craigmyle, with some other well affected friends, shewing that the Covenanters were gathering, and that they had a convention to be at Old Montrose, shortly resolving to come to Aberdeen, and publish the assembly acts, and visit the Oldtown College, and to take order with the anticovenanters in their country in all haste; seeing the haill kingdom was obedient except Aberdeen, and the marquis and some of the North, and therefore desired him, out of love (without any warrant) that he would be pleased to behold them to go on, otherwise they were making such preparation that they would come and might not be resisted; thereafter they went to the council of Aberdeen, desiring them willingly to come in and subscribe the Covenant, obey the assembly acts, and suffer them to be published, and suffer the Oldtown College to be visited, and contribute in expences and all other things with the Covenanters frae the beginning of this business; otherwise it would stand to their shame and skaith beyond their expectation. The marquis, the provost, and baillies, heard all, but gave little answer to their friends; however they go to council, to see what was best to be done, and in the end concluded, that the marquis should send to this convention, holden by the Covenanters at Montrose, two friends in commission, and the town should send other two commissioners to them, to understand thir Covenanters minds, likeas his lordship sent Robert Gordon of Straloch, and Doctor Gordon medicinar in Old Aberdeen, and the town sent Doctor Johnston physician, and George Morison burgess in Aberdeen, upon the 21st of March, to Old Montrose, where the earls of Montrose and Argyl, the lord Couper, and divers other Covenanters, had their meeting. The commissioners declared they were sent frae the marquis and town, of Aberdeen (hearing of their gathering of forces) to demand if they had any intention against them, or to pursue, injure, or molest them by arms; if they had such intention,, to advertise them, whereby they might be upon their guard, if otherwise to send assurance to them by write of their peaceable resolutions. Whereunto answer was made to the said commissioners, that they were p. 118 not to do any wrong violently but to such as stood out against them and their covenant, and that they would strive to compel them to yield who would not submit willingly; further assurance by write they would not grant. The commissioners told how the marquis and town of Aberdeen were peaceably set, obedient to the king and his laws, and daily wishing the weal and quiet of the kingdom, and therefore looked not to be invaded or punished without doing any wrong. The commissioners got no other answer, but returned to Aberdeen and told the marquis and town their answer, and that there was great appearance of trouble to follow, whilk bred no small miscontentment to the marquis, and great fear to the burgh of Aberdeen; upon receipt of this answer the marquis hastily resolves to leave Aberdeen in the midst of their distresses, takes his children with him, and leaves direction to his servants to flit and remove themselves after him to Strathboggie, goes to horse, and upon the 25th of March comes to Inverurie, where there met him about 5000 brave men, whereof there were about 1000 horse in good order and well armed; but the earl of Findlater, whom he chiefly expected, came not there; the marquis causes draw them up in order of battle, and was glad of their coming; they came, some for fear of and obedience to the lieutenantry, but most part were of his own vassals, friends, and followers; after this view they encamped there all night, and upon the morrow the marquis goes to council, where it was found expedient to dissolve this army, in respect of the great army coming from the South, who had great assistance here in the North, ready to meet them, which he could not resist nor defend. Whereupon the marquis,. after with a good countenance thanking the people for their obedient coming, gave them leave to go home without more ado, and so dissolves them, and he himself rides to Strathboggie. Many marvelled at this purpose; some were of opinion that the marquis might have stayed and given the Covenanters battle, others alleged it was most dangerous, the chance of war being uncertain, so that if he had fought and been overcome, his kin, friends and their lands had been entirely spoilzied, and undone without any p. 119 appearance of help or recovery. And though it happened him to be victorious, yet the Covenanters were able to renew the battle and bring the whole power of the country against him, which he was unable to gainstand, and had no hope of help from the king. Howsoever men thought of this affair, the marquis took this course and dissolved, as said is.

About this same time the marquis' foot post called William Nicolson, after going to the king with letters, in his coming home again was taken by the Covenanters, and his letters masterfully taken frae him, whereat the marquis was offended, .as he had reason, for his own letters were kept up against himself; yet it was willingly done by the post, for which he was afterwards hanged.

Word came also that the Castle of Edinburgh was rendered by one called ——Hadden, brother to the laird of Glenlogie, under-captain thereof, to the town of Edinburgh, and taken in by them.

The noble burgh of Aberdeen being daily assured of the coming of an army, and considering and pondering the answer which came frae the Covenanters to them, and withal how the marquis had left them, in whom they had great confidence, and of his deserting his army at Inverurie, and seeing no help came frae the king, they began then to be heartless and comfortless, and entirely to despair, not knowing what course to take, the town being also divided amongst themselves, some following the king, and some the Covenanters; at last, after diverse consultations, they concluded to give it over and to quit the cause, and to think all their pains and travel in this business clearly lost; and therefore seeing they were not able to make defence against the incoming of this army, resolved to cast their swords from their sides, whilk were then daily worn, leave off their mustering, casting of ditches, keeping of watches or catbands, removed their ordnance off the streets with their fortifications, threw open their ports, and made them ready to give the army peaceable entrance within the town without impediment, suppose sore against their wills, and in the mean time each man began to look to his own particular weal for eschewing this imminent danger; some removed p. 120 their best goods out of the way, others fled the town with their families; amongst others there fled beyond sea 60 of the bravest men and youths of Aberdeen well armed with swords, muskets and bandileers; they took one of the town's colours and their drummer with them,, and resolved to go to the king. Thus they all fled before they should be compelled to subscribe the covenant, contribute in expences, or see the assembly acts published,. whilk they had so long withstood before; others bade within the town, such as Mr. Alexander Jaffray provost, the baillies, and other Covenanters. About the 28th of March the foresaid 60 persons shipped at Torrie in a ship attending them there, with whom shipped Doctor Leslie principal of the King's College, Dr. Baron professor of divinity, Dr. Sibbald one of the ministers of Aberdeen, Dr Ross and Dr. Guild two of the town's ministers, but Dr. Ross might not flee because he was sick at that time; they all fled to England, except Guild who fled to Holland; there also shipped with them the lairds of Drum, Pitfoddels, young Foveran and Balgouny, with Mr. Alexander Irvine, Robert Irvine, and some others, and upon the said 28th of March hoist up fail, and to the king go they. Doctor Forbes of Corse, Doctor Scroggie minister at Old Aberdeen, and Mr. Gilbert Ross reader, fled all to the country. Mr. Alexander Middleton, Mr. Alexander Garden, and Mr. Alexander Scroggie regents, with Robert Ogilvie Sub-principal of the King's College, threw up the gates of the college, and set the students at liberty, and themselves fled through the country. This was done upon the 22d of March. The bishop of Aberdeen, with John Bellenden his son, Mr. John Bellenden his brother, and John Blackwater his servitor, flees upon the 27th of March, and through the country goes he.

The laird of Ethie in Angus, with some friends, anti-covenanters, fled his country, and shipped for France; he is driven by tempest to Dunbar; they ail are taken, ship and goods, and warded, yet upon conditions they are set at liberty, and their goods restored.

Now our Aberdeen's men and country barons fled all to the king to complain upon the disorders of the land, but p. 121 they lost all their travel, and were forced to come home again, except Doctor Baron, who died at Berwick in August, and Dr. Sibbald stayed in England, and Dr. Guild returned also frae Holland.

The bishop of Aberdeen was ill thought of by the Covenanters for preaching ilk Sabbath day till the 24th of March, and giving of the communion after he was excommunicated, but he preached no more after that. Thus the assembly foresaid, without authority of the king, and expressly against his command, excommunicated and deposed bishops as they pleased, to the admiration of many, against the laws and their consciences.

Now the ministers of Edinburgh and elsewhere begin to preach boldly out of the pulpits, exhorting the people to maintain this good cause; whereupon they went on furiously by their persuasion in defence of this Covenant, without the king's warrant or authority.

The council table finding that they had gotten obedience through all the burrows of Scotland, and through the country also, and none to stand out but Aberdeen, and the Doctors thereof, with the marquis of Huntly his friends and followers, and some of the country ministers who took their dependance frae the king against them and their covenant, and would not hear the assembly acts published within their kirk, subscribe their Covenant, nor contribute with them; that they were carting ditches, and using devices to defend themselves; and that the marquis of Huntly was dwelling among them, the bishops also of the same town giving advice and council; that the marquis had gotten home arms, with a lieutenantry, to cross their designs; upon thir reasons, and divers others, they raise arms in the South, and hastily directs Mr. James Baird and Mr. Gibson, two advocates in Edinburgh, to go quickly to the North, and cause the Covenanters there conveen and meet their army at Aberdeen, which they did, and therewith resolved either to bring the marquis, the burgh of Aberdeen and their doctors and ministers, and all other outstanders, to come in and subscribe their Covenant, and to do all other obedience willingly, otherwise to compel them by force of arms to do the same; and upon this resolution p. 122 they lift their army with great diligence. In the mean time the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the earl of Errol (being but a young bairn) his men, tenants, and servants, under the conduct of the laird of Delgaty, the lord Pitsligo (being also but a bairn) his men, tenants, and servants, under the conduct of Alexander Forbes of Boyndlie his tutor, with diverse other barons and gentlemen, Covenanters, conveened upon the 28th of March at Kintore, about the number of 2000 men, horse and foot, ready to meet the Southland Covenanters at Aberdeen, as they were directed. From Kintore they came in order of battle to Old Aberdeen, where part of them were lodged that night, but the most part lay in the fields about the Oldtown, abiding the coming of the other army, upon whilk Friday the 29th of March there came in the evening to the north-side of the Tollo-hill, beside Banchory-Devenick on Dee-side, within three miles of Aberdeen, the earl of Montrose, lord general, the earl Marischal, the earl Kinghorn, the lord Erskine, the lord Carnegie, the lord Elcho, his excellency Felt Marischal Lesly, with a well prepared army, both of foot and horse, drawn out of the sheriffdoms of Fife, Perth, Angus, Mearns, and burrows thereof. They were estimate to be about 9000 men, horse, and foot, with the carriages; they had two cartons or quarter cannons following them, with twelve piece of other ordnance; they might easily come to Aberdeen that night, having daylight enough, but they would not come, but stented their pavilions upon the said hill, and rested there all night. Upon the morrow being Saturday, they came in order of battle well armed both on horse and foot, each horseman having at least five shot, with a carabine in his hand, two pistols by his sides, and other two by his saddle, the pikemen in their ranks with pike and sword; the musketeers in their rank, with musket, staff, bandelier, sword, powder, ball and match; each company both of horse and foot had their captains, lieutenants, ensigns, serjeants, and other officers and commanders, all for the most part in buff coats, and in goodly order. They had five colours or ensigns, whereof the earl of Montrose had one, having the motto for religion, the covenant, and the country.. The earl of Marischal had one, the earl p. 123 of Kinghorn had one, and the town of Dundee had two; they had trumpeters to ilk company of horsemen, and drummers to ilk company of footmen; they had their meat, drink, and other provision carried with them, all done by the advice of the said Felt marischal Lesly, whose council general Montrose followed in this business. Now in seemly order and good array this army came forward, and entered the burgh of Aberdeen about ten hours in the morning at the Upper Kirk-gate Port, syne came down the Broadgate and Castlegate, out at the Justice Port, to the Queen's Links directly. Here it is to be noted, that few or none of this army wanted a blue ribband, but the lord Gordon and some others of the marquis' family had a ribband when they were dwelling in the town, of a red flesh colour, which they wore in their hats, and called it the Royal Ribband, as a sign of their love and loyalty to the king In despite and derision thereof this blue ribband was worn, and called the Covenanters Ribband by the haill soldiers of the army, who would not hear of the royal ribband, such was their pride and malice. There came to the Links the same Saturday frae the Oldtown and fields thereabout, the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the laird of Delgaty, the tutor of Pitsligo, the earl Marischal's men in Buchan, with diverse other barons, their men, tenants and servants, about the number of 2000 horse and foot, and meet with the army in kindly manner; shortly after their coming a general muster was made of the haill army, which was estimate about eleven thousand horse and foot, carriage horse and all; muster being made, all men were commanded by sound of trumpet in general Montrose' name to go to breakfast either in the Links or in the town. The general himself, nobles, captains, and commanders for the most part, and soldiers, sat down in the Links, and of their own provision, with a servit on their knee, took breakfast; others went to the town, and as they were commanded returned shortly to the army, who complained that they were not made welcome, and paid dear for what they got. However another view was taken of the army, and some weak armless bodies got liberty from the general to go home; thereafter the general sent for the provost Mr. Alexander Jaffray, p. 124 and told him that his soldiers who went to the town could not get welcome nor meat, albeit he directed them to take nothing for nought, and for such as they got they were extortioned; he said the town of Aberdeen upon their great expences and sore travel was casting ditches to stop their army, and using many other devices to withstand their coming, wherein they proved more wilful than skilful, and had lost all their labour; therefore he commanded the provost in all haste to cause fill up these ditches, to the effect his army might pass and repass without impediment, and in the mean time to see that his soldiers be well entertained without extortion, as occasion offered, all which the provost humbly promised, and performed by causing the town's men hastily fill up the ditches. After these speeches the army was again drawn up, and the earl of Kinghorn with 1500 men had orders to go to Aberdeen, take in the town and watch the same, and to send after the army two quarter cannon, having a bullet of above 24 pound each. Conform to this order, Kinghorn, after he had taken his leave of the general in the Links, came up to the town the same Saturday with the lairds of Benholm, Auldbar, and divers others in his company; the earl with some others lodged in skipper Anderson's, to whom came the provost and baillies, and rendered to him the keys of the tolbooth, their kirks and posts; he causes quarter his soldiers, and set strong watch both day and night at ilk port, none day nor night went in or out but by their permission; the gates were closed ilk evening, and opened in the morning about 7 o'clock. Now brave Aberdeen, who went wisely to guard themselves, is brought under subjection, and commanded by a stranger governor, because they were loyal to the king, depended upon his protection and missive letters and proclamations, which now against their expectation had failed them, to their great grief, shame, and sorrow, and none of all the burghs of Scotland brought under this trouble but only Aberdeen; but patience per force. Governor Kinghorn, for the earl is now stiled governor of Aberdeen, the same Saturday at night, after he had received the keys of the town, received also from the lady Pitfoddels, the keys of her lodging, wherein the marquis p. 125 had lodged short while before, but at the delivery of thir keys, there was a sudden fray among them, occasioned by a shot racklesly let go in the same house, where the governour and lady with others were together. None knew from whom nor how this shot came, for all the trial could be made, in which tumult and confusion the lady Pitfoddels lost her purse, well plenished with gold and rings, and could not get the same again; and so she took her leave of the governor of Aberdeen, leaving with him the keys of her husband's house, and wanting her purse also, but she was restored back her own keys without further molestation.

General Montrose, upon the same Saturday afternoon, came not to Aberdeen as the town expected, but marched frae the Links to Kintore about 4 afternoon, with his army in brave order, where they encamped that night, and Sunday all day, having their own minister preaching. Monday the first of April they marched to Inverury two miles distant, where they encamped all night.

The marquis of Huntly hearing of their march, understood certainly they were coming for him (as it was indeed) and to bring him to their opinion per force: he considered the time, and saw he could not make his part good, and that he had gotten no help frae the king as was promised, resolved suddenly to take the best course for himself, to save his honour, his house unspoilzied, and his friends and servants unplundered; and therefore upon the foresaid first of April he sent Mr. Robert Gordon of Straloch, and Doctor Gordon physician in Aberdeen, to Inverury to the camp, before they should march any further on, and speak with the earl of Montrose, general, and to desire him to come, eleven and himself, with a sword at ilk man's side, without any more armour, to Sparrmuir near Blackball, two miles distant frae the camp, where the marquis of Huntly should come with the like number and arms, to the effect that they might confer together about this business. The general was content by the advice of the nobles, Felt Marischal Leslie and others that were in the camp, to meet the marquis the 4th day of the said month of April, being Thursday. p. 126

Upon the first of April governor Kinghorn directed to Old Aberdeen 20 musketeers to take one of the marquis of Huntly's foot posts called Jacques, who was presently come frae the king with letters to his matter. He is had to Aberdeen, and warded in the tolbooth. Upon Tuesday the 2d of April he also caused transport 12 pieces of ordnance pertaining to the town from off the causey, and carry them into the earl Marischal's close, and anent his gate.

Upon this Tuesday word came to Aberdeen, that Dumbritton the king's house was taken in by the Covenanters by a flight, which was thus; the captain thereof called Steuart, a religious gentleman, true to the king, happened upon a Sunday to go hear devotion at a church without the Castle, fearing no evil nor danger, but he is suddenly taken by the Covenanters who laid wait for him; he is compelled to cast off his cloaths, which are shortly put on upon another gentleman of his shape and stature, and put on the gentleman's cloaths upon him; thereafter they commanded the captain upon pain of death to tell the watch-word, which for fear of his life he truly told; then they go on the night quietly unseen of them in the Castle, and had this counterfeit captain with them, who cried the watch-word, which being heard, the gates are casten open; in goes the Covenanters with greater power than that was within to defend it, and take in this strong strength, and man and fortify it to their mind.

The king's house of Dalkeith was also taken by the Covenanters, out of which they took the royal ornaments of the crown, such as crown, sword, and scepter, and had them to the Castle of Edinburgh, which was also taken by them before.

Upon the same Tuesday and second of April, there was a Committee holden within the Gray Friars kirk of New Aberdeen by governor Kinghorn, the master of Forbes (who came for that purpose frae the camp) the lairds of Auldbar, Benholm, Dun, Leys, with some others. Mr. David Lindsay Parson of Belhelvie, was said to be moderator of this committee, to the which committee upon the 24th of March were summoned in name of the assembly and moderator, the principal of the King's College of Old p. 127 Aberdeen, the four regents, the canonist, Doctor of Medicine, civilist, sacrist, and janitor, founded members thereof, as also the haill Doctors and ministers of Aberdeen, such as John Forbes of Corse professor, Dr. Lesly principal, Dr. Scroggie minister at Old Aberdeen; Doctors Baron, Sibbald, Ross, three ministers at New Aberdeen, together with all the other ministers within the province or diocese, who had not as yet subscribed the Covenant, to compear upon the second day of April, within any of the Aberdeens where it should happen the moderator and assessors to be for the time, and there to underly such censure, and with certification contained in the principal summons. Thus were summoned both churchmen, nobles, barons, burgesses, and others. Whereupon the provost, baillies, and council of Aberdeen (who had stifly stood out before) came now in per force, so many of them as were at home, and had not fled , and divers of the ministry and gentlemen and others came all in through plain fear, and humbly subscribe and swear this covenant, albeit they had sworn the king's covenant before. The ministers of Aberdeen would not come in upon any condition to subscribe this covenant, and the principal and members of the King's College were not called at this time, so nothing was done against them. This committee sat all Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, then rose; they continued some business to the 16th of April, and so dissolved, referring the rest to the provincial synod, to be holden the foresaid 16th of April.

Upon Wednesday the 3d of April governor Kinghorn caused take up inventary of such goods and gear as was within the laird of Pitfoddels' house, as well pertaining to the laird himself, as that which the marquis left behind him, at his removing therefrae; and inventary being taken, he caused deliver back to the lady Pitfoddels her keys, which he had taken before, without any more ado.

The samen Wednesday the governor caused quarter the town of Aberdeen, and commanded the provost and baillies to see the same done, to the effect knowlege might be had, how the army should be sustained at their back coming..

Thursday the 4th of April, the laird of Auldbar with. some soldiers came over frae the town to the Oldtown, and p. 128 having gotten knowlege that the people had hid such arms as they had from this army, within some of the kirk vaults, he masterfully took the keys, and meddled with the arms, but they were all restored back again, except ten muskets. In the mean time some of his rascally soldiers began to abuse (which none did before) the bishop's stately palace, and spoilzie the same, against Auldbar's will and commandment.

Ye heard before of a meeting agreed on betwixt the marquis of Huntly, and general Montrose; the 4th of April being Thursday, the marquis came with other eleven, with only swords by their sides, whereof the lord Oliphant was one, and his son James the lord Aboyne was another; the general in like manner met him at the place appointed, with eleven and himself, in like arms, whereof the lords Elcho and Couper were two; after salutation they lighted frae their horses, and upon foot fell to conference, yet nothing was ended, yet both took advice till to-morrow; they parted, the marquis rode that night two miles frae the camp to Legatsden, where he supped and went at night to Pitcaple to his bed, and the general returned back again to the camp.

Upon the morrow being Friday, and 5th of April, the said lords met again in the same place, where it was said the marquis past some conditions in write, obliging him to stand to the Confession of Faith, made in anno 1580 and 1581, and that he would defend the king, the religion, laws, and liberties of the kingdom to his power; that he would do his best, to cause his men, tenants and servants subscribe the covenant; thir were the conditions whilk was alleged the marquis subscribed and delivered to the general; thereafter they parted in peace, without dissimulation as was thought. The marquis went not near the camp, but straight to Strathboggie, and the general rode close to the camp, where after consultation they were well pleased, and the general praised for his pains.

Upon the same Friday and 5th of April the lairds of Benholm and Auldbar came out of the New town to Old Aberdeen, accompanied with soldiers and musketeers; they first heard devotion; Mr. James Marline minister at p. 129 Peterhead being with them, preached in the Oldtown kirk upon the last verse of the 28th psalm; he laboured to condemn episcopacy, and persuade the people to subscribe the covenant. Sermon being ended, the said barons, ministers and others went to the consistory house, where the Oldtown people also flocked; and although many of them had subscribed the covenant before, yet for fear of trouble and plundering of their houses and goods they subscribed the same over again. Thus the covenant being subscribed, the laird of Auldbar gave them back the keys of their vaults where their arms lay, that ilk man might receive back his own, but there were ten muskets wanting, being convoyed away before by some of Auldbar's soldiers.

In the meantime thir soldiers began to abuse the bishop's palace, entered the gates and doors, and began to spoilzie the same, but Auldbar (being advertised thereof) went himself and put them away, so that there was little wrong done that day; thereafter they all returned to New Aberdeen.

This same Friday word came to Aberdeen that the marquis and army had settled and ended, charging them to make proclamation through the town for preparing lodgings and entertainment for the army upon their own expences, whilk was done by the provost and baillies at the governor's command.

Thus upon Saturday the 6th of April the army lifted their camp from Inverurie, and began to march towards Aberdeen; by the way there came and met the army 12 highlandmen, who declared to the general, that the earl of Argyle their master had sent out of his country 500 men well armed in highland fashion with their officers, to attend the service, and his service as general; he received their commission graciously, thanked the earl of Argyle their master, and directed them to go and live upon the lands and bestial pertaining to the lairds of Drum and Pitfoddels, and to keep together unbroken or separate, and there to stay while further advertisement, forbidding them expressly to come near Aberdeen at this time, because the army was going there; thus the gentlemen returned to thir highland company with these directions, which they p. 130 took in good part, and lived royally upon the corns and bestial of the said ground, to the great hurt and wreck of the country people; and as this general had directed thir highlandmen to do, so he himself did during the time his army was lying at Inverurie, for they plundered frae Thomas Crombie of Kemnay as an anticovenanter, about 22 score bolls of victual, which he had laid up in store within his girnal, in Kemnay; the earl Marischal's men Skene and Kintore, were busy about this plundering with the rest of the soldiers, and it was sold very cheap, at 6s. 8d. the boll, because they could not carry it with them. The lord Erskine caused plunder frae Mr. Alexander Reid six score bolls of victual out of the lands of Kildrummy, the laird of Pitfoddels' grounds of Barrack about this time was also plundered, whilk made them all to come in and subscribe the covenant, albeit they had subscribed the king's covenant before, and were glad to obtain the general's protection to save their ground from any further molestation; then the army marches on and comes to Aberdeen the samen Saturday before even, and went not to the Links to bide, as they did at their outgoing. The general himself, governor Kinghorn, and the rest of the nobles, were all lodged in Patrick Lesly's house; the rest of the army, according to their rank, were quartered and well served, but little payment was made therefore, because the general commanded the provost and baillies to make provision and pay the people for the same, whilk they did not, to the hurt of several honest people, who had made the provision out of their own purses, and got no payment from the magistrates, as said is.

The bishop of Murray, fearing this army should come to Spynie, had beforehand manned and fortified the same strongly, for his own defence, which was but folly, and to no purpose; but at this time, since they got the marquis of Huntly, they compted for him, but allowed him to keep his house.

However the haill other bishops, except the archbishop of Glasgow, who was old and tender, keeping his bed, and Mr. John Abernethy bishop of Caithness, and the bishop of Dunkeld, who had disclaimed episcopacy, and p. 131 yielded to the assembly acts, were forced to flee into England for their safety and protection. About this same time the bishop of Ross' wife fled her dwelling-house in Chanrie, and went to her brother the minister of Rothemay, and dwelt and remained with him till her husband sent for her.

After the meeting betwixt the marquis of Huntly and the general, as ye have heard, many of his friends, such as the lairds of Gight, Haddo, Newtown, Foveran, Pitmedden, Harthill, and divers others, came in per force, seeing no other help, and subscribed the covenant; but neither the fear of this army nor nothing else could move the laird of Banff to come in and subscribe the covenant, but stoutly stood out the king's man, for the which he paid dear.

About this time Donald Farquharson of Tilliegarmouth, baillie of the marquis' lands of Strathaven, having gotten some muskets, pikes and other armour frae him while he was dwelling in Aberdeen, and his servants bringing home their armour to him out of Aberdeen at his direction, Alexander Strachan of Glenkindie, a great Covenanter, masterfully took them by the way, whereat the said Donald took great offence, and repaired himself afterwards, as ye may hear.

There was also taken by the Covenanters about this time certain carabines, muskets, pikes, and ammunition, pertaining to the lord Rae, out of a bark happening by chance to come to Peterhead, as she was carrying them to Strathnaver, the said lord's country. The master of Rae being in this country, hearing of this wrong, went and told the earl Marischal how his father's arms were plundered in his bounds by the Covenanters; the earl gave him no contentment, but allowed of this wrong, saying his father was not a good Covenanter, or else this had not been done, and that when the country turned peaceable, he should be restored them again, and so the master of Rae took his leave.

Ye heard how the army returned to Aberdeen upon Saturday the 6th of April; upon Sunday thereafter strange ministers preached through all the pulpits of the town, p. 132 (seeing their own ministers were fled and gone) the nobles and others filled the churches; after sermon intimation was made of the sentence of excommunication pronounced by Mr. Alexander Henderson, moderator of the assembly, against the archbishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow, and the rest of the bishops, charging all men not to hear their preaching nor bear them company, under pain of kirk censure.

Mr. Patrick Leslie minister of Skene (Doctor Scroggie being fled) taught this samen Sunday in the Oldtown, and made intimation of the said sentence out of the pulpit.

Upon Monday the 8th of April the general took a new muster of his army in the Links; some weak persons got leave home; both New and Old Aberdeens were quartered, and the poor people of the Oldtown got no payment for such soldiers as they had.

Upon Tuesday the 9th of April the earl of Seaforth, the master of Lovat, and the laird of Innes, with the provost of Elgin, and divers other persons, came out of Ross and Murray, about 300 well horsed gentlemen, to salute the army at Aberdeen, and to offer their service; they were made welcome, and stayed to the 13th of April, syne got leave and returned home without more employment.

Wednesday the 10th of April a solemn fast was keeped through New Aberdeen (but none in Old Aberdeen, for Dr. Scroggie durst not be seen) both before and afternoon there was preaching and prayers; Mr. Robert Douglas minister at Kirkaldie preached beforenoon; after sermon he read out the covenant, and caused the haill towns people conveened, who had not yet subscribed, both men and women, to stand up before him in the kirk, and the men subscribed the covenant; thereafter both men and women were urged to swear with their uplifted hands to God, that they did subscribe and swear the covenant willingly and freely, and from their hearts, and not from any fear or dread that should happen; syne the kirk dissolved. But the Lord knows how thir town's people were brought under perjury for plain fear, and not from a willing mind, by tyranny and oppression of thir Covenanters, who compelled them to swear and subscribe, suppose they knew it p. 133 was against their hearts. Brave Aberdeen is forced to obey, notwithstanding they had small assurance of the army of Argyle's highlandmen, but their goods might be plundered, the best whereof they cautiously convoyed out of sight; so all sware and subscribed within the town of New Aberdeen, except such as were happily out of Scotland. The king's covenant and country covenant were thought to be agreeable in terms, except only that the country covenant abolished bishops, and the king's covenant approved them, as his majesty alleged.

Upon the foresaid 10th of April the marquis of Huntly with his two sons, the lord Gordon and lord Aboyn, came frae Strathboggie with about 40 horse, sore against his friends will, to New Aberdeen, and lodged in the laird of Pitfoddels' house; but whether it was communed betwixt him and general Montrose at their conferences, that he should come into the town and visit him, or whether he was written for by the general, I know not; but it was reported he would not have come but upon the general's letter. Upon the morrow being Thursday, there was a council holden amongst the nobles and others, who sent for the marquis, who came, and after some consultations this council shortly dissolved, and the marquis returned to his own lodging. Likeas immediately thereafter, the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the laird of Innes, Benholm, Auldbar, and Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, being directed by the said council to go and visit the college of Old Aberdeen, as they who were appointed commissioners for the General Assembly, and the said Mr. David Lindsay moderator of this commission. The members of the said college were summoned to this committee, except Mr. William Lesly principal, and Mr. Alexander Scroggie younger, one of the regents, who fled of set purpose from this work. The rest of the members compeared, and were ordained to make public repentance, such as received the communion out of the bishop of Aberdeen's hands after his excommunication, and this repentance to be at Machar's kirk, thereafter to continue in their places; but they were not put to it, and so quietly kept their rooms. The absents were discharged of their offices; Mr, Gilbert Ross, p. 134 cantor, cantor, was discharged as an unprofitable member, Mr. James Sandilands, canonist, was also discharged, but he made appellation to the next General Assembly, and craftily by moyan got his place, to teach the canon law by limitation, viz. to teach de matrimonia, testamentis, and tiends, because all the rest of these laws smelled of popery, as they alleged. These things being done, they adjourned their committee to the 15th day of May, and caused summon the haill members to that time, for taking a full order with the college, but none came to keep this committee, but only the parson of Belhelvie, and so wanting assessors he could do nothing alone. But it is to be marked there were no students in the college at this time, being all fled before the incoming of this army.

Upon Sunday the eleventh of April the earl of Argyl's highlandmen, at command of general Montrose, came out of the bounds of Drum and Pitfoddels and the country thereabout, where they had very good fare for little payment, in order of battle, with bagpipes and highland arms, about 500 men; they went about the cross in rank, and being viewed, the general commanded them to go to their lodgings, which were prepared within the town for them, and that they should do no wrong, whilk they carefully obeyed, for which the town gave them 500 merks in money, when they removed with the foot army.

General Montrose commanded the magistrates and, council of Aberdeen to conveen within their council-house, where the general in presence of them all declared, that the outstanding of Aberdeen was the cause of the coming of this army, tending to their great charges and expences, and that the town was ordained to pay a hundred thousand merks to set up their loss; whereunto the provost answered that they were unable to pay the same. Then the general nobly said, since ye have subscribed our covenant, we think us all but one, therefore we will not take so great a fine from you, upon condition ye contribute with us in time coming, with men and money, as occasion shall offer, and in the mean time give up the names of your neighbours who have fled the town for fear of us, that we may plunder their goods at our pleasure during their absence, p. 135 and likewise with all convenient speed to go fortify your block-house with men and cannon, and other necessaries, for defence of foreign invasion, if it shall happen at the water mouth, and withal to lay us down ten thousand merks for support of our army's charges. What shall be said? the town of Aberdeen was forced to pay the samen, and to promise performance and obedience to all the rest, but neither was the block-house fortified, nor yet the absent burgesses houses plundered. However he ordered the town to send over their commissioners to the green-table to learn what fine they should pay for outstanding against the committee as they did, by and attour the ten thousand merks.

Upon Good Friday the 12th of April there was no preaching in any of the kirks of Aberdeen, as the use was, but Felt-marischal Lesly upon this same day marched from Aberdeen with the foot army South, and the field pieces also, leaving the horse behind him, with general Montrose and the rest of the nobles; he took also with him to the green table the marquis' boy, called English Jacques, with another called Gordon, by trade a mason, for alleged saying they would shoot Felt marischal Lesly, and were therefore taken and warded in Aberdeen, and both were bound together and had to Edinburgh, and after long imprisonment and sharp trials they are found innocent, and set at liberty out of the tolbooth of Edinburgh.

Now all these things being done, the general and nobles began to think, how they might captivate and treacherously take, the marquis of Huntly away south with them, as doubtless they had orders to do, before they came North, as many men thought; upon this same Good Friday at even, the general and nobles invited the marquis and his two sons to supper in. their own lodging in skipper Anderson's house, where they supped altogether, and made merry; after supper they confer with the marquis, saying it was good to him to quit his lieutenantry, and to send the same back again to the king, shewing that it was stopped at the seals, and therefore none would give obedience to the same in thir dangerous times, as also to write to his majesty favourably and friendly of the Covenanters, p. 136 as his good and loyal subjects, and upon the morrow to lend thir letters and lieutenantry to the king with the laird of Cluny. The marquis understanding that his lieutenantry was not, nor could be got through the seals as they said, and without the same being past he would get little obedience, resolved shortly to do as they desired, because he had some reason, and wrote the letters, and in their presence directed the laird of Cluny to take journey upon the morrow being Saturday, towards the king: thus all being ended, the marquis with his two sons took their leave frae the general and nobles, and peaceably came over to Pitfoddels' house, his own lodging, and presently directed a boy to go to Legatsden upon the morrow, to have his dinner ready, but he was deceived. The lords finding the marquis to yield most nobly to their desires, which they never thought he would do, thinking if he had refused, to have made some ground of quarrel to have had him South, resolved upon another course to draw him under, which with reason they could nowise bring to pass; and first (the marquis minding no evil) the general caused let strait watches at the fore and back gates of his lodging, and at the stable where his horse stood, to the end the marquis might not ride home to Strathboggie, as he intended, on the morrow, whereof the marquis had no knowledge.

The general and the rest, upon the morrow, being Saturday the 13th of April in the morning, sent in two of their number to the marquis' lodging, desiring him with his two sons to come into the earl Marischal's house and speak with the general; the marquis wondering at the watching of his lodging, and now sending for him after he had taken his leave in a friendly manner, the night before, but he went in with his two sons to the general, and after friendly salutations the general begins to make a new ground of quarrel, and says to the marquis, My lord, I would desire you to contribute to pay William Dick 200,000 merks, which was borrowed frae him for lifting this army to come north. The marquis answered, he was not obliged to pay any part thereof, because it was borrowed, wared and employed without his advice and consent, and that he had spended as mickle in this business, p. 137 for his own part, as any nobleman in the land had done. 2dly, He desired him to take James Grant, John Dugar, and their complices, robbers, bloodshedders and murderers, and great oppressors of the country people; the marquis answered, he had no public office or commission to that effect; whilk suppose he had, James Grant had gotten the king's remission, and so could not take him, and as for John Dugar, he would concur with the rest of the country to take him as he was employed, 3dly, He desired the marquis to agree with the laird of Frendraught, and take him by the hand, because the covenant admitted of no hatred to stand unreconciled; he answered, what he had subscribed to the general in nowise obliged him to take Frendraught by the hand, nor would he take him by the hand on any condition; the general having proposed and used these frivolous petitions and demands, and getting such reasonable answers, he then brake up the thing he most earnestly would have been at (which was the marquis himself) and changes his purpose, saying, my lord, seeing we are all now friends, will ye go South with us? he answered, he was not of that mind, nor was he prepared to go South at this time, because he was going home to Strathboggie. The general said, Your lordship will do well to go with us. The marquis seeing his purpose, answered quickly, My lord, I came here to this town, upon assurance that I should come and go at my pleasure without molestation; and now I see by condition my lodging was guarded, that I could not come out nor in, and now contrary to expectation ye would take myself and carry me to Edinburgh, whether I would or not; this in my opinion seems neither fair nor honourable; however, says he, my lord, give me my bond whilk I gave you at Inverury, and you shall have an answer, whilk the general obeyed, and delivered to the marquis. Then he laid, Whether will you take me a captive to Edinburgh, or willingly of my own mind? the general answered, Make your choice. Then said he, I will not go as a captive but as a volunteer, whereupon he comes to the door, and hastily goes to his own lodging, whilk he finds straitly guarded with musketeers; p. 138 then he goes in and sits down to breakfast, sends post after the laird of Cluny to stay his journey, so that he went no farther than Edinburgh. Some of the marquis' friends thought hardly of his going South, without some hostage left behind for his safe return, bur the general refused to grant any. Thus is this great marquis, his majesty's lieutenant in the North, a man of singular spirit, great courage and friendship, brought under thir straits and hard conditions by his fellow subjects for being a loyal subject to his master the king, which otherwise they durst not have enterprized by their own strength and following in thir parts; all this he was driven to, and which he most patiently suffered, for the love he has bore to the king his master, his kin and friends; chiefly his children were grievously offended thereat, to see him taken frae his friends, and had to Edinburgh among his enemies, who never liked his house nor standing; and so after breakfast the marquis with his two sons the lords Gordon and Aboyn, made themselves ready to go. In the meantime the general causes restore to the provost and baillies the keys of their ports, tolbooth, and kirks, with their ordnance, and plundered not so much as one musket out of the town; and gave orders also to the magistrates to pay for their entertainment while they were quartered in the town; but the honest town's people got little payment for their furnishing.

All these things done, the general with the nobles go to horse with the rest, the marquis with his servants, and his two sons horse also, trumpets sounding; the provost and baillies caused bring wine and confects to the cross, and humbly entreated them to drink, which they gladly did, and the marquis with his two sons also. The marquis sent his second son the lord Aboyn to Strathboggie by permission and leave of the general, for bringing of money to his father, upon promise that he should come quickly South after them.

Then the trumpets began to sound, and the army to march, with whom went also the highlandmen of Lorn and Argyle, and marched forwards frae Aberdeen, and that night came to Dunnotter, where they staid till Monday, p. 139 day, and then rode all the way together till they came to Edinburgh, which was upon the 19th of April.

Sunday the 14th of April and Pasch day, Mr. Thomas Mitchell parson of Turriff preached in Old Aberdeen, Dr. Scroggie our own minister being fled, but no communion was given, as was lately used.

Upon Monday the 15th of April, according to the general's direction, Aberdeen directed Mr. John Hay, Mr. Robert Farquharson and Mr. John Gray, commissioners for the said burgh of Aberdeen, to the Green Table, to underly and abide their censure anent the paying of such a fine as they should be enjoined, for their standing out against them and their covenant, and biding by the king and his covenant; they were forced to submit, and ordained to pay 40,000 merks of fine, and to set caution for payment, or to remain in Edinburgh while it should be paid; whereupon they remained in Edinburgh till order should be had therewith.

Upon Tuesday the 16th of April a provincial Synod or assembly was holden in New Aberdeen, but not in the College Kirk of Aberdeen, as they sat before. Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie was moderator; the rooms of the absent ministers of Aberdeen who were fled, such as Dr. Sibbald, Dr. Guild, and Dr. Barren professor, were ordered to be filled up again, and the town to be served by other ministers in their stead within the presbytery till the next synod, to be holden the 16th of May. Syne they dissolved, and continued their affairs till that time.

Upon the foresaid 16th of April, the lord Aboyn being . going South with money to his father, and sitting at breakfast at Parcock, there came to him the laird of Banff, (who never would yield), the laird of Gight, the laird of Haddo, the laird of Foveran, and divers others of his kin and friends, who had subscribed the covenant before, and declared plainly he should not go South, but bide in the country, now left headless, and that it was too great a pledge to have both his father and brother South at the Green Table already. The lord Aboyn yielded to their desire, and turned back again to Strathboggie with his father's trunks, with resolution to go together for their p. 14O defence of themselves and friends on all occasions; but this plot did no good, but bred much sorrow, as ye may hear.

Word came, that there was a committee to be holden at Turriff upon Wednesday the 24th of April, by the earls of Marischal and Seaforth, the Lord Fraser and master of Forbes, and some others, with their kin and friends, to the which meeting were warned to come, all such persons who had not subscribed their covenant, and there to subscribe the same under pain of plundering; the like pain was never given out by any king in this kingdom, but now began by subjects upon subjects without any authority.

The lord Aboyn and Banff, with the rest of their kin and friends, who had not subscribed, hearing of this charge, (under pain of plundering their houses and goods), to come in and subscribe the covenant, thought heavy of this charge, and resolved to gather together for their own defence; so those that subscribed against their wills, as well as those who had not subscribed, flocked together and drew up to an head, as ye shall hear.

No letters came frae the king to his loyal subjects, but what are intercepted by his rebel subjects the Covenanters, and such as are sent to his majesty are right sua used; so they left off frae writing any more, and the country who depended upon his majesty is now left helpless.

Monday the 22d of April there was a meeting holden at Monymusk by the earls of Marischal and Seaforth, the lord Fraser and master of Forbes, with sundry other barons of the Covenanters, who hearing of the lord Aboyn's rising, resolved to continue the committee at Turriff frae the 24th of April to the 26th of the same month, upon hopes that by that time there should come sundry gentlemen out of Caithness, Sutherland, Murray, Ross, and other parts; and in the meantime they themselves to meet again at Kintore the said 24th of April; and so dissolved.

Upon the 24th of April, the earls of Marischal and Seaforth, the lord Fraser and master of Forbes, with sundry barons and Aberdeen's burgesses, met together at Kintore,, where it was concluded that this committee to be holden at Turriff should dissolve and not be holden the 26th of April. p. 141 To this meeting at Kintore, there came out of Aberdeen about 50 musketeers at thir nobles command, but they soon turned back without more ado, fearing the lord Aboyn's power and friendship to gainstand their committee, but it was agreed that they should meet again in Aberdeen upon the morrow; so this night the earl Marischal had Seaforth with him to Hallforest, and keeped him all night. Upon the 25th of April the foresaid earls and others met at Aberdeen, to whom came also diverse barons, gentlemen and others, out of Buchan, Mar, and other countries, amounting to 1000 men, whereof there were 80 horsemen, and the number of the haill were about 3000 men; the earl Marischal takes in the town of Aberdeen at his own hand, meddled with the keys of the tolbooth, kirk and ports, quartered the men, who were well entertained but not well paid, guarded the ports that none came in nor went out without his knowledge, now calling himself governor of Aberdeen, whereat the town's people were vexed, yea and some for fear left their lodgings desolate, others shifted their best goods aside, with wae and sorry hearts; but patience per force.

Now I here leave them biding and oppressing Aberdeen, and return to the committee at Turriff, to be holden the 26th of April, where there conveened the earl of Seaforth's friends (himself being in Aberdeen.) the earl of Findlater's friends, the minor earl of Errol's friends under the conduct of the laird of Delgaty, the minor lord of Pitsligo's friends, under conduct of Alexander Forbes of Boyndlie his tutor; the lairds of Innes and Grant came out of Murray, and their people in haill were estimated to be about 1600 men; but because Marischal, Seaforth, the lord Fraser and the master of Forbes, were in Aberdeen, and came not to Turriff, this committee dissolved, and ilk man went home, whereat sundry marvelled, being the first committee that ever was so dissolved without more ado.

Now the earls and lords aforesaid being in Aberdeen at this time, as ye have heard, they there appointed a committee to be holden over again at Turriff upon the 28th day of May next, and continued all matters to that day. The earl Marischal caused take out of the laird of Pitfoddel's p. 142 cellar, two barrels full of powder, pertaining to the marquis of Huntly; he delivered back the town's keys to the provosts and baillies; some got payment for their entertainment, others wanted, being there Thursday at night, Friday all day, and Saturday till afternoon, that they got their leave; charging them to be in readiness upon 24 hours warning. The earl of Seaforth that same night took his leave, and went home; the earl Marischal removes to Dunnotter, but sundry honest mens houses in Aberdeen were robbed and spoilzied, and the people grievously opprested by lowns and limmars that came here at this time, and were blythe to be quit of them, who had fled the committee at Turriff only for fear of the lord Aboyn.

Upon Friday the 26th of April, the laird of Cluny, upon safe conduct frae the Green Table, comes back to Aberdeen, being stopped in his journey South as ye have heard. Marischal yet being in the town with his army, sends for him, who upon written assurance, went and had conferance with him, syne went to the Oldtown, and declared that the marquis with his eldest son were both warded in the castle of Edinburgh, and that he had written for his three daughters, lady Anne, lady Henrietta, and lady Jean, to come to Edinburgh. Cluny stayed short while here: but rode with his letters frae the marquis to the lord Aboyn his son.

Upon Sunday the 28th of April Dr. Scroggie teached in Old Aberdeen, who had lived obscurely in the country since March, and now returns to his own charge, and Mr. Gilbert Ross to be reader.

The lord Aboyne and his friends hearing of these meetings at Monymusk, Kintore, and Aberdeen, and looking assuredly that they should hold their committee at Turriff, and thereafter plunder the laird of Banff, and the rest who had not, nor would subscribe this covenant; thereafter by advice he grows to an head, and conveens of highlandmen and lowlandmen about 2000 horse and foot, and resolved to keep this meeting, or otherwise defend themselves from plundering. Lieutenant Crowner Johnston was in his company, a gallant gentleman, who went out of Aberdeen with the marquis to Strathboggie, where he remained during p. 143 these troublesome days, and whose advice the lord of Aboyn chiefly followed; but hearing this committee was adjourned to the 20th of May, they beheld, but keeped still the fields. It was said while the earls Marischal and Seaforth were in Hallforest, after their meeting at Kantore, the lord of Aboyn was then in the fields; and Mr. Robert Gordon of Straloch and Dr. Gordon in Old Aberdeen, went to Marischal for peace, and to eschew blood, but they got a bleat answer, and so tint their travel.

Ye heard before how the noble marquis of Huntly was treacherously had to Edinburgh; he lodges in his ordinary lodging, well watched; upon the morrow being Saturday the 20th of April he and his son are convoyed up the street and ignominiously warded within the Castle of Edinburgh, without any other reason, but because he loved his master the king, and would not follow their course, and subscribe their covenant, whilk he would never grant to do willingly, and therefore his neighbour subjects without law or authority, at their own hands, would bring him per force to their opinion; as first they raised an army and came to Inverury, whilk he could not resist, nor from whom he could in no wise flee, either by sea or land, and was forced to tryst and give his band, no doubt to their contentment; thereafter under trust taken South to Edinburgh, against his will, and last of all warded as ye have heard. This was this great and mighty marquis, wise, valourous, and stout lieutenant of the North, brought under his fellow-subjects obedience, his castle of Inverness taken by them, and masterfully withholden frae him; the like injuries that noble house never sustained in any preceeding age; however he resolved if he could, he would endure more before he proved disloyal to his gracious king, and so beheld patiently. The Green Table appointed five guardians to attend upon him and his son night and day, upon his own expences, that none might come in nor out but by their knowlege.

The Green Table and Covenanters no doubt rendered great praise and honour to general Montrose and his company for bringing Aberdeen under subjection, and the great marquis of Huntly to Edinburgh, whereby they expected no more disobedience in the north, wherein they were much p. 144 deceived, and whereof they had cause to repent, in respect of the troubles which followed, and which perhaps the marquis might have stopped, if he had been suffered to bide at home, and not have been so used; no wise tending to his disgrace, but to the shame and endless indignity of the devisers and doers thereof. It was said the king (not knowing his warding) sent him letters, whilk were intercepted and broken up by the Covenanters.

Ye heard of a proclamation set out by his majesty at all the parish churches of England, against his disobedient subjects in Scotland; the Covenanters wrote out an answer thereto, called The remonstrance of the nobility, barons, burgesses, ministers, and commons within the kingdom of Scotland. Imprinted at Edinburgh by James Bryson, the 22d of March 1639. By the whilk they set down an answer to ilk particular reason contained in the king's proclamation, and that they had done no wrong in their haill procedure, and that any proclamation made in England, or sent down here to be proclaimed in Scotland, declaring them and the most part of the body of the kingdom to be rebels and traitors, was in itself null and unlawful, as done by the king upon information of wicked and seditious persons, seeking their own ends, without advice of council or parliament, who had special power in declaring matters of treason, and therefore had good reason to stay the publication of such illegal proclamations.

The king alleged, he had princely power and authority to set out the like proclamations against his rebellious subjects, without consent of council or parliament, being a born monarch, and not an elective king, subject: to none but Almighty God, and also that he might without their advice denounce open war and hostility against his rebel subjects for their disobedience and rebellion; nevertheless the king's proclamation is proudly stopped from being proclaimed, as his majesty desired, left thereby the hearts of the people might be drawn from their sworn covenant. The king's mind was never to abolish bishops, but truly to maintain them in their rents and dignities, and declared the same by proclamation about this time at the Cross of Edinburgh; but the Covenanters compeared and made protestations p. 145 against the same, as contrary to their assembly lately holden at Glasgow, whereby bishops were absolutely abolished, and the kirk to be governed by sessions, presbyteries, provincial and general assemblies.

About the 28th of April the drum was sent through Aberdeen, that no fisher boat should speak with any stranger ships that should come to the road, which was done by advertisement from the Green Table, but no ships came at this time.

Monday the 29th of April lady Ann Gordon, lady Henrietta, and lady Jean, her two sisters, came frae Strathboggie to Aberdeen, and frae that went to Edinburgh and supped with the marquis at the Castle, but on the morrow the Green Table caused transport them frae the Castle to their lodging, and would not suffer them to bide beside their father, to his further displeasure, and beyond his expectation, when he sent North for them; and he was so watched, that none of his bairns, friends, nor servants, could come nor go but by advice of this Green Table, and in the meantime was dealt with by the Covenanters to subscribe the Covenant, which he would never grant to do, but at the king's command, as by a paper set out by himself called, The marquis of Huntly's Reply to certain noblemen, gentlemen, and ministers, Covenanters in Scotland, sent from their associates to signify to him that it behoved him either to assist their designs, or to be carried to prison in the Castle of Edinburgh; 20th of April 1639. Now published, because of a false copy thereof lately printed without authority or his own consent, and printed at London by Robert Young, his majesty's printer for Scotland, 1640.

The marquis of Huntly's reply to certain noblemen, &c.

To be your prisoner, is by much the less displeasing to me, that my accusation is for nothing else but loyalty, and that I have been brought into this estate by such unfair means, as can never be made appear honourable in those who used them.

Whereas you offer liberty, upon condition of my entering into your covenant, I am not so bad a merchant as p. 146 to buy it with the loss of my conscience, fidelity and honour, which in so doing I should make accompt to be wholly perished. I have already given my faith to my prince, upon whose head this crown by all law of nature and nations is justly fallen, and I will falsify that faith by joining with any in a pretence of religion, which my own judgment cannot excuse from rebellion; for it is well known that in the primitive church, no arms were holden lawful, being lifted by subjects against their prince, though the whole frame of Christianity was then in question; whereas you would encourage me to be a partaker with you, by your hopes of supply from France and other foreign nations, together with your so good intelligence in England, as no danger will come from thence. Let me tell you, that in my opinion thir reasons are but vain, the French being now more straitly tied than before to uphold the authority of our sacred sovereign by a new cemented league of marriage, whereby their interest in his majesty's progeny will overbalance you, though your cause were better; other foreigners are merely unable by their own distractions, and the English have ever been strong for us, when only their own king and not ours too did lead them; for my own part, I am in your power, and resolve not to leave that foul title of traitor as an inheritance to my posterity. You may take my head from my shoulders, but not my heart from my sovereign.

This reply is dated the 20th of April, upon whilk day he was warded in the Castle of Edinburgh; no doubt he was halted thereto upon sight of this his noble reply, whereby his loyalty to his master the king may be clearly seen, his taking dishonourably the Covenanters course, not well grounded, and their hopes of help weak and uncertain. Now I leave this noble marquis still in ward till afterwards. Yet it seems he knew not the strict combination betwixt us and England, as hereafter may appear.

In the month of April Dr. John Gordon minister at Elgin fled his charge; he was first deprived for not signing the covenant, syne went to England, where he got a kirk, and lived quietly there during the time of these troubles.

Ye heard before how the bishops fled into England, but none durst come back again to their places, and the king is p. 147 grieved and daily vexed with their complaints and maintenance.

About this time Donald Farquharson and some highlandmen of Brae of Mar, came down to the Mearns and plundered the earl Marischal's bounds of Strathauchan, whereat the earl was highly offended.

Upon Thursday the 2d of May there came to the Firth of Forth a navy of ships, whereof there were 4 ships royal and 26 other ships, well furnished with men, meat and munition, captains and commanders, whereof the lord marquis of Hamilton was admiral; there were three thousand soldiers appointed to be landed in the North, for defence of his majesty's loyal subjects, with four months provisions, and all materials necessary for that effect; and his majesty gave his letters patent to the said marquis of Hamilton for that service, trusting to his loyalty. This expedition, so much tending to the king's honour, wherein his majesty was clearly deceived, as ye shall hear, lost his travel and expences, amounting to 13,000 pounds sterling, whilk he caused deliver to the said admiral for furnishing all things necessary for this army. How soon thir ships are seen come up Forth, the bonfires were set up in Fife and Lothian, and ilk county, to advertise other for conveening hastily together in arms. Edinburgh goes hastily to work, but many within that town, Dundee and Montrose, were sore astonished and affrighted, that knew not the secret of things; some fled, some let their goods aside without just cause, for the marquis of Hamilton was admiral, as is before noticed; and we were assured of his favour and friendship, and that he would do no skaith to a Covenanter, but for fashion's sake, we made mustering of men in Fife and Lothian, and through the country.

At this same time these who had fled out of Aberdeen and out of the country, hearing of the coming of this navy for their relief, hastily embarked in a Kirkaldy ship, about the number of 48 persons, and came forward; but their ship being spied by the admiral, he causes take her, and take out her ordnance and mariners, and place them in one of his fleet, syne directed mariners of his own to convoy our Aberdonians in their Kirkaldy bark. p. 148

The lord Aboyn upon his own reasons caused break up his army, and ilk man to go home to his own house, and suddenly upon Friday the 3d of May shipped in the Eugie at Crooked-haven, with some few persons, and to his majesty goes he. His departure was joyful to his enemies, and sorrowful to his friends, who had kythed with him, especially the lairds of Gight, Haddo, Foveran, Udny, Newtown, Pitmedden, Tippertie, Harthill, and others, who had followed him after they had subscribed the Covenant. The laird of Banff, and some other barons and gentlemen, seeing the lord Aboyn's sudden departure, began to look to themselves, and had a meeting at Auchterless the 7th of May.

The names of Forbes and Fraser had likewise a meeting at Inverurie upon the 8th of May, and likewise a great meeting holden at Edinburgh among the Covenanters the said day.

Upon this same 8th of May the barons, such as Banff, Gight, Haddo, Cromartie, Foveran, Crombie, and some others, with lieutenant Crowner Johnston, about 80 horse and 60 foot, came to the kirk yard of Ellon, and sent to the laird of Kenmuck, being in his own house of Arduthie, desiring him to refuse the country covenant and subscribe the king's covenant. There happened to be with the laird of Kenmuck, the lairds of Watertown and Auchmacoy, with about 18 persons; he returned answer, he could not perjure himself and leave his covenant; however they did no more wrong to him, and some went in and drank friendly in his house; they urged others likewise to quit this covenant, but came no speed. There were together the lairds of Banff and Gight, the young laird of Cromartie, with some others, who with lieutenant Crowner Johnston upon the l0th of May intended to come to the place of Towie Barclay, and there to take out such arms, muskets, guns, and carabines as the lairds of Delgatie and Towie Barclay had plundered from the said young laird of Cromartie, out of the place of Balquholly; but it happened the lord Fraser and master of Forbes to see their coming, so they manned the house of Towie, closed the yeatts, and shot diverse shot frae the house head, where a servant of the laird of Gight's was p. 149 shot called David Prott. The barons seeing they could not mend themselves, left the house, thinking it no vassalage to stay while they were slain; syne without more ado rode their way. But here it is to be marked, that this was the first time that blood was drawn here since the beginning of the covenant.

Word came to Aberdeen, that the king was coming to Berwick with a land army, and before his incoming, he had sent a proclamation to be proclaimed at all the mercat crosses in Scotland, bearing in effect, his majesty's great patience and gracious proceeding from time to time since the beginning of thir uproars, as his proclamations often made before, bearing his loving intentions, clearly do declare; and now as before, nowise willing to trouble his antient kingdom of Scotland, if so be the Covenanters would break their lawless covenant, and dissolve; render and restore his own castles, set at liberty such as they had without warrant warded and incarcerated, and restore such ministers and pastors to the churches whom, they had violently thrust out, and diverse other articles; and that the Covenanters should acknowledge their disorder, ask mercy for the same, and promise loyal obedience in all time coming. Upon thir conditions his majesty would most freely and graciously pardon and forgive all bygone faults, free them from all fears anent inbringing alterations or changes in church or policy, and that he should indict a parliament anent the lawfulness or unlawfulness of of their last General Assembly holden in Glasgow, and strive in every thing to give his good subjects pleasure and contentment. Otherwise, if the Covenanters would refuse these his majesty's most gracious offers, that then he did protest before the King of Kings, that if he was compelled to draw his sword for their rebellious behaviour, that the innocent blood should not be craved at his hands, but at their hands who were the procurers and workers thereof; and therewithal by this proclamation denounced open war and hostility against thir rebellious Covenanters, with promise of mercy and forgiveness to all such as by constraint or fear had subscribed the same, and likewise with power to all the commoners, labourers of the ground, tenants, servants, p. 150 and yeomanry, not to pay mail-duty or service to their masters who were Covenanters, frae this time forth; and ilk tenant to pay half of their mails, farms and duties to the king, the other half to pertain to themselves, and to keep their tacks and possessions for payment of half duty to the king allenarly, and nothing to be paid to their covenanting masters, heritors of the same; and further charging and commanding them to go on in his majesty's service, with force of arms, fire and sword against the Covenanters, promising maintenance and assistance, and a free remission of what hurt and prejudice followed thereupon. This proclamation, containing diverse other clauses, and conditions, was imprinted, but howsoever it was his majesty's will and command that this proclamation should be publickly proclaimed at the cross of Edinburgh and other burrows of Scotland, yet no obedience was given thereto, but was masterfully stopped and concealed by the Green Table, lest being proclaimed, his majesty's lieges should hearken thereto, and flee the covenant, and leave the cause manless, and therefore no herald, pursuivant nor messenger durst hazard for fear of their lives to go proclaim the same. This printed proclamation came to Aberdeen about the 14th of May, but the king was not come to Berwick, but lying still at Newcastle, and could get no obedience in this point.

There came orders frae the Green Table about this time to Aberdeen, charging them to transport their 12 pieces of ordnance to Montrose, for certain causes, whilk the town thought hardly of; first in respect the king himself had gifted the town six of these pieces, and next in respect of the trouble of carrying them, and so they sat this charge, and nothing followed thereupon.

Ye heard before how the committee to be holden at Turriff was adjourned to the 20th of May. Now there began to gather, to keep this committee, the earl Marischal's men of Buchan, himself being absent, the young earl of Errol's men, the minor lord of Pitsligo's men, with their captains and leaders, the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the lairds of Delgatie, Towie Barclay, Ludquharn, Craigievar, Echt, Skene, Tolquhon and Watertown, being present, and divers others their kin, friends, men, tenants, and servants, and were estimate to be about 1200 horse and p. 151 foot; and on Monday the 13th of May they came forward to Turriff, thinking there to abide while the 20th, that more forces might gather together, to hold their committee, and thereafter to go in feir of war upon the laird of Banff and such others as had assisted the lord Aboyn, to plunder their goods and take their persons and abuse them at their pleasure. But how soon the barons (who had assisted Aboyn) heard of this meeting, they resolved shortly to wait upon the same and conveen, the lairds of Banff, Abergeldie, Haddo, Young Cromartie, Craig, Auchindore, Foveran, Crombie, Gight, Newtown, Harthill, Udny, and lieutenant Crowner Johnston, with divers other brave gentlemen, about the number of 800 horse and foot, with some good commanders, such as Arthur Forbes of Blacktown, &c. and quickly brought out of Strathboggie 4 brasen field pieces, and understanding the Covenanters forces to increase daily, therefore they stoutly resolved to be at them in time, and to go on with all diligence; for this committee was to be holden at Turriff the 20th of May, and the Covenanters came to Turriff upon the Monday before being the 13th of May, thinking there to abide till the 20th, and then to hold their committee: but the barons quickly followed, and that same Monday about ten o'clock at night they began to march in very quiet and sober manner, and by the peep of day came by an unexpected way (whereof the Covenanters had no knowlege) to the town of Turriff; the trumpets began shortly to sound, and the drums to beat. The Covenanters, whereof some were sleeping, others drinking and smoaking tobacco, others walking up and down, hearing the noise of drums and trumpets, ran to their arms and confusedly to array, and by this time both the Covenanters and anti-covenanters are in light of one another, in order of battle; there were two shots shot out of the earl of Errol's house against the barons, whilk they quickly answered with two field pieces; then the Covenanters began on hot service, and the barons also, and shot many musket shot; then the barons shot a field piece in among them, which did no skaith, but frighted the commons; at last another field piece was discharged, which made them all take the flight for fear;they followed the p. 152 chace; the lord Fraser was said to have foul foldings, but wan away; the lairds of Echt and Skene, and some others, were taken prisoners; there were some hurt, some slain; the barons sounded the retreat, and came presently back to Turriff, where they took meat and drink at their pleasure, and flyed Mr. Thomas Mitchell minister at Turriff very sore; and so this committee was after this manner discharged at this time; likeas upon Wednesday the 15th of May the barons, with Banff, and lieutenant Johnston, rode frae Turriff to New Aberdeen, about 800 horse; they plundered the laird of Kenmuck and his brother's horse out of a stable in Aberdeen, because they had subscribed the Covenant; but they got their horse again.

The Covenanters hearing of this trott of Turriff, and that they were come into Aberdeen, began to hide their goods, and to flee out of the town for safety of their lives, marvelling at the overthrow of the meeting of Turriff, whilk was the first since the beginning of the covenant. However the barons at their own hands meddle with the town keys of the kirks and ports and tolbooth of Aberdeen, let strait watches, lodged their men chiefly in the Covenanters houses, such as Mr. Matthew Lumsden's, Patrick Leslie's, Mr. William Moir's, Walter Cochran's', the Burnets and the Jaffrays, who had fled the town for fear of their lives, except Mr. Alexander Jaffray provost, who for shame could not well flee; and the Covenanters wives and bairns keeped their houses and furnished the soldiers abundantly , the rest were sustained upon the common charge. No doubt this was very grievous to Aberdeen, to be so used by each party that were masters of the field; whereas all the other burrows of Scotland lived both first and last at great rest and quietness.

The foresaid 15th of May, Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie came to the college of Old Aberdeen, there to have holden a committee; but finding neither masters nor students within, all being dispersed and fled, the house left desolate, and the gates closed, he takes instrument that he could get no entrance, and went to the town, where Mr. Robert Ogilvie the subprincipal (happening to be at home) followed and desired him to come back again, and he should p. 153 have patent gates, but he refused so to do; whereupon the subprincipal also took instruments, and so parted.

The barons being come into Aberdeen, upon Wednesday the 15th of May they stayed there all night, and Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. Those of the barons and gentry who came not first into Aberdeen, now daily came in, such as the lairds of Gight, Haddo, Foveran, Newtown, Harthill, Udny, Craig, Auchindore, and Abergeldy; the gentlemen of Enzie and Strathboggie, with the tenants and servants of the lairds of Drum and Pitfoddels, howbeit themselves had fled the kingdom; many Covenanters of the name of Forbes, through plain fear came into Aberdeen, and yielded to the barons; but no Covenanters of the town's men durst be seen upon the causeway, and their houses were well quartered with soldiers, as well as the anti-covenanters were quartered by general Montrose or the earl Marischal before; but all were sustained upon the town's charges, for neither Covenanters nor anti-covenanters got payment worth a plack. The barons with their men in Aberdeen were estimate to be about the number of 500 horsemen and 700 footmen, besides Lodowick the marquis of Huntly's fourth son, who came down Dee-side with some highlandmen out of Brae of Mar, under Donald Farquharson and the laird of Abergeldy, and diverse others, among whom was James Grant the some-time rebel, with his followers, about 500 men; they took in the place of Durris, pertaining to John Forbes of Leslie, a great Covenanter: there was little plenishing left unconveyed away before their coming: but, they got good beer and ale, brake up girnels, and baked good bannocks at the fire, and drank merrily upon the laird's best drink, syne carried away with them as mickle victual as they could carry, which they could not get eaten and destroyed, and then removed from that to Edit, Skene, Monymusk, and other houses pertaining to the name of Forbes, all great Covenanters. The laird of Glenkindy's bounds was also plundered at this time by Donald Farquharson, for taking of his arms away, as ye have heard before.

The barons resolving to go to Durris, and spoilzie what was left, rendered the keys back to the town of Aberdeen, p. 154 and upon Monday the 20th of May they rode out about the number foresaid; but by the way it is to be remarked, that the barons having come victorious frae Turriff to Aberdeen, they thought best to send John Leith of Harthill and Mr. William Lumsden advocate in Aberdeen, upon the 17th of May, to Dunnotter, to sound the earl Marischal's mind, what he thought of this business, and to understand if his lordship would behold them, or if he would raise forces against them, whereby they might be on their guard; whereunto the earl answered, that he could say nothing till he had eight days leisure to be advised with his friends. It is said the earl was not well content with thir commissioners, and scarce gave them a hearing, the one being in manner a peasant, and the other a papist, and so they return with this answer to the barons, whereat they were not well content. Thereafter Mr. Robert Gordon of Straloch and James Burnet of Craigmyle, brother german to the laird of Leys, two peaceable set men, and fearing great troubles shortly to follow if the barons kept the fields, being assured an army would be raised up against them; they therefore laboured to get the barons to break up their army, for eschewing of innocent blood; and to this effect they rode both to Dunnotter and spake with the earl Marischal, who declared to them he had no intention to raise an army, except he had orders from the Table; and if the barons would dissolve their army, he would give them lawful time of advertisement to reconveen their forces for their own defence; and in the meantime that they should not trouble nor molest Marischal's ground. Thir speeches was thought to be past, but there was no write thereupon, and Marischal denied these terms of communing; afterwards the barons upon the 20th of May rode up Dee-side to Durris, and plundered what they could get from the name of Forbes and other Covenanters; they were led by lieutenant Crowner Johnston, Crowner Garden, captain Ker, and Arthur Forbes of Blacktown, expert and brave Commanders, with some others, who kept their council of war daily while they stayed in Aberdeen within the tolbooth; and general Johnston for his wit and policy was honoured among them all, and had the first place at all their meetings; after the p. 155 plundering of Durris, the barons hearing no word of raising of forces, and confident of Mr. Robert Gordon and James Burnet their speeches, resolved to disband their army, and ilk man to go home to his own house, and let the highlandmen go plunder up and down amongst the Covenanters as they best pleased, and so unhappily they dissolved their army upon the 21st of May, and that samen night there only returned back to Aberdeen the barons with about 30 horse; they staid Wednesday all day till Thursday morning; they did no wrong within the town, but lived upon their own expences at this time. In the meantime the earl Marischal having sure intelligence of the scaling of the barons army, began hastily to conveen forces through Angus and Mearns, and comes to Tollo-hill beside Banchory Devonick upon the 23d of May being Thursday, with about 800 horse and foot. The major part of the barons being in Aberdeen, looking for nothing less than this army, according to the commissioners speech, except upon lawful advertisement, evidently now perceived their mistake, and were highly offended at the scaling of their army so rashly as they did, without any warrant from the earl Marischal, who constantly refused any such communing with Mr. Robert Gordon and James Burnett as they had promised in his name, and the barons had nobody to blame for this unlooked-for disgrace but their two commissioners, to whom they gave too much credit in this business.

In this mean time Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, came in upon the 16th of May to keep the synod at Aberdeen, according to the last ordinance. Divers other ministers came also; himself preached and touched the anticovenanters upon perjury and promise against their covenant oath and subscription, whereat the barons foresaid being in Aberdeen, took exception. After sermon, as the custom is, the ministers sat down in the session-house, and called over their names and marked the absents, but the lord Fraser and master of Forbes, the laird of Towie Barclay, and the rest of the laick elders, came not to this sub-synod, because the barons were in the town before them, so without more business the synod dissolve, but the moderator and his wife's horses were plundered out of the stable, and himself narrowly p. 156 escaped, otherwise he would have been reproved for his bold preaching against the barons in their own hearing within the kirk.

Now to return to the barons; they seeing themselves unable to meet the earl Marischal, resolved to quit the town, did no wrong, but took their entertainment; and upon Thursday morning the 23d of May they rode therefrae towards Strathboggie, about 30 horse, where they had a meeting the 24th, but did no good but mischief to themselves, as ye mail hear.

Upon Sunday the 19th of May the barons being in Aberdeen, the bishop Bellenden came pertly to his lodging in New Aberdeen, with his ordinary servants, syne upon the morrow came over to the Oldtown to see his own palace, and returned back to New Aberdeen again, where he durst not bide long, but was forced again to flee.

How soon the table understood how the barons were receipted in Aberdeen, they shortly caused ward Mr. Thomas Gray, Mr. Robert Farquhar, John Hay, and George Morison their commissioners, until payment were made of their fine of 40,000 merks , but it was not taken up, by reason of the pacification; but they were otherwise pitifully fined, as in the sequel of this history shall be made appear.

Now the samen Thursday that the barons left Aberdeen, the earl Marischal raises his army from Tollo-hill, and comes in to Aberdeen, and of new again takes in the town, meddles with the keys of the ports, kirks and tolbooth, and quarters his soldiers through the haill houses thereof; the anti-covenanters seeing his coming, shifted their goods, and some locked up their gates and house doors, and ilk ane went a sundry way.

The bishop of Aberdeen John Bellenden, his son, and Mr. John Bellenden his nephew, and John Blackwood his servitor, the laird of Cromartie younger, Mr. Alexander Innes parson of Rothemay, Mr. Alexander Scroggie, one of the regents of the King's College of Old Aberdeen, and some others that same day that Marischal came in, went aboard of Andrew Findlay's ship, lying in the Road and attending their service, hastily hoisted fail, and for England p. 156 to the king go they; but all for nought, since they were all forced to come home again, except the bishop who durst not return.

The Covenanters who had fled the town before, returned proudly back again, and crop the causeway courageously. Thus is the miserable burgh of Aberdeen brought again under slavery and subjection, without authority, for giving way to the barons, whom they were not able to keep out of the town by force of arms, as was well known.

Upon Friday the 24th of May the earl Marischal's men of Mar, Skene, and Kintore, the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, their kin, friends and followers, with divers other barons, came into Aberdeen, about 2000 men; there were about two hundred of the master of Forbes and laird of Craigievar's men quartered in Old Aberdeen; their entertainment was small, and they paid as little for it; many ' of this company went and brake up the bishop's gates, set on good fires of his peats standing within the close; they masterfully brake up the haill doors and windows of this stately house; they brake down beds, boards, cap ambries, glass windows, took out the iron stenchens, brake off the locks, and what they could get carried with them and sold for little or nothing; but they got none of the bishop's plenishing worth noticing, because it was all conveyed away out of the way before their coming. Thus is this stately palace pitifully abused by thir rascals, followers, and soldiers of the master of Forbes and Craigievar, albeit the bishop of Aberdeen was uncle to the said master of Forbes, being his father's brother upon the mother's side, but no respect was had to blood in thir miserable days. The bishop of Brechin's house was so used, himself, wife and children forced to save themselves by flight; right so the bishop of St. Andrew's house in the abbey of Holyrood-house, was so handled; pitiful to see this our good cause begin with such barbarity.

Now the country lords and barons of the covenant being come in to the earl Marischal, as said is, they sent out their horses and destroyed both grass and corns, fed where they pleased in the bishop's ward, and round about New Aberdeen, p. 158 to the great grief and skaith of the poor labourers; but they durst not complain; and upon Saturday the 25th of May the earl of Montrose, the earl of Kinghorn, the lord Drummond, the lord Couper, the master of Gray, the young constable of Dundee, and diverse others, came to Aberdeen about three in the afternoon. They were estimate to 4000 men foot and horse, besides baggage horse, estimate to be about 300, carrying their provision, with thirteen field pieces; they entered the town at the Upper Kirk-gate Port in order of battle, with sounding of trumpets, beating of drums, and displayed banners; they went down the Broad-gate through the Castlegate; and to the Queen's Links march they, where they stayed all that night under strait watch. The reason of the convention of this haill army South and North, was against the barons and laird of Banff, for stopping of the committee of Turriff, and for their oppressing and frighting the Covenanters both in burgh and land, and for taking order with such as had not yet subscribed the covenant in thir parts, and for the barons plundering the Covenanters houses and gear. Now Aberdeen begins again to groan and make sore lamentation at the incoming of this great army, whom they were unable to sustain or get meat to buy, being estimate as follows, viz. 4000 men out of Angus and Strathern; 900 men out of Buchan, Mearns, and Mar; the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the tutor of Pitsligo, the lairds of Monymusk, Leslie, Echt, Craigievar, Glenkindy, Delgatie, and many other country barons, estimate to 1,000 men; the earl of Athol had 300 men in highland arms, with whom he came himself; the lairds of Philorth, Kenmuck, and divers others, came into the town; attour there were about 4000 brave men on horse and foot coming out of Caithness, Strathnaver, Sutherland, Ross, and Murray, with the earl of Seaforth, the lord Lovat, the lord Rae, the sheriff of Murray, the lairds of Innes and Pluscarden, with diverse others, their captains and commanders, and were upon their journey towards Aberdeen, to have joined with the army, but were bravely interrupted and withstood by the name of Gordon and laird of Banff, who hastily conveened a brave company of horse and foot, and rode over Spey, whereat the town of p. 159 Elgin was sore afraid, and stood to their arms; the earl of Seaforth and the rest, seeing thir barons boldly ride Spey, and come forward in order of battle, they go to array, and resolve to meet them, an4 were upon their march within two miles of each other. In the meantime some peaceable-set men on both sides settled the matter; so that Murray, Ross, and Sutherland, should not come over Spey, but return home to their houses; and on the other side the name of Gordon, Banff, and the rest should return over Spey, and go to their houses; and thus thir people were stayed uncome to Aberdeen at this time, whereat the army there took great exception, this was done by the barons upon the 28th day of May.

Upon the 26th of May being Sunday, the earl of Montrose, now called General again, with the rest of the nobles, heard devotion, but their rascal soldiers in time of both sermons, are abusing and plundering New Aberdeen pitifully, without regard to God or man, and in the meantime grass and corns are eaten and destroyed about both Aberdeens, without fear of the maledictions of the poor labourers of the ground. This same Sunday after sermons, the general gave order to quarter his haill soldiers within both Aberdeens, whilk was done that night, and upon the morrow in New Aberdeen, because Old Aberdeen was quartered before by the master of Forbes his kin and friends. The bishop's servants saved his books and other plenishing, and hid them in houses of the town from the violence of the runnagate soldiers, who brake down and demolished all they could get within the bishop's house, without making any great benefit to themselves.

And as the houses were thus abused and spoilzied, right so the corns were eaten and destroyed by the horse of this great army, both by night and day during their abode, the salmon-fishers both of Dee and Don were all masterfully oppressed, and their salmon taken from them, whereupon one of their rascal soldiers was slain at Dee-side by the watermen. Now thir masters pertaining heritably for the most part to burgesses covenanters, they complained upon thir oppressions to the general, who commanded a watch to be kept night and day to defend both the rivers of Dee and p. 160 Don from such wrongs and oppressions, and thus the watermen are made free; but the country round about was pitifully plundered, the meal girnels broken up, eaten and consumed; no fowl, cock, or hen left unkilled, the haill house dogs, messens, and whelps within Aberdeen killed upon the streets, so that neither hound, messen or other dog was left alive that they could see; the reason was this, when the first army came here, ilk captain and soldier had a blue ribband about his craig, in despite and derision whereof, when they removed from Aberdeen, some women of Aberdeen (as was alleged) knit blue ribbands about their messens craigs, whereat thir soldiers took offence, and killed all their dogs for this very cause.

Upon Monday the 27th of May, the general goes to a council of war; they take ten thousand merks frae the town of Aberdeen to save it frae plundering, and took 12 piece of ordnance from them, and shipped them in a bark to send them to Montrose. Their arms were plundered; 17 muskets taken out of the College and Mr. John Lundie's house.

This same Monday the lairds of Delgatie and Ludquharn with the earls of Errol and Marischal, came and took in the place of Foveran, belonging to Sir John Turing of Foveran, and the place of Knockhall pertaining to John Udny of that ilk, both anti-covenanters; they sustained themselves both men and horse upon the ground so long as the army staid in Aberdeen, and did no more skaith. Thir soldiers brake up the laird of Cluny's yett in Old Aberdeen, and haill doors, went in and took out about six score pikes, whilk at the general's command were given to the master of Forbes' men, and no more skaith was done within that house, Cluny himself being absent.

The drum went through the Oldtown, commanding and charging the haill indwellers thereof to come the same day the 27th of May with their haill arms to Mr. Thomas Lesly's house, and deliver the same to the laird of Craigievar, under the pain of death. The Oldtown people, trembling for fear of this uncouth kind of charge, came all running to Mr. Thomas Lesly's house with some few muskets and hagbutts, others with a rusty sword, others with an headless spear, The laird of Craigievar took up all both p. 161 good and bad, and divided them among his own armless soldiers; thus were the poor Oldtown men oppressed and spoiled of their arms; but no other goods or gear were plundered out of any of the towns of Aberdeen, as the general had given orders, except arms and the town's fine.

Tuesday the 28th of May the tutor of Pitsligo and laird of Philorth came with about 200 men to attend the general's army; they were forced to lodge in the Oldtown College for want of quarters, no other being to be got that night.

Ye heard before how the noble marquis of Huntly was dishonourably taken and warded, and of his evil usage; none of his daughters suffered to bide with him; his eldest not suffered to lie in the chamber with him, but he himself alone, albeit he was compelled upon his own expences to sustain five guardians to over-watch him, as if he had been an odious traitor or grievous malefactor. All this he behoved to suffer for the king's cause, who was never letten to understand the truth of this marquis' miseries, but contrarywise by his cruel and malignant enemies, the king was informed that the marquis had proved disloyal, had heard willingly and subscribed the covenant, and that he had sold the king's armour which came frae England to him, to the king's enemies, Covenanters, and that he came in willingly to Aberdeen with set purpose to be taken by Montrose and his complices. Thus was this noble marquis traduced to his majesty, whereof he then had no knowledge, and doubtless it offended the king, till the truth was tried, and. the marquis found loyal and true to his majesty; and then the king begins to lament the miseries that this noble marquis was brought under for his fake, but could in no wise relieve or help him, who was keeped in ward still.

The town of Aberdeen, seeing themselves sore opprested by the feeding and sustaining of thir armies without payment, besides other slaveries, began heavily to regret their misery to the general and nobles and commanders, saying they had subscribed the covenant, and yet were born down and persecuted daily, whereas the rest of the burrows of Scotland lived at peace and rest without perturbation or inquietation. There was no compassion had to their clamours, but the general answered, Ye have done what ye can to save the king and his subjects unsettled in p. 162 peace, and read letters sent by the marquis of Huntly and town of Aberdeen to his majesty, assuring him of their service, and that he would get great assistance in the work if his majesty had ado, whilk letters were intercepted by the Covenanters on the way, and that after they had sworn and subscribed the covenant, they had willfully and willingly receipt the barons within their town, who were enemies to the good cause and to their haill designs, and who had oppressed and plundered the haill Covenanters in their persons, goods and gear, and therefore the town of Aberdeen was not to be trusted nor believed for the most part to be good Covenanters, albeit they had sworn and subscribed the Covenant. Whereunto the town of Aberdeen made answer, what they had written or done was out of good intent; and as for the barons, they had no power to hold them out of their burgh, but were troubled and molested with them, and got no more good; but no regard was had to their response, nor their complaints, but forced to suffer and abide their calamities with very sore hearts, and as they were oppressed, so the country anticovenanters were pitifully plagued and plundered in their victual, fleshes, fowls, and other commodities, whilk bred great scarcity in this land, without authority of the king or regard to their country, for the whilk they got daily maledictions.

The king all this while is lying at Newcastle with some volunteers and feed servant-soldiers, and England had refused to raise an army, whilk the king earnestly desired, saying they could not raise arms against their neighbour nation, except they had been declared by council or parliament open rebels and traitors against his majesty, according to the Scots laws; and however by instigation of wicked men and malignant persons he had sent out his proclamation declaring them rebels and traitors, without advice of his council or parliament, yet it was no ground or just cause to move open war betwixt the king and his subjects; whereupon the king was compelled, sore against his will, to lie all this time at Newcastie, not knowing of the secret clandestine band and combination past between the English and Scots, through which he was fully disappointed of his whole designs. p. 163

Upon Thursday the 30th of May the lairds of Banff, Newtown, Foveran, Federat, and diverse others, take ship at Downie, and resolved to go to the king, since they could not keep their country with safety; but the lord Aboyn brought them back again.

The foresaid Thursday, about ten hours in the morning, the general raises his army out of both Aberdeens, and begins to march through Old Aberdeen; the footmen marched first, and the horsemen with the general followed; they were estimate about 6000 foot and horse; besides baggage horse estimated to 600, that came out of Angus and Strathern only, with 3000 men on horse and foot; 900 men came frae the earl Marischal out of the Mearns, Kintore, and Skene; 1,000 men came frae the lord Fraser, master of Forbes, tutor of Pitsligo, with the lairds of Philorth, and divers other barons of Buchan, Mar, and Garioch. This people lived all upon the country and Aberdeen, but the Angus men had their provision following them in their march, but likewise lived upon their quarters as the rest did; there met the general on his way the earl of Errol's men out of Buchan, and the earl Marischal's men out of that bounds also, with many barons; the earl of Athol's 200 highlandmen was likewise in this army. They took one of the town's colours of Aberdeen, and gave it to the town of Aberbrothock's soldiers, because they had none of their own, and whilk was not their kind to carry. Thus this army goes forward in order of battle, with ensigns, trumpets, drums, bagpipes, captains, and commanders, through the old town; the brazen field pieces followed them; and so they went to Udny, where they camped that night. Friday the last of May they marched from Udny to the house of Haddo, pertaining to the lord of Haddo, called Kelly. Saturday the first of June they marched frae Kelly to the place of Gight, where they remained all night; they did no more skaith, but took their entertainment off of the ground wherever they came, upon their own private expences.

Now as this army is lying at Gight, resolved to take the house, with the rest of the anti-covenanters houses thereabout, such as Udny, Kelly, and some other places, there p. 164 came to the road of Aberdeen upon Sunday the 2d of June, being Whitsunday, a collier ship, in the which was embarked the earls of Glencairn and Tullibardine, the lord Aboyn, the laird of Drum, with crowner Gunn, and some other English captains and leaders. This ship meeting with the bark wherein Banff, Federit, Newtown, and the rest was, caused them to come aboard of their ship, and leave their voyage; there came also in a ship which was in company of the said ship, sundry of our Aberdeen's men who had fled the town and gone to England, and siklike sundry ministers, such as Mr. Thomas Theirs minister of Udny, Mr. John Paterson minister at Foveran, Mr. David Leith minister at Ellon, Mr. John Gregory minister at Dalmoack, Mr. Francis Thomson minister at Peter Culter, Mr. John Kemp preacher, with some others, who for this Covenant had fled the country to the king. This great ship had also in her great store of ammunition, powder, ball, muskets, swords, pikes, and the like arms. She had a pinnace following her, and two barks lying beside her; in the one the Aberdeen's men and ministers were; in the other were the lairds of Banff, Newtown, Foveran, and Federit, going to the king. This ship was directed by the king to the Forth, where the royal navy was lying, with special direction to the lord Aboyn to speak to the admiral to receive 3000 soldiers, with all kind of provision and money to sustain them during the space of five months, frae him, according as his majesty had commanded him, and that he should land them at Aberdeen or Cromartie for defence of the country and brave Aberdeen, and to send expert captains and commanders, whereby they might join and knit with the king's loyal subjects in the North for their defence; the lord Aboyn speaks to the admiral in Forth, according to the king's command; he day by day promises, but never minds to perform, as he who is set against the king's cause. The lord Aboyn depended day by day, but comes no speed; and the admiral's last answer was, that he should come his way to the road of Aberdeen, and he should have his soldiers shortly after him; the lord Aboyn believing his word, and under no suspicion of deceit, takes his leave, and forward comes to the road of Aberdeen upon the said second day p. 165 of June with his pinnace; but by the way he meets a bark going to Montrose with some few pieces of ordnance and muskets, swords, pikes, and other brave arms, plundered from Aberdeen, as ye have heard before, directed by the general to Montrose; but Aboyn takes back the ordnance and arms, and brings them all to the road, and hearing Montrose had shipped other five pieces of ordnance, and sent to Dundee, whilk belonged to Aberdeen, he sends hastily and takes thir five pieces of ordnance also, whereat general Montrose was much offended.

About the last day of May his majesty came to Berwick with 7000 foot soldiers, 3000 horsemen, and 500 dragoons; right sua he had directed a navy from England to come to Forth, of 30 ships, whereof there was some ships royal. His majesty also made the marquis of Hamilton his admiral over the fleet, wherein there was 8000 soldiers, captains and commanders, besides skippers and sailors, with powder, ball, ammunition, and other provision necessary for some months space, and money about 13,000 pounds sterling; he directed this admiral (in whom he had too much trust,) to land 3000 soldiers for defence of Aberdeen and the North, whilk he slighted sairly.

The lord Aboyn comes to the road of Aberdeen, still looking for the coming of his soldiers, but he was beguiled; however, according to the laws of the sea, he sends the 12 pieces of ordnance to the good lord admiral as sea plundering, but more wisely he kept all the rest of the town's arms to himself, and did not send them also, which 12 pieces were cast upon the more of Bruntisland by the admiral, when he went out of Forth back with his army, where they yet lye.

How soon the town's Covenanters heard that the king was come to Berwick with a land army, and a navy come to Forth, and therewith seeing a collier with a pinnace and two other barks come to the road, they apprehended great fear and dreadure, and hastily sent word to the army lying at Gight, who shortly left the siege, and upon Monday the 3d of June they came all in marching to Aberdeen, without doing of more vassalage, albeit their resolution was to have wrecked and abused the haill barons and heritors who p. 166 were at the Raid of Turriff, and that by plain force, without authority of a king or law; howsomever they plundered their victuals, beef, mutton, cock and hen, destroyed both grass and corn wherever they came, to the great wreck of the country. Yet God blessed the corns thus eaten and destroyed, that they produced a plentiful crop; yet peats and fire was very scarce through want of servants to cast and win them, and through troubles in the country.

It is said while this army is lying at Gight, John Spence herald was sent for by the laird of Dun, or taken and apprehended by him as an anti-covenanter, as likewise Allister Sandieson messenger being at his lawful affairs within the Mearns, was, by means of a recanting jesuit, called Abernethie, taken with an Aberdeen's burgess called John Gordon, and they with John Spence were had all three to Dunnotter as anti-covenanters, and warded in a strait dungeon, put in irons without any offence but being the king's servants. No comfort they had of fine or candle, meat or drink or bedding, but lay fast in the irons day and night without sunshine or light of the heavens, and were miserably fed upon brown bread and small drink during the space of fourteen days, while it pleased the Lord to relieve them. Thus was the king's heralds, messengers, and burgesses cruelly demained and abused without respect to the king or his laws.

It is here also to be noticed, that Doctor Scroggie seeing thir ships come to the road, came back and preached at this Oldtown kirk upon Whitsunday, who durst not be seen since the 19th of May.

Ye heard how the army came back again to Aberdeen from Gight upon the Covenanters advertisement, who no doubt had gotten council and advice by moyan of the marquis of Hamilton, to retire now before the incoming of this army. Aberdeen carefully caused tuck drums through the town, charging all men to be in readiness with their best arms to defend the incoming of thir ships lying in the road, and to attend the incoming of the army from Gight, who came in about five hours at even; but before their incoming the town of Aberdeen sent out to the road, Mr. Matthew Lumsden, and some other honest men, commissioners, p. 167 for them to demand what they were, and what was the cause of their coming: the lord Aboyn gave them no good answer, but dismist them shortly, and in the meantime keeped beside him the said Mr. Matthew Lumsden, because he was a known Covenanter, till he got liberty.

The same Monday that the army came back to Aberdeen the earl Marischal left them in the town, and that same night rides to Dannotter with some few horse. The army bides still Monday all night, Tuesday, and on Wednesday trumpets sound and drums tuck, they left their army and begin to march forth again, carrying in their company their field pieces, whereat the town of Aberdeen was very joyful, and glad to be free of their quartering and charges, whilk was no small burthen to them. The nobles ride that night to Dunnotter, syne South, and scattered their army to the great fear and dreadure of the Covenanters within Aberdeen, for provost Jaffray, Patrick Lesly, John Lesly, the Burnets, Thomas Mowat, Thomas Mortimer, and many others of that faction, took all the flight frae the town, ilk ane for his own safety, after they had first put their goods and best gear out of the way. In like manner the earl Marischal caused transport his haill goods and gear out of his house in Aberdeen, such as might be transported, to Dunnotter; but his meall girnals bade behind, whilk was well plundered afterwards.

Upon Thursday the sixth of June the earl of Glencairn, the earl of Tullibardine, the lord Aboyn, the lairds of Drum, Federit, Foveran, Newtown, and their followers, came ashore, with whom came also the laird of Banff sore sick in an hot fever, and was transported in a wand bed to William Cordiner's house in New Aberdeen, and from that carried in the same wand bed to Foveran, where he lay still till God sent him his health again.

There came also ashore Crowner Gunn, with divers other English captains and officers, and presently after their landing the lord Aboyn caused Robert Irvine, one of the town's officers, (because neither herald, pursuivant, nor messenger, could be found,) go to the cross, and there, as he had orders frae the king, caused make proclamation of an imprinted paper, commanding all his majesty's loyal subjects p. 168 not to obey the Covenanters, nor pay them maills, farms, duties nor obligation debt, but to pay the one half to the king and the other half to be keeped by themselves; that such as were threatned or persuaded to subscribe the covenant against their will, upon their repentance should be remitted and forgiven; and that ilk true subject: should come in and subscribe the oath urged in England, whereof the tenor follows: I do faithfully swear and subscribe, profess and promise, that I will honour and obey my sovereign lord king Charles, and will bear faithful and true allegiance to him, and defend and maintain his royal power and authority, and that I will not bear arms, or do any rebellious act of hostility against him, or protest against any of his royal commanders, but submit myself in all due obedience, and that I will not enter into any covenant or band of mutual defence of any sort of persons by force, without his majesty's sovereign and royal authority, and do renounce and abjure all other covenants and bands whatsomever, contrary to what I have sworn, herein professed and promised, as help me God in Christ Jesus. This oath was imprinted at England, sworn and subscribed by all the king's loyal subjects there, whereof the lord Aboyn brought an imprinted double, to be subscribed here in their parts.

Likewise his majesty, having made him lieutenant in the North, in his father's place, now lying in captivity, he caused even then proclaim the samen at the said mercat cross, bearing him to be lieutenant frae the North water to Caithness. Thir proclamations ended, the nobles would stay no longer in Aberdeen, but came down to Footdee-well, convoyed by such of the town's men as were loyal to the king, with hagbutts and muskets; the lords sup in Footdee; and after supper went aboard in their own ship-boats attending upon them, where they stayed that night, long looking for men from the admiral Hamilton, but none came at all. The earls of Glencairn and Tullibardine in two or three days took their leave of the lord Aboyn in Aberdeen, and departed home. Lewis Gordon, the third son of the marquis of Huntly, hearing of the tidings of his brother the lord of Aboyn, with assurance of three thousand men p. 169 to come from the admiral, hastily raises his father's ground-friends and followers, men, tenants and servants, who most gladly and willingly came with him, and upon Friday the 7th of June marched in brave order, about 1000 men on horse and foot, well armed, brave men, with captains, commanders and leaders, trumpets, drums and bagpipes, and to Aberdeen came they to meet the lord Aboyn, having also in their company four field-pieces of brass, whilk they brought with them frae Strathboggie; thus again is poor Aberdeen brought under subjection and quarters, but the Covenanters being all fled, the men enter their houses and get good entertainment from their wives, without any payment; the nobles come again on shore to meet this company, with Crowner Gunn and some other English. captains; they take in both Aberdeens, and quarter their soldiers.

John Dugar with his lawless followers was in this company, and lodged in Old Aberdeen in George King's house, but he was shortly discharged as a runnagate lymmar, bloodshedder and murderer, and in whatsomever company he was, the same could not well prosper, as was most evident; yet it is true Lewis knew nothing of his being in his company.

The laird Drum sent in the same night to the town 100 horse.

James Grant, sometime rebel, and now remitted, came in with his followers, and takes up his lodging at Don-side in Patrick Lesly's house. Donald Farquharson and his highlandmen also came to the town; thir soul-less lowns plundered meat, drink, and sheep wherever they came; they oppressed the Oldtown; and brought in out of the country honest mens sheep, and sold at the cross of Old Aberdeen to such as would buy, a sheep upon foot for a groat; the poor men that ought them followed in and bought back their own sheep again; such as was left unslain were for their meat.

The foresaid Saturday all manner of men within both Aberdeens were charged by tuck of drum to rise in arms and serve the king, upon his majesty's expences, under the conduct of the lord Aboyn his lieutenant. This charge was given out at the king's direction, willing him wherever p. 170 he went, to raise soldiers upon his expences, and gave order to admiral Hamilton to give him money for that effect; but neither men nor money came as the lord Aboyn expected, to his great grief, shame and disgrace; yet the lord Aboyn proved wise in this point, he held still his collier and pinnace lying in the road, however the matter went, and nightly goes abroad till he landed altogether; at last sails to Berwick, The lord Aboyn, with his captains and crowners, lands in arms, takes in of new again this noble burgh of Aberdeen, meddles with the keys of the ports, kirks and tolbooth, to their great misery. They quartered both Aberdeens, and set their watches round about the haill town, still confident of men and money daily to come frae admiral Hamilton for their help and support, but was ever deceived. He also sent also Mr. Matthew Lumsden on shore upon swearing the oath, as was said,. who was detained in the ship.

Many barons and gentlemen hearing of the lord Aboyn's coming with assistance of men and money from the king, came into Aberdeen most gladly to him; yea, and many Covenanters proved turn-tail through plain fear, and came in most willingly to him, and makes up a trim company, about 2000 men; his out-watches took in the Mearns provost Jaffray and his son, both great Covenanters, who for plain fear had fled the town and hid themselves; they took also James Burnet of Craigmyle, Robert Keith writer, servitor to the earl Marischal, and Alexander Erskine, brother to the laird of Pittodrie, great Covenanters, who had fled their own houses, and lay lurking in the Mearns. Robert Keith was sent aboard to the ship still lying in the road; the rest get liberty, upon swearing and subscribing of the oath and band of allegiance. But Robert Keith stayed still in the king's collier ship, as he who was thought to be one of the earl Marischal's chief counsellors in all thir troubles, being dwelling hard beside Dunnotter, in Cowie. He was sent to Berwick, and there put at liberty.

Monday the 10th of June the lord Aboyn conveens his army; being about 2000 horse and foot, and daily increasing, and marches from Aberdeen to Kintore, where they caused the people swear and subscribe the oath and bond p. 171 of allegiance; they plundered meat and drink, and made good fires, and where they wanted peats broke down beds and boards in honest men's houses to be fires, and fed their horses with corn and straw that day and night, without doing any more wrong. Upon the morn they ride out to Hall Forest, the earl Marischal's house, which was straitly keeped, but they at the first rendered the same to the lord Aboyn, and delivered the keys; the soldiers entered, plundered muskets and guns and other arms within the same, breaks up the girnals, to sustain their army, but would not plunder or take any of the country peoples goods and gear, which was put in this castle for preservation and keeping in thir troublesome times, but ilk man came and received back his own without harm or prejudice, whilk was nobly done.

The laird of Craigievar's lands of Fintray, a great Covenanter, was plundered by the laird of Haddo. And upon the 12th of June they rode to the lord Fraser's house of Muchalls, but he was fled frae home; the soldiers meddled with and plundered his oxen, kine and horse, and all other goods that they could get; they threw down haill stacks of corn among their horse feet to cut and destroy; those that were within the house shot out some muskets, but did no skaith; whereupon they resolved to lay a siege about the house, but seeing there was forces rising in the South, they resolved to leave that purpose, and return back to Aberdeen again, where Aboyn resolves to go to the Mearns and proclaim the king's proclamation and his own lieutenantry at the mercat cross of Stonehaven, and to cause all manner of men swear and subscribe the oath. He raised out of Old Aberdeen 20 soldiers to go with him, which was never burthened with the like before , he also raised out of New Aberdeen 200 soldiers, and makes up about 2500 men, horse and foot, highland and lowland men, in great order.

Upon Friday the 14th of June the lord Aboyn begins to march out of Aberdeen towards Stonehaven, to the effect foresaid, and to cause the people give obedience, or then to persecute them to the death with fire and sword; and that same night lie camped about Muchalls in the Mearns. p. 172

The earl Marischal hearing of his coming, sends shortly to Montrose for two cartows, and brings out of Dunnotter some pieces of ordnance, conveens about 1200 men, and stiles his pieces very commodiously, to cross the lord Aboyn's coming the way that he was unwisely counselled to come by Crowner Gunn, who led him on the Meagra-hill, and sent word to the earl Marischal that the army would come that way. This Gunn was sent by the king, with the rest of the English captains, to attend the lord Aboyn's service, being but a young soldier himself, and to counsel and advise him in all his wars, as he who was an approven expert captain, but he proved traitor in this business by information of the marquis of Hamilton, ere he comes out of England, as clearly does appear.

Now the lord Aboyn coming down the Meagra-hill, whereas they might have gone a more safe way if Gunn's counsel had not been followed, the earl Marischal at Stonehaven had stiled his cartows and ordnance just in their faces, and began most: furiously to play upon the army; the highlandmen hearing the noise of the cannons, whereof they were not in use, took the flight presently , the retreat was sounded, for they durst not hazard to go farther that way in the very face of the cannon; two poor men were hurt, but little more skaith, and back returns he without any more vassalage to Aberdeen. The highlandmen got away, and in their home-going plundered the earl Marischal's lands of Strathauchan, and took horse, nolt, and sheep, to the wreck of the country people; the haill foot army also fled.

Sunday the 16th of June, the lord Aboyn heard devotion in Aberdeen before and afternoon, syne went to his counsel of war, being about nine score brave horsemen, and few footmen, except James Grant and his company.

Upon Monday the 16th of June the lord Aboyn sends out to recollect his army that was scattered at Cowie, and directs watches out to the Mearns to spy the country, where they take the lairds of Pury Ogilvie and Pury-Fotheringham, both strong Covenanters, after some skirmishing, and brings them to Aberdeen their prisoners; whom the lord Aboyn directed to be warded in Mr. Robert p. 173 Farquhar's house during his pleasure; but were thereafter shortly put to liberty. His foot army gathered, and was about 4000 men at Legatsden, but came not in time to the Bridge of Dee.

Upon the same Monday the earl Marischal, seeing the lord Aboyn returning back again to Aberdeen, gathers his forces, writes to the earl of Montrose, and the said Monday comes forward to Tollohill, where he encamps, more friends came to him, such as the said earl of Montrose and earl of Kinghorn, who came indeed.

The lord of Aboyn advertised of this gathering, upon Thursday the eighteenth of June about ten hours goes to array his soldiers, and such as he got also out of both Aberdeens, and resolves to stop their coming to the town, by keeping of the Bridge of Dee; they carried out their four brazen pieces, which did little skaith. Lieutenant Crowner Johnston mans the bridge, fortified the port upon the South end of the same, and caused close it up strongly with faill and thatch to hold out the shot of the cartow; he had about a hundred brave musketeers, whereof fifty was still in service by turns.

Upon the same Tuesday the earls of Montrose and Kinghorn comes frae the South, the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, with divers barons and gentlemen, comes frae the North to the earl Marischal; they were estimate altogether about 2000 men on foot and 300 horse; the lord Aboyn's was of no less number, and more brave horsemen, lying about the Bridge of Dee; but few footmen. This Thursday the earl Marischal and the rest goes to array and marches forward frae Tolohill to the bridge; they begin to shoot their cartow at the same, whilk was very fearful, being a quarter cannon, having her ball of 20 pound weight, but courageous Johnston manfully defended the same with brave musketeers that came out of both Aberdeens; who gave fire so abundantly upon the enemies musketeers, that they were of them praised and admired for their brave service; thus the haill day they on the one side pursuing the bridge with cannon and musket, and on the other side they are defending with muskets and their four brazen pieces (which did little service) yet no skaith on our p. 174 side, except a townsman called John Forbes was pitifully slain, and William Gordon of Gordon's Mill was rashly shot in the foot, both anti-covenanters: thus night being come, both parties left off and set their watches,\ attending the coming of the morning.

Upon Wednesday the 19th of June the towns folk, about 50 musketeers, foolishly left the Bridge, with about the like number to keep the samen, and went convoying the corps of the foresaid John Forbes to be buried in the town, whilk was very unwisely done, and to the tinsell of the bridge; in the mean time a new assault was given, courageous Johnston placed his few soldiers (as he did first) in the bounds of the bridge so commodiously, as they defended themselves very stoutly and manfully with little loss.

The confederate lords seeing they had come no speed, devises a pretty slight to draw the horsemen frae the bridge (being about the number of nine score brave gentlemen, albeit they had no footmen, except James Grant's company, and the town's men of both Aberdeens, because they had scattered at Cowie as ye have heard, and was quickly gathering again, but came not in time to the defence of the bridge) better horsed and more in number than they were of good horses, therefore they stringed up their horse company on the other side of the water of Dee, making shew to enter the water and come through the same, and pursue the lord Aboyn this side of the water, which was far from their mind, and over hastily believed by Aboyn, whereupon he rides up the water-side to meet thir horsemen at their coming through the water, and leaves the bridge foolishly with brave Johnston and about 50 musketeers only, who wonderfully stood out and defended the same; albeit cruelly charged with cartow and musket shot in great abundance, which was more fearfully renewed, whereas the lord Aboyn was marching up the water side; at last, brave Johnston is unhappily hurt in the thigh or leg by the buffet of a stone thrown out of the bridge by the violence of a shot, so that he could do no more service; he hastily calls for a horse, and says to his soldiers, do for yourselves, and haste you to the town; whereupon they all with p. 175 himself took the flight. Then followed in certain captains, and quickly took in the bridge peaceably, and call out their colours; the lord Aboyn seeing thir horsemen stay upon the other side of the water, and not coning through the water as they seemed to intend, and withal seeing their colours upon the bridge, takes the flight shamefully without stroke of sword, or any other kind of vassalage, for he and his horsemen lay under banks and braes saving themselves from the cartow, and beheld the Aberdeen's men defend the bridge, which was lost by the incoming of the soldiers to John Forbes burial, and by the lord Aboyn's leaving of the same, and chiefly by the unhappy hurt which brave Johnston received. Our Aberdeen's men were praised even of their very enemies for their sare and ready fire; there was slain of townsmen the foresaid John Forbes, Patrick Gray, David Johnston, Thomas Davidson, and some others hurt and wounded , amongst the rest, Seaton of Pitmedden, a gentleman, was suddenly shot riding up the water side with the lord Aboyn, and on the other side a brave gentleman called Ramsay, brother to the laird of Balmain, and some others hurt and wounded; this bridge was unfortunately taken in upon the 19th of June about four afternoon, whereas support was coming that same night of Aboyn's friends; but hearing of the winning of the bridge, came no farther than Legatsden, syne dispersed and scattered.

Aboyn takes the flight, takes the laird of Pury Ogilvie and Pury Fotheringham out of Aberdeen, his own prisoners, whom he had taken before, and sends them back to the lords safe and sound freely without ransom. Few followed the chase, so that Aboyne, his friends and followers, got no skaith.

The confederate lords meddle with the marquis four brazen pieces, and with their own two cartows came to Aberdeen with sound of trumpet, displayed colours, and tucking of drums; as the army marched, the haill Covenanters was blyth, and the royalists as sorrowful at this fight, who for plain fear fled the town, with their wives and children in their arms, and carried on their backs, weeping and mourning most pitifully, straying here and p. 176 there, not knowing where to go; thus were they sore distressed for the love they had to the king, and now for following Aboyne.

Thir nobles take in the town, meddle with the keys of the ports, kirks and tolbooth, quarter their soldiers and set watches, and send for the town's people that had fled, charging them by tuck of drum to return to their houses, promising they should get no wrong, whereupon some returned, others would not, but hid themselves here and there in the country.

There were some footmen of this army who had free quarters in the Oldtown at this time, and all the Covenanters now proudly crop the cawsy, glad at the incoming of this army. After quartering in both Aberdeens, the soldiers made search for such musketeers as served against them at the bridge of Dee, and found about 48 cavaliers, brave men, whom they caused bind by the gardies with tows, in disgraceful manner, and brought to the tolbooth, where that night they got neither meat, drink, fire nor candle, nor bed, and watched the tolbooth for that effect.

Upon Thursday the 20th of June, the nobles went and took up the corps of Pitmedden and Ramsay; and both were buried in the kirk of Aberdeen by their own friends with lamentation; there was a dead volley shot by the soldiers for their own man Ramsay at the Old Kirk door, where William Erskine brother to the laird of Pittodrie, was suddenly shot dead through the head, standing among the rest, whereof never word nor trial was gotten, whilk was thought marvellous, but indeed he was a wilful malicious Covenanter.

Thereafter the nobles in a counsel of war (hearing for certainty of a treaty past betwixt the king and his subjects at Berwick, whereof they had knowledge before the intaking of the bridge) fines Aberdeen in 6000 merks, which was presently paid, loses the town's men gardies, who were knit two and two together, lets them to liberty upon the same Thursday; the town was saved from plundering upon payment of this sum.

Upon the morn the 21st of June, orders was given for transporting south the two cartows and marquis of Huntly's p. 177 four brazen field pieces, delivered the town's keys to the magistrates, and marches the same day South again, whereupon the rest of the honest men and women who had fled, returned gladly to their own houses in Aberdeen.

The lord Aboyn seeing this army gone, and no appearance of help, as he daily expected, from Admiral Hamiltone, upon the 26th of June boats at the Sandness, and goes aboard of his own ship (which all this time was lying in the road attending his service, with the rest of the English captains and traitor Gunn also,} and to Berwick sails he; for it is most certain his crowner Gunn deceived Aboyne (whole counsel the king had commanded him to follow,) by persuasion of the admiral as was said, a great favourer of the covenant.

Ye see before of the king's coming with his army to Berwick; the Scots army at the same time came to Dunse, four miles frae the king's army, where they lay encamped, estimated in horse, foot, bag and baggage, to about 20,000, with brave captains, officers and commanders, whereof Lesly was general, furnished with store of ammunition, powder, ball, and good arms. Now both armies being encamped within four miles of others, the Scots humbly desired his majesty to appoint some of the English to hear their humble desire, which his highness graciously granted; then our Scots were desired to put in their demands in writing, whereof one was, that his majesty would ratify the acts of the late assembly holden at Glasgow, in the next ensuing parliament; the king craved to understand by write the grounds and reasons of their desire; the lord Loudon (who was one of our Scots combinators) commissioner with the earl of Rothes for the nobles, Sir James Douglas, sheriff of Teviotdale, commissoner for the barons and gentry, John Smith baillie of Edinburgh, commissioner for the burrows, and Mr. Alexander Henderson minister at Leuchars, commissioner for the clergy, said, their desires were only to enjoy their religion and liberty according to the ecclesiastical and civil laws of this kingdom, and in clearing particulars they would not insist upon any that were not such, whilk his majesty desired him to set down in writing, which he did in the subsequent words. p. 178 Memorandum, that our desires are only the enjoying our religion and liberties, according to the ecclesiastical and civil laws of his majesty's kingdoms, to clear by sufficient grounds that the particulars we crave with all humility are such, and shall not insist to crave any point which is not so warranted; and that we humbly offer all civil and temporal obedience to your majesty, which can be required or expected of loyal subjects. Signed Loudon.—Whereunto his majesty most willingly condescended,as most reasonable grounds, founded upon the laws of the kingdom, but under the fair general lurked much poison and great bloodshed, woe and wracking throughout the king's haill dominions, through interpretation or misinterpretation of our laws, to his majesty's high displeasure; he not seeing the combinators subtile intention both in church and police, yea, and against his royal prerogative, as hereafter is shortly noted in this discourse.

However the foresaid memorandum being the ground of the agreement, it was brought to a conclusion upon the 17th of June, and of that same date the king sets out his declaration conform to these grounds, which was well accepted by these who came in the name of the covenant, with humble thanks to the king for doing the same; and giving an answer to their petition within the said declaration, which was fully agreed upon, together with sundry articles by both parties; the pacification concluded, the articles on both sides were to be performed; accordingly these on the king's part were in the declaration following:

We having considered the papers and humble petitions presented to us by these our subjects of Scotland, who were admitted to attend our pleasure in the camp, and after a full hearing by ourself of all that they could lay or alledge thereupon, having communicated the same to our council of both kingdoms there present, upon mature deliberation, with their unanimous advice, we have thought fit to give just and gracious answer, That though we cannot condescend to ratify and approve the acts of the pretended general assembly at Glasgow, for many grave and weighty considerations, which have happened before and since, much importing the honour and security of that true p. 179 monarchical government lineally descended upon us from so many of our ancestors, yet such is our gracious pleasure, that notwithstanding the many disorders committed of late, we are pleased not only to confirm and make good whatsoever our commissioners have granted and promised in our name, but also we are further graciously pleased to declare and assure, that all matters according to the petitioners humble desires that are ecclesiastical, shall be determined by the assembly of the kirk, and all matters civil by the parliament and other inferior indicatories established by law, which assembly shall accordingly be keeped once a year, or as shall be agreed upon at the General Assembly.

And for settling the general distraction of that our kingdom, our will and pleasure is, that a free general assembly be keeped at Edinburgh the first day of August next ensuing, where we intend (God willing) to be personally present, and for the legal indiction whereof we have given order and command to our council, and thereafter a parliament to be holden at Edinburgh the 20th of August next ensuing, for ratifying of what shall be concluded in the said assembly, and settling other things, as may conduce to the peace and good of our native kingdom, and therein an act of oblivion to be passed.

And whereas we are further desirous that our ships and forces by land be recalled, and all persons goods restored, and they made safe frae invasion, we are graciously pleased to declare, that upon their disarming and disbanding of their forces, dissolving and discharging all their pretended tables and conventicles, and restoring unto us all our castles, forts, and ammunition of all forts, as likewise our royal honours, and to every one of our subjects their liberties, lands, houses, goods and monies whatsoever, taken and detained from them since the late pretended general assembly, we will presently thereafter recall our fleet, and retire our land forces, and cause restitution to be made to all persons of their ships and goods detained and arrested since the aforesaid time, whereby it may appear that our intention of taking up arms was nowise for invading our native kingdom, or to innovate religion or laws, but merely for the maintaining and vindicating of our royal authority. p. 180 And since that hereby it doth clearly appear, that we neither have nor do intend any alteration in religion or laws, but that both shall be maintained by us in their full integrity, we expect the performance of that humble and dutiful obedience, which becometh loyal and dutiful subjects, which in their several petitions they have often professed; as we have just reason to believe, that to our peaceable and well disposed subjects this will be satisfactory, so we take God and the world to witness, that whatsomever calamities shall ensue, by our necessitated suppressing of the insolencies of such as shall continue in their disobedient courses, is not occasioned by us, but by their own procurement.

After his majesty's declaration thus expressed follow the articles of pacification tending thus, which were agreed upon.

1st, The forces of Scotland be disbanded and dissolved within 48 hours after his majesty's declaration is published, being agreed upon.

2d, His highness' castles, forts, ammunition of all forts and royal honours to be delivered after the said publication, so soon as he should send to receive them.

3d, His majesty's ships to depart presently after the delivery of the castles, &c. with the first fair wind, and in the meantime no interruption of trade or fishing.

4th, His majesty was graciously pleased to cause restore all persons goods and ships detained and arrested since the first of November then last past.

5th, No meetings, treatings, consultations, or convocations of any of his majesty's lieges but such as are warranted by act of parliament.

6th, The fortifications to desist, and no further workings therein, and they be remitted to his majesty's pleasure.

7th, To restore to every one of his majesty's good subjects their liberties, lands, houses, goods, and monies whatsomever, taken or detained from them by whatever means since the aforesaid time.

Upon Tuesday the 18th of June the foresaid declaration and articles of pacification were signed at the king's pavilion, by his majesty, and by the commissioners for Scotland, who also signed another paper of submission to his majesty, as follows: p. 181 In the camp, the 18th of June 1639. In obedience to his majesty's royal commands, we shall, upon Thursday next the 20th of June, dismiss our forces, and instantly thereafter deliver his majesty's castles, &c. and shall ever in all things carry ourselves like humble, loyal and obedient subjects. Sic subscribitur, Rothes, Dumfermling, London, Douglas, Alexander Henderson, Alexander Johnstone.

The Scots commissioners did likewise condescend, that his majesty's declaration should be read and published in the army, which by Lyon king of arms of Scotland was done upon the 20th of June, in presence of some commissioners of the king's sent to see it published, against the whilk (contrary to his majesty's expectation) protestations were made.

Now matters being in the way of settling, his majesty desired, before removing of the army frae Duns, that some of the Scots nobles and other men of note should come and confer with him at his camp, whilk was plainly refused by the Covenanters, whereat his majesty took high offence; but they alleged some reasons which were sent in write.

In the meantime the marquis of Huntly and his son the lord Gordon, and some others who were warded in the Castle of Edinburgh, are put to liberty. The marquis places his virgin daughters in the place of Seytoun, with his cousin the earl of Wintoun, syne rides with his son to the king's camp at Berwick.

Robert Keith writer, who was taken and had to Berwick, is set to liberty, and sent home, whereupon the earl Marischal relieves John Gordon, John Spence, Rothsay herald, and Allaster Sandieson messenger, most unwisely imprisoned and cruelly handled, as before mentioned.

Now there was great preparation for choosing ministers and ruling elders commissioners to the General Assembly, to be holden at Edinburgh the sixth of August next: but none except known Covenanters were chosen through all the presbyteries of Scotland, among whom our presbytery of Aberdeen elected Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, and Mr. Andrew Abercrombie minister of Fintray, who were their commissioners, with the earl of Kinghorn, now p. 182 being in this country, to be a ruling elder, because he had the lands of Belhelvie pertaining to him within the presbytery, yet had neither dwelling place nor household remaining within this diocese, yet he is thus chosen, being a great Covenanter, a ruling elder for the presbytery of Aberdeen.

The king lies still at Berwick, makes General Ruthven captain of the castle of Edinburgh, which was delivered to him with the royal ornaments, viz. crown, sword, and scepter, to be keeped within the said Castle. The Covenanters disband their army at Dunse, yet not fully; but the king disbands his army truly both by lea and land, and the admiral Hamilton, who had gotten directions to land forces to defend Aberdeen and the North, yet he obeys not direction, but lies still in Forth, having secret conferences with the nobles of the covenant night and day, whereof the king had neither knowledge nor suspicion, yet he revealed the king's projects and secrets, having too much his ear, as was thought, at all occasions to the Covenanters, of whom also he politically made his own use, and held both the king and them in hand for his own ends, not yet known, but sure could not have power to act contrary to the Covenanters, because he revealed all, whereby they were armed against all dangers, which bred great trouble, sorrow and doleful calamities throughout the king's haill dominions, which if he had been true to his master, might have been wisely and easily supprest in the beginning. Admiral Hamilton having gotten 13,000 pounds sterling frae the king for this fruitless expedition, he spended and spared as he pleascd, comes to the king lying at Berwick, makes up an account of his expences to his treasurer, and gave in 2000 pounds sterling he alledged unspended, but kept the rest to himself. The king approved his doings, and thought them good service, wherein he was mightily deceived. But Hamilton hereafter got his own reward.

In the meantime the king lying still at Berwick, perceives the Covenanters slow to fulfil their part of the articles of pacification, and sees some other disorders unlooked for beside, whilk he sets down in write as follows, viz. p. 183

1mo. First he alledged, that the Covenanters did make a protestation against the publication of his declaration before their army at Dunse. 2do. That the forces of Scotland raised against himself were not disbanded within 48 hours, but for sometime keeped in body some forces, and held in pay their officers. 3tio. That full restitution is not made of his majesty's forts, castles, and ammunition, and the fortifications of Leith stand entirely, albeit the king commanded them to be casten down. 4to. That they keeped unlawful meetings at tables, conventicles, and consultations, after the 20th of July (whilk day the king appointed to be the last that they should meet upon and consult upon their mutual burdens, only, and no other state matters) wherein they daily vex and trouble sic as do not adhere to their rebellious covenant and pretended assembly acts at Glasgow. 5to. Whereas all fortifications bigged by his warrant were referred to his pleasure, whether to stand or be demolished, and that he commandeth them to be cast down, yet no obedience given thereto. 6to. None of his majesty's good subjects has gotten their goods, nor dare hazard home to their own houses at full liberty, by reason of the Covenanters fury, animated thereto by the said protestation and seditious sermons, and that they are threatened with the loss of their lives, in case they shall repair to their own dwellings. 7mo. Whereas it is declared that his majesty did not approve the late pretended assembly at Glasgow, yet contrary to his highness' pleasure they press the subjects to subscribe the approbation thereof, and to swear the samen. . 8vo. Whereas it pleased the king to grant a free assembly, expecting a choice of sic commissioners as might stand with his highness' authority, they perverted his subjects by anticipating their votes, in making them swear to and subscribe the acts of the pretended assembly holden at Glasgow, and making choice of such commissioners (and no others) as adhered thereunto, and by oath were bound to maintain the samen, and further deterred others whom his majesty called to the next assembly by his lawful warrant; threatning them with the loss of their lives if they repaired thither. 9no. They brand his good subjects that adhere to his majesty's service with p. 184 the vile aspersion of traitors to God and their country, threatning to proceed against them with censures accordingly, as though their serving the king were treason; whereas his subjects are bound to rise and assist him under the pain of treason. 10th. Lastly, their protesting that all members of the college of justice and his highness' lieges were not to attend the session, and that all acts and decrees shall be null, taking his royal power out of his hand, who only might command his subjects to attend the session, or discharge the samen.

It pleased his majesty to send thir miscontentments in paper with the lords Lindsay and Loudon, and to report the combinators answer to him in write, with their reasons why the nobles and others whom his majesty sent for in particular, came not to him, according to their bounden duty. Thir Scots commissioners takes their leave frae the king at Berwick, and came to Edinburgh, and delivered to the table the forenamed disorders, whereunto they made an answer shortly in write, with reasons why the noblemen should not have come to him at Berwick as he desired, and sends the samen papers with the lords Lindsay and Loudon to his majesty, of the whilk answers and reasons the tenor follows, besides certain grievances which they sent likewise to his majesty with the said answers, so as the king alledged, and that justly, that the pacification was not keeped on their side, so unjustly it was alledged by them the king keeped no condition contained in the said treaty, as their grievances purports, whilk with their answers and reasons follows:

1st, And first it is denied, that any protestation was made against his majesty's gracious declaration of the pacification, but on the contrary, both at Dunse and Edinburgh, public thanksgiving, with a declaration that we adhere to the General Assembly. 2nd, It is answered, the samen is obeyed by the general's surrender, which he had pressed many times before. 3d, The cannons which were at Leith were delivered to the Castle of Edinburgh, together with the muskets , and as for the balls, they are still lying unmade use of. 4th, It is denied that any unlawful meetings are keeped but such as are warranted by act of parliament; and although we must adhere to our most necessary and lawful p. 185 covenant, yet to our knowledge none has been urged to subscribe it. 5th, The fortifications shall be demolished with all convenient speed and diligence. 6th, The sixth is denied. 7th. We know none of his majesty's subjects who are now detained or threatened, nor do we allow that any should be troubled; and if any fear themselves, there is an ordinary way of justice which they may use. 8th, The eight is denied, because to our knowlege no such exception has been made at any time of the elections. 9th, To the ninth it is denied. l0th, there was nothing protested against the session, to infer any claim that any subject or all the subjects has power to hinder or discharge them, but only in respect of the time, for neither the lords could attend, nor had parties their writes in readiness to pursue or defend; they behoved to protest for remead of law if any thing should be done to their prejudice.

Besides these answers, which the judicious reader may easily perceive whether reasonable, to elude his majesty's just grievances or not, they eik thus: As we are most unwilling to fall upon any questions which may seem to import the least contradiction with his majesty, so if it had not been the trust we gave to the relation of our commissioners (who did impart to us his majesty's gracious expressions related to us at Duns, and put in not by any of, cur number, which was a great deal more satisfactory to us than his written declaration) the samen would not have been acceptable, which did call the assembly pretended, our humble and loyal proceedings disorders, our course disagreeable to monarchical government, nor the Castle of Edinburgh rendered (which was only taken for the safety of the town) simply without assurance by write of their indemnity, except for the trust we repose in their religion, and confidence in his majesty's royal word, which we believe they did not forget, but would bring those who adhere to the treaty to a right remembrance thereof, which paper was only written for that cause, least either his majesty or his subjects should aver that they spake any thing without warrant.

After this came to his majesty with thir same answers, reasons for staying of thir noblemen, as follows in these words. p. 186

Some few of the many reasons for staying of the noblemen and others (named by his majesty) from repairing at this time to the court at Berwick.

His majesty has not been in use at any time of the greatest security to call any of his subjects out of the kingdom after this sort, as at this time, which is full of fear; to call so many of such note without any command or warrant sent to themselves seems strange, and may we not say it was never his majesty's royal father's use and wont to do so unto us since his going into England unto this day, although his majesty's declaration at Dunse, contrary to our mind, and merits, did call the late assembly a pretended assembly, our humble and lawful proceedings disorders, our course disagreeable to monarchical government, and did threaten us with the terrors of his wrath, yet our desire is to live a peaceable and quiet life under his majesty's government, and our zeal to his majesty's honour (although with some aspersions put upon us before the world) moveth us to receive them because of divers gracious expressions, related from his majesty's mouth by our commissioners, which we did hear gladly, and did note diligently for our contentment, and that we might be able to satisfy others, and without which the articles of pacification had never served for the beginning of peace; yet we now understand that all or the greatest part of these expressions verbal are denied, which makes our hope to waver, giveth us great cause of jealousy, and moveth us to call in question all the reports made to us from his majesty. His majesty knoweth that what is so instantly pressed at this time was none of the articles agreed upon at that time, and if (besides restitution of goods, rendering of the castles, and dissolving of the army) it had been then required that these 14 should be sent to the camp at Berwick, the condition should have been harder than that we could have yielded unto, because we cannot judge the minds, intentions and dispositions of hearts, but by that which we hear with our ears, and doth appear in action; we desire to be considered that all our expressions of favour are put upon our adversaries; they are called his majesty's good subjects, and their practice, his majesty's service; upon the contrary haill volumes are spread (and ever p. 187 since the treaty of peace put in all hands against us, not only stuffed with such reproaches against almost the haill kingdom (and particularly against the persons now sent for) that it were a dishonour for the king to have such a kingdom, and a shame to be let over such subjects, as we are described to be, but also containing vows and threatnings of exemplary punishment, upon such as we are reported to be; that the troubles in the most parts of the kingdom are not yet ceased; that the garrisons are keeped in Berwick; that the Castle of Edinburgh is fortified and furnished above any thing that has been heard at any time; that some bloody and cruel words against the Scots lords had been overheard in Berwick, and which we could not have believed, but that it is certified by so many letters sent hither, that our friends and countrymen not only in Ireland, but now in England, are not only stopped in their trade, but cast in prison for their modest refusing to take oaths contrary to their oath and covenant, which they have sworn in their own country; a violence not used before the treaty of peace, and contrary to the law of nations (the rule of common equity) of doing that to others, which we would they should do unto us, and to the articles of pacification agreed upon with his majesty. These and other the like considered, do so work upon us, that for the present (except we will do against our own hearts, and deny our own senses) we cannot give way to so many eminent persons to repair to Berwick, which we trust his majesty will neither interpret to be disobedience nor indiscretion, since we have been all careful to see all the conditions performed to the uttermost of our part, and there is not of that number nor of us all, but shall be ready for our own parts to give the most ample testimony of obedience to his majesty's commandment, and of our consciousness of his majesty's justice and goodness, as his majesty shall really find (at his coming) during his abode in the kingdom, for we are assured what hath been committed by any since they began pacification contrary to any of the articles thereof, hath proceeded from the dispositions of the wicked instruments about him, who are enemies of his majesty's honour and our peace, and hath been the authors of our woeful divisions. Whilk we pray the Lord bring to an happy end, by a happy and everlasting peace. p. 188

With thir reasons the foresaid lord Lindsay and lord Loudon commissioners foresaid, brought frae the Covenanters, certain grievances to his majesty, to colour the more their breach of duty; whereof the tenor follows.

Grievances to be remonstrated to his majesty. 1. The provisions laid in the Castle extraordinary, as granadoes, pot pieces, and others, which are offensive and defensive. 2d, Protections given without payment of —— 3d, Insolencies committed in the North. 4th, Oaths ministered to Scotsmen, (especially skippers and Scotsmen merchants, which is contrary to the law of nations, and to the law of Scotland,) which will bring many inconveniences, stop the trade, and bring a number of dangerous evils. 5th, Justice denied to all those who do pursue for their just debt in England, if the party shall alledge they have subscribed the covenant. 6th, Private mens outfallings and broils are questioned as national quarrels.——Here it is to be considered, first, the king's just desires contained in his regrets. 2dly, The Covenanters ridiculous answers made thereto, containing many menacing threatning speeches against the person of his royal majesty; and thirdly, their naughty reasons alledged for withholding of the nobles uncome to the king, backed also with much more threatning; and lastly, to consider the grievances given in by them, which is no way comprehended under the treaty of pacification, as is formerly set down.

The lords Lindsay and Loudon, having presented to his majesty thir answers to his majesty's just desires, with the reasons and grievances above exprest, and having read and at length perused the samen, his majesty waxed wroth therewith, and became impatient, finding instead of satisfaction he looked for, he received nothing but idle fruitless answers, backed with bitter threatnings; but this royal king was secretly born down in this expedition by the means and working of his loyal deceiving courtiers, and some of the English nobles who were lords of his council, straitly and privately bound to our Covenanters, by that doleful clandestine band and covenant, as ye have heard before, whereof the king had a kind of knowlege. They still after the hatching of this treacherous covenant (going on in other p. 189 hands, though secretly) both in Scotland and England, for the king's overthrow, whereafter does clearly appear, like as English and Scots Covenanters had foreseen (before the king's coming to Berwick) what to say and how to answer for concluding a pretended peace, tending to their own ends, likeas under trust his majesty was moved to condescend piece and piece, and day by day, to give content to the Covenanters by these English lords of his council, and wicked courtiers of our Scots about him, especially the marquis of Hamilton, privy to all their plots, and would never reveal the same to his gracious and royal master, as in highest measure he was bound to, but held craftily both him and the Covenanters, in hand, for his and their private ends and respects; albeit the king still liked and loved this marquis, and gave him too much credit, for the whilk also he got his reward at last. Now our Covenanters being thus assured of England, might boldly do, speak and write what they pleased to bis majesty without fear of censure or correction, as ye may perceive by their papers formerly expressed.

But his majesty finding himself so used, without more ado, or dealing with our Covenanters, upon the 29th of July leaves Berwick, takes journey and goes to London, after sundry nobles had taken their leave, sic as the marquis of Huntly, and the lord Gordon; but the lord Aboyn went with the king.

Here it is to be remembred, that while as the king was at Berwick, Mr. Thomas Gray one of the baillies of Aberdeen, and Mr. Patrick Chalmers sheriff clerk, were sent commissioners frae Aberdeen to his majesty, to show how they were born down and oppressed by the tyranny of the Covenanters, for their byding truly by the king, and to humbly desire him to take some speedy course for their safety and protection; his majesty heard them patiently, and lamented their usage, but could not help them at this time, and so they returned comfortless home.

This sudden departure of the king with sic grief and miscontentment, bred great fear in the hearts of his loyal subjects subjects standing to his opinion, looking for mickle p. 190 trouble, sorrow, and vexation, as surely at length came to pass.

Through great appearance of thir troubles, there was no master-act keeped in either Aberdeens at Lammas, as was used before, but their young scholars was made masters before time. Grammar schools, song schools, and other schools, were given up, and the bairns had home to their parents. No learning at all, fearing alterations and troubles to come, as came indeed,

Upon Sunday the fourth of August, fast and prayer through all Scotland, and both Aberdeens had the like for a blessing to the next general assembly.

About this time the bishop of the Ross' wife lifts her household, family, goods, and gear, frae Chanry of Ross, and by sea sails to her husband, because he being in England had wrote for her.

Upon Sunday the 11th of August, doctor Ross, one of the ordinary ministers of Aberdeen, departed this life in his own house, and likewise doctor Baron, another of the ministers of the town of Aberdeen, who had fled from the covenant to Berwick, departed there about the same time. These were two learned divines, who with some other doctors of Aberdeen would not embrace the covenant, but stood to the king's opinion, as may be seen in their demands, answers, duplys, and other papers let out by them and imprinted. They both were well beloved of their flocks and people while they were in life, and after they were dead, heavily regreted. Doctor Baron finding himself heavily diseased, sent for his wife, who hastily went, but before she came he was dead; she.saw him honestly buried, and with much sorrow she returned home. It is said the king ordained her to get a pension out of the bishoprick of Orkney during life.

Ye heard before of lieutenant crowner Johnston, how he was hurt at the bridge of Dee; he now recovers his health, ships himself, wife and goods privately, and to the king goes he, who was graciously received, as he well deserved, for his stout service at the said bridge of Dee.

Upon Tuesday the 12th of August the General Assembly sat down in Edinburgh. John earl of Traquair came p. 191 there commissioner for the king by his letters patent. Mr. David Dickson minister at Irvine was chosen moderator; the covenant made in 1580 and 1581 is explained by this General Assembly, and declared to be an abjuration of episcopacy, and found to be unlawful in our kirk, and made up a new covenant bearing this explanation, that the book of Common Prayer, book of canons, book of consecration, and ordination,, high commission and articles of Perth, should be abolished. There was many other acts and ordinances let down in this General Assembly, whilk here is referred to their own books. It is said the king's commissioners was not content with their procedure, tending to incroachment upon the king's royal power, in respect whereof, in the face of the said assembly, he made a declaration and protestation drawn upon write, whilk also was produced in presence of the lords of privy council, and registrate in their books.

This assembly took exception against this declaration and protestation and the commissioner himself, as ye may see at the 38th chapter of king Charles' second parliament. However, the assembly ordains the acts to be read through the pulpits of Edinburgh upon Sunday next; they indicted also without the king's authority or his commissioner, another General Assembly to be holden at Aberdeen the 28th day of July next to come in anno 1640, closes in peace and rises up on the penult day of the said month of August. Ye may see before, how it pleased his majesty to indict this General Assembly and the subsequent parliament to follow thereupon, relative to a treaty of pacification drawn up at Berwick, before and conform to the which indiction the foresaid General Assembly sits down and rises, as ye have heard.

Now the parliament sits down at Edinburgh the penult day of August foresaid, the earl of Traquair commissioner, the crown, scepter and sword is born before him, the nobles, barons, and burgesses, and their commissioners rides in wonted form up the gate to the tolbooth; the parliament is fenced, and all sits down in order. Here it is to marked, no archbishop, no bishop, nor chancellor, nor clerk register, is at this parliament, for all had fled the land, and durst not p. 192 compear. Mr. Alexander Gibson supplied the clerk register's place, as being his eldest depute. It was here long disputed who should have the third estate, seeing the bishops were abolished, and the parliament would be a nullity wanting a third estate; whereof the Covenanters were most careful, that their proceedings should be good and lawful, not subject to nullity or reduction; and first as is alleged, it was proponed that fourteen men should be chosen in the 14 bishops place; then it is questioned whether the king by his prerogative royal should have the election of this 14 men, or whether the other two estates should have the same; this question goes to voting, who should have the election; it falls by plurality of votes, that the other two estates, nobles, and burgesses, with the commissioners for the barons, should have the election for the 14 persons to the three estates; the commissioner makes opposition, and plainly disassents thereto, making his protestations in the contrary, craving at the estates conveened, so far licence as to acquaint his majesty with this particular, before any further were done, whereupon he hastily writes to the king anent the premises, and while his majesty sent back answer the parliament sits still.

In the meantime the marquis of Huntly being dwelling in the Canongate, having his three virgin daughters with him, lady Ann, lady Henrietta, and lady Jean, and the lord Gordon at Strathboggie, came to the parliament, where in publick presence of the commissioner, his Grace, the said marquis and the earl of Kinnoul swore and subscribed the Covenant, as was reported, before any thing else was done.

Follows a complaint against the said marquis, at the instance of the earl of Errol, being but a bairn, through wicked council and malice of his tutors and guiders, for alledged plundering of his house in the town of Turriff at the raid thereof, as ye have before. The marquis answered, he was himself warded in the castle of Edinburgh, and he gave no warrant to do his service any wrong, nor any other man, and swa should be free. The lords of parliament thought his answer reasonable, and so the pursuers lost the cause.

There came then on another more malicious complaint against him, at the instance of the laird of Frendraught, Lesly, Craigievar, Glenkindie, Alexander Forbes alias —— p. 193 and diverse others of the Forbes' faction, his old enemies, for alledged recepting within his ground of John Dugar and his followers of the name of Clangregor, notorious thieves, murderers, and robbers of the king's lieges, and of themselves especially; this complaint was tried before a committee first, and thereafter before the parliament. Sir Thomas Hope the king's advocate, Mr. Roger Mouat and Mr. James Baird were advocates for the pursuers, Sir Lewis Stuart and Mr. John Gilmore were advocates for the lord marquis; and after long disputation the marquis was absolved; this he patiently suffered among the rest of his heavy crosses.

As thir things were doing, the king writes back, desiring the parliament to be adjourned to the 14th of November, whilk was granted, and the parliament continued to that day, the Covenanters making many protestations to the contrary; and so this parliament dissolves with little more ado. The commissioner, careful of the keeping of the ornaments of the crown, keeps them in a secret place while they should be sought.

The king sends down to Scotland for his commissioner, but the estates would not let him go for their own reasons, whereat the king was mightily incensed. It is here to be marked, that albeit the king had indicted his parliament, and frae the whilk to the 11th of July 1640 by continuation day by day, upon the whilk day the estates held a parliament by themselves, without any commissioner or ornament of the crown, yet there is none of the acts of parliament, but of set purpose omitted and left out by the Covenanters, except there is some mention made of that which makes for them in the parliament holden by the estates, and Robert lord Burleigh their president, upon the 11th of June foresaid, viz. the 5th act, as the same bears; see more hereafter. Thus is this parliament disdained and put in oblivion, albeit it ratified bishops, articles of Perth, and power of kirkmen to be unlawful.

About this time John Menzies, eldest son to Sir Paul Menzies of Kinmundy, late provost of Aberdeen, happened unhappily to perish riding through the North Water. His corps was hastily taken taken up and convoyed with lamentation to Aberdeen, and upon the 22d day of August p. 194 was buried with vollies of muskets instead of a funeral sermon, as was wont to be given, and many tears cried for his untimely death, being a brave youth of singular expectation.

Ye hear before about Traquair; the king would not hear the earl of Dumfermling and lord Loudon, whom the Covenanters sent up commissioners to his majesty, because they came up to him without his majesty's commissioner's consent, but he was no wise detained by the estates, as is noted before.

Upon Wednesday before Michaelmas, Patrick Lesly is now chosen provost of Aberdeen (who to his grief was hindered from that place before) he being a prime Covenanter, and of good estate, recovers his place again by the consent of the most of the council, who were also Covenanters and upon his side, by express command of the estates of this kingdom, as a man sitting for their service in thir tumultuous times, and in such a burgh as the town of Aberdeen, whom the estates ever thought were not altogether of their opinion; however, many of the town's people thought not good of this election, fearing he was prideful and seditious, and ready to breed dissention among them, as over truly it afterwards came to pass. The laird of Drum at this Michaelmas continued sheriff principal of Aberdeen for the next year, and Mr. William Davidson continued sheriff depute thereof during life, and Sir John M'Kenzie of Tarbet sheriff principal of Inverness for that time.

In this month of September, an Holland ship with store of cheese, came into the harbour of Aberdeen, 24 pound weight whereof was sold for eight shillings Scots, whereof people was well content.

Upon Friday the 27th of September, on the night, the east quarter of Marischal College suddenly took fire (none knowing the manner how), the people gathered, but could not get it quenched till it was all burnt to nought. However it was shortly bigged up again, yet taken for a visitation from God.

About this time the laird of Banff, seeing he could not live in peace at home, because he was still the king's man, and would never swear nor subscribe the covenant, takes p. 195 course for refuge to go to the king, and seek his protection, but little help had he of him, suppose his majesty had a good mind so to have done; but Banff payed severely for his outstanding, and was cruelly punished and oppressed in his estate, as ye may afterwards hear.

Ye heard before how Doctor Leslie principal of the College of Old Aberdeen, Doctor Sibbald minister in Aberdeen, and divers others, went to Berwick to the king; they came home with the town's commissioners in August. This Doctor Sibbald was welcome, entered to his ministry in Aberdeen, and served for a while, but Doctor Leslie being before deposed, took himself to a quiet chamber within the College, lived soberly upon his own charges, beheld patiently Doctor William Guild occupy his place, and the changes in thir different times. He was a singular learned man, who would never be moved to swear and subscribe our covenant, saying, he would not hurt his conscience for worldly means. He was never heard to speak immodestly against the covenant nor procedure of thir times, but suffered all things with great patience, attending God's will; none more fit for learning to his charge in the College, and therewith godly and grave. It is said the king gave him. some money at Berwick, whereupon he lived for a short while, and it is true he had no great means to the fore of his own at this time.

In this month of September there came out a proclamation at the Cross of Edinburgh, forbidding the wearing of guns and pistols or carabines, under the pain of death; but through the use of inbringing of the wearing of thir forbidden arms for the good cause, the proclamation got no obedience, to the great abuse of the land.

Upon the 17th day of October there was a committee holden within the College of Aberdeen by diverse barons, ministers and commissioners, and Mr. David Lindlay parson of Belhelvie. There were appointed to keep this committee sundry noblemen, but they were at Edinburgh attending the parliament; their errand was for placing Doctor Guild in the principality, in the deposed Doctor William Leslie's place; but because the committee was not fully conveened, they caused Doctor William Guild subscribe p. 196 the covenant absolutely, who had subscribed the same before with limitation, and he is chosen rector of this university for a year, by such as were present, and thereafter he was chosen principal; and this committee was adjourned to the     day of November next. This Doctor Guild wrote out a paper called A friendly and faithful advice, whilk was printed, concerning thir troubles, and against the raising of an army by subjects against their lawful king. Nevertheless he now subscribes the covenant without limitation, contrary to the opinion of his printed paper, as it would appear, and to his first subscription, being always a temporizer.

Upon the third Tuesday of October, the provincial assembly sits down in the session-house of New Aberdeen,, and not within the College Kirk of Old Aberdeen, as was used in the bishops times. Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie being last moderator, teached, as the custom is. After sermon he and the brethren, with the ruling elders, viz. each minister having a ruling elder chosen out of the worthiest of the sessioners of his presbytery; and so ilk minister with his elder is called, and by direction of the tables, this assembly is adjourned to the 19th of November next, and so without more ado dissolved.

Now the College is taken up shortly after Michaelmas, by Mr. Robert Ogilvie subprincipal, Mr. Alexander Middleton and Mr. Alexander Garden, regents not deposed; but the principal and Mr. Alexander Scroggie were deposed, as ye have before. The grammar school and schools which had lyen idle before, began now to flourish, and literature taught.

The court of session sits not down the first of November, for administration of justice, as use was, but was vacated the haill winter session, to the great grief of the true creditor, and joy of the debtor unwilling to pay his debt; yet sheriffs and commissaries held their courts, and other inferior judicatures, as they were wont to do.

Ye heard before how Mr. James Gordon, keeper of his majesty's signet, convoyed the samen away to England to his master the earl of Stirling, lest the Covenanters should seal their malignant proclamations with the samen; he now p. 197 comes home about this time, and brought back the same signet with him for serving of the king's lieges , but he got little thank from the Covenanters for carrying it away.

Ye heard also how the king had written for his commissioner, and he was keeped, because he refused to ratify the assembly acts, and consent to what was done in parliament, as was alledged, whilk he would in nowise grant to without his majesty's command, as indeed he had reason not to go by his commission. In the meantime, the confederates sent up to the king the lord Loudon, the sheriff of Tiviotdale, and Mr. Robert Barclay provost of Edinburgh, with whom went also voluntarily the earl of Dumfermling. The king hearing of their coming, commanded them not to approach his court by 8 miles, because he had written for his commissioner, who was detained by his subjects most unjustly against their oath of allegiance, and contrary to the laws of nations, whereby an ambassador or commissioner may be recalled by his master from any other nation, much more by a king from his own subjects at his pleasure. Thir commissioners seeing the king so set, returned back again, leaving the earl of Dumfermling with his majesty, whereupon the confederates suffer the earl of Traquair to go up to the king. But the truth is, Traquair was nowise detained by the Scots parliament, but suffered to go peaceably; yet the king was offended that they should send up the earl of Dumfermling and lord Loudon to him, without warrant of Traquair; and therefore he would not give them presence, nor hear them.

Upon the second day of November king Charles' turners, striken by the earl of Stirling, by virtue of the king's gift, were by proclamation at the Cross of Edinburgh cried down from two pennies to one penny; king James' turners to pass for two pennies, because they were no less worth, and the kaird turners simpliciter discharged, as false cuinzies; but this proclamation was shortly recalled, because there was no other money passing to make change, and so were suffered to pass for a time for two pennies.

Upon Sunday the 3d of November, Dr. Sibbald and Dr. Guild, both ministers at Aberdeen, gave the communion to the people sitting at the table, but not upon their knees, as was wont, whereat many were sorry. p. 198

Upon the     day of November John Dugar, that bloody murderer and oppressor, came to William Stuart's house at Spey-side accompanied with 24 limmars, set out his watches, and took up house there; and in the meantime sent down to Garmouth for expences and spending-silver, otherwise he would come and plunder their houses and goods; the people are astonished at this charge, but gave the bearers fair words till the country was advertised, who shortly conveened; and Dugar being informed thereof by his own watches, hastily takes both the ferry-boats, and carries over his men to the staners whilk is in the midst of the water of Spey, and keeped the ferry-boats fast beside himself, so that there was no other boat thereabout to follow them. The country people seeing they wanted the boats, and that they could not ride the water, it being great, began to pursue them with shot, and they shot again, till at last Alexander Anderson in Garmouth standing upon the water-side shot this John Dugar dead. His men seeing this, immediately takes the flight without any more skaith, and away go they, and the country people return home to their houses.

The confederates suffer the earl of Traquair to depart (although their commissioners came down again without the king's presence) who upon the 22d of November went up to his majesty, and was well received, and made knight of the garter. In the mean time the confederates wrote to his majesty by a gentleman called William Cunninghame, who shortly followed the earl of Traquair, to desire the king to give presence to their commissioners when they came, and hear their humble petitions.

Ye heard before how the marquis of Huntly took up house in the Canongate; all this while he dwelt peaceably there as a good Covenanter; in the meantime the lord Drummond is married to lady Ann his eldest daughter, who was a precise puritan, and therefore well liked in Edinburgh. This marriage was celebrated with great solemnity; many nobles, and knights were there; among the rest the lord Gordon came frae Strathboggie to the samen, who had bidden there since August this year 1639; and immediately after this marriage he rides to England to the king, at command of his father. p. 199

Shortly after the lord Seaton is married to lady Henrietta, the marquis' second daughter, who was not of her sister's religion, but a Roman, Catholick. Thir marriages were drawn on by their uncle Argyle, who was also cautioner for both their tochers, each of them getting forty thousand merks; for his relief whereof, he got the wadset of Lochaber and Badenoch, as for other sums beside. The marquis convoyed ilk ane of his married daughters to their own houses; he left his third daughter lady Jean with his sister in Wintoun; procures a safe-conduct or pass from the tables to his son Ludowick (who then was at Strathboggie) to come to him wherever he was. Thir turns settled, the marquis gives up his house in the Canongate, discharges his servants, and about the 26th of November to the king goes he; his two sons the lords Gordon and Aboyn being gone before him. Thomas Crombie of Kemnay followed him also.

In this month of November a part of the Castle-wall of Edinburgh about the outer gate fell down, but it was hastily repaired and bigged up again, and the Castle well provided and furnished with all necessaries. The castle of Dumbrittain was also manned and fortified with Englishmen. Thirty-two strengths were (at the treaty of pacification) rendered to the king, whilk bred mikle trouble to the country and confederates afterwards.

About this time Mr. James Sandilands began to teach the canon laws in the College of Old Aberdeen, as he was restricted and limited by the General Assembly , viz. to teach only upon teinds, testaments, and matrimony, and to handle no further of the canon laws but these three heads. Moyan (though he had enemies in the College) bare him through to be canonist in form foresaid, for the whilk he got yearly payment of about 600 merks for teaching an unprofitable lesson when he pleased, anes in the week, or anes in the month as he liked best; for the whilk he was never found fault with, and he had few auditors except the regents and some students, who thought they tint their lessons idly to hear him, and that the gear wared upon him was ill bestowed and lost. However he was carried through by moyan to be canonist. Strange, to see a man p. 200 admitted to teach the laws, who was never out of the country, studying and learning them; but he got quit of the canonistry, and was chosen to be civilist afterwards.

About this time the lord Balmerinoch and his associates, by direction of the tables, began to have meetings in Edinburgh, contrary to the 5th article of the pacification, where such meetings are discharged.

Upon the first day of December, being Sunday, Dr. Scroggie celebrated the communion in Old Aberdeen. He in his sermon began to exhort the people to obey the ordinances of the kirk, with much such matter. The people received the samen sitting, and not kneeling, as was wont to be. The minister gave it to two or three nearest him, then ilk ane took his own communion bread out of the bason, and in like manner the minister gave the cup to his neighbour: strange to see such alterations! one year giving the communion kneeling, by virtue of an act of parliament founded upon Perth articles; and that self-same minister to give the communion after another manner, sitting, at the command of the General Assembly, unwarranted by the king.

About this time likewise, Mr. John Spotswood archbishop of St. Andrews, and high chancellor of Scotland, about the age of threescore and fifteen years, being chafed out of his own room, and having fled to England, departed this life at London. Sir Robert Spotswood his eldest son and president of the college of justice, is compelled to flee his country, and go to his ancient father, and durst not return.

Upon the 17th of December four men about the shore of Aberdeen bringing a keel down the water to a ship, by violence of speat water are carried out at the water mouth of Dee, where they all pitifully drowned, and the keel casten in at the Five-Mile-Burn—another visit doubtless from God to Aberdeen, whereof little good use was made.

Upon Sunday the 22d of December, Dr. Guild and Dr. Sibbald admonished the people not to keep Yool-Day next following, as contrary to the ordinance of the church. Some obeyed for fear; others made good chear; and the Covenanters durst not transgress. p. 201

Upon the 24th of December John Leith of Harthill sat down in provost Lesly's desk in the kirk of Aberdeen. The provost coming to his seat, and seeing him there, was offended, and caused the officers put him out very pridefully. He being a baron, and chief of a clan, gave him some evil talk, for which he was presently warded in the tolbooth of Aberdeen, where he lay long unrelieved.

Upon the     day of December, the earl Traquair returns home frae the king. He is honourably received at his entry, and saluted with shot of cannon from the Castle; he brings out of Holy-rood-house the crown, sword, and scepter (whilk had lyen there since the parliament was ridden) and puts them in the Castle, to be kept there. He renounces his commission, and none miscontent , and shortly thereafter rides back to the king, after whom came Mr. William Cunningham with a pacquet, and the 15th of January was appointed for breaking up thereof; and the confederates both of burgh and land warned to that effect:.

Upon the 20th of December Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, moderator of the presbytery of Aberdeen, appointed morning and evening prayers in ilk man's house, called the Family Exercise, according to the ordinance of the kirk.

Anno 1640.

The confederates with their commissioners meet upon the 15th day of January 1640 at Edinburgh, where the king's letter was broken up, declaring he was now content to hear their supplication; whereupon were shortly sent the lord Loudon, the sheriff of Tiviotdale, and Mr. Robert Barclay, to the king with their supplication. The earls of Dunfermling and Kinnoul, with some others who were lovers of peace, went with them.

About this time the earls of Mar and Kinghorn, with Sir Thomas Hope advocate, by command of the king, were put off of the council, and the said Sir Thomas warded in his own house of Craigiehall during his majesty's pleasure, p. 202 because James Grant's remission was not expede and past the seals upon his majesty's command. However he released him frae the horn, purchased his remission orderly, and went home to his own country peaceably, beyond all men's expectation, being such a bloodshedder and cruel oppressor, after he had escaped so many dangers.

Upon the     day of January Mr. David Lindsay archbishop of Glasgow, being about 74 years of age, and sore sick, is forced to flee to the king for refuge.

Upon the 14th day of January the earl of Haddingtoun married lady Jean Gordon, third daughter to the marquis of Huntly (himself being in England) by the means of the earl of Argyle, who was surety also for her tocher, extending to thirty thousand merks, in absence of her father. Thus the marquis' three daughters are now married.

Upon the 19th of January, the countess of Murray departed this life in Elgin, and was buried in her father the marquis's isle, beside himself, and not beside her husband. About this time a wealthy ship of Aberdeen coming out of Standers is casten away, men and goods, except two persons only; and likewise a little before, another of their ships was taken, being laden with salmon, by the Dunkirkers. Thus the Lord has his hand over Aberdeen by sea and land, but no repentance for our sins.

Sunday the 9th of February an universal fast was kept through all Scotland for craving God's pardon for the sins of the land, and for his blessing that the king might give a gracious answer to the supplicants at court.

About this time there came to Forth two ships, whereof one of the king's yachts was one, having 100 men aboard.

The soldiers and munition were landed, and upon the l0th day of February were convoyed up to the Castle with a strong guard, having cocked guns, and were pleasantly received within the Castle, without any kind of offence, according to the king's direction, and so the ships returned back again. It was said the cause of their coining was upon some contest betwixt the king and his nobles, who alledged that the king would neither get his men nor munition. p. 203 received into the Castle of Edinburgh, and his majesty held the contrary opinion, and great sums of money were laid down in pledge; but the marquis of Hamilton being privy to the matter, wrote down hastily to Edinburgh, to receive thir soldiers in form foresaid, whereby the king might be the more confident of their loyalty, whereof his majesty was very doubtful, as the end indeed proved.

Word came here, that the king was under some suspicion of his counselors, that they were revealing what they heard him say to the Scots, whilk was not far wrong, as I believe, so long as he kept the marquis of Hamilton beside him; whereupon, and for the better security, the Scottish affairs were advised and ruled by a committee of eight persons, all English except Hamilton. Word came also about this time, that the king was beginning to fortify Berwick and Carlisle, with men, munition, and other furniture.

Upon the 13th of February Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, moderator of the presbytery of Aberdeen, declared in presence of the presbytery holden in New Aberdeen, that he had order from the tables to advertise the moderator of ilk presbytery within the province or diocese, that the ministry of ilk presbytery should conveen at Aberdeen upon the 25th day of March next to come, and there to subscribe the covenant, with an explanation thereof made by the General Assembly holden at Edinburgh the 12th day of August 1639, bearing that the covenant made in anno 1580 and 1581 abjured episcopacy out of this kirk as unlawful; likeas the said assembly declared the articles of Perth and book of Common Prayer to be unlawful in this kirk, whilk explanation was set down in a Covenant, made up by the said General Assembly at that samen time, that they had given order that it should be sworn and subscribed through all the presbyteries of Scotland, ministers and auditors man by man, because this covenant, bearing the explanation foresaid, was ratified by the earl of Traquair his majesty's commissioner. Likeas the said Mr. David Lindsay made lawful advertisement as he was ordained, that the ministry should first come into Aberdeen, and swear and subscribe the covenant, and then ilk minister to cause his parishioners swear and subscribe the samen, or otherwise note up the names of p. 204 those who refused to swear and subscribe the same; but he at this presbytery desired doctor Sibbald, one of the ministers of Aberdeen, to swear and subscribe, who being present refused; whereupon great trouble, sorrow, and calamity befel him,. as ye may see afterwards; but whether the brethren came in to Aberdeen the foresaid 25th of March or not, I cannot tell; yet upon the 2d of March Aberdeen subscribed.

There was also a band drawn up to be subscribed by all manner of men within the kingdom of Scotland, and whosomever refused to subscribe the same, that their names should be given up. This band came to Aberdeen in the month of February foresaid, bearing in the end thereof an information, whereof the tenor follows.

We     and others under subscribing, considering that for as much as in the late troubles of this kingdom, diverse well affected noblemen, gentlemen, burgesses, and others, did deburse in money, victual, and otherwise, and have taken upon their credit great sums of money (the burden whereof being too heavy for them to bear, equity and reason craves that they were relieved and reimbursed thereof) and especially seeing the benefits as well of removing of evils as reformation established by the last assembly, indicted by our dread sovereign his royal authority, is communicated to all and every good and loyal subject: within this kingdom, every one should and ought to contribute equally and proportionally, according to his means and fortune, for relief of the said common charges; and because the determination of the parliament anent the said common relief is delayed, and the time thereof yet uncertain, whereby those that have debursed, undertaken, and lent their monies and victual and others, lie out of payment, as well as annual rent, to the weakening and hazard of their credit, and to the endangering of their fortunes and estates, unless timeous and speedy remead be taken by mutual concourse of the haill kingdom for defraying of the samen; and therefore we bind and oblige us and every one of us, our heirs, executors, and successors, ilk ane of us for our own parts, and conform to the proportion of our estates, means, and fortunes, either in lands, money, goods, or others, whereby profit and commodity yearly arises, to content and pay p. 205 to ——— persons appointed for ingathering the samen, the just, equal, and proportionable part of the saids haill common charges, debursed, advanced and furnished for the common business foresaid, and the publick use of the country, since the beginning of these late troubles, as the samen charges shall be found to extend and amount unto, after trial and just calculation of the accounts thereof, by those entrusted with the same, and that according to the proportion of our lands, goods, money or others our estate foresaid, as the samen shall be valued and estimate by four or more landed men, or others of good credit and reputation, sworn for that effect, to be appointed within ilk presbytery of the kingdom, to whose determination and estimation to be given up under their hands and subscriptions, we do hereby submit ourselves, and the estimation of our said estates and means, and that at the terms of Whitsunday 1640 years, or at such other terms, or in such other form, as shall be appointed by the general order to be taken by those who are intruded therewith. And because the foresaid sums, debursed as said is, does pay annual rent yearly and termly, therefore in case of not thankful payment by us, or any of us, ilk ane for our own parts of our proportional parts of the said sums so to be imposed upon us at the said terms respective, we oblige us and our foresaids to pay annual rent for the same at the ordinary rate after the said terms of payment, with ten merks of ilk hundred merks in case of failzie; without prejudice always to execution hereupon; and because the proportional parts are to be paid by us, as well heritors, liferenters, and others, according to the proportion of our yearly worth, and not burdened with debts and other burdens, therefore it is hereby declared, that the debitor shall have retention frae his creditor in the first end of his rent or annual rent of his due proportional part of the said sum, effeiring to the rate and quantity of the said annual rent or burden, payable by the said debitor to him or them. It is hereby also declared, that what sums of money, victual, or goods or others, debursed, lent or employed for the public use, or taken by warrant of the commissaries or officers of the army, and for the army's use, upon promise of payment; by word or write, the p. 206 samen shall be allowed to the persons debursers, or from whom the same were taken, after trial made by those entrusted upon the said accompt, that the lame is just. and reasonable; providing always the said debursements be given to the said persons entrusted with the said accompts betwixt and the —— day of —— next to come, together with the instructions thereof, otherwise no allowance nor retention to be granted. As also it is declared, that what person or persons soever shall not pay their annual rents yearly within the year, at least within three months thereafter, shall have no retention of the said proportional part; and for the more security, &c. Note, here was set down the common clause of registration used in bonds and obligations made in the country.

This band was marvellous in the light of the people, so doubtfully and ambiguously drawn up, as none knew to whom he was bound, and left blank. Ilk man's estate to be valued, and conform thereto to make payment, without warrant or authority of the king, but extended by subjects upon grounds of troubles begun by themselves,and for their own relief, to implore sums upon subjects. This was thought very hard, and frighted the people, so that they knew not what to do; for if they refused to subscribe, they would be troubled for the same, as ye may see in the end of the information following; and if they did subscribe, it would compel them to give out their gear whether they would or not for unprofitable ends, as they thought. Others that were true covenanters went on and subscribed upon all hazards.

Upon the doubtful and ambiguous band followed another piece, drawn up likewise upon paper, in write by itself, called an information whereof this is the copy.

Forasmuchas many and diverse noblemen, burgesses, and others, out of their good affection for the religion and liberties of this kingdom, have debursed money, given out victual, or engaged them selves for sums of money and other provision necessary and urgent for the public use of the kingdom, the relief whereof was expected by act of parliament to have been made; and now seeing the determination of the said parliament is delayed, and the time thereof uncertain, p. 207 whereby those who have engaged themselves, or debursed the saids monies or other provisions, lie out of payment of principal as well as annual rent, to the hazard of their estates and credits, whilk is contrary to all equity and reason, seeing the benefits arising as well of removing evils as reforming religion, are equally communicated to all and every good subject: of whatsomever estate and degree, we ought therefore in equity to bear a proportional part of the said common charges, according to our estates and fortunes. For effecting whereof it is necessary that the rule of proportion be kept, and every man, as well in burgh as land, pay an equal part according to his estate and rent of lands, money, trade, and others whereby yearly profit and commodity arises; and to the effect the samen may be performed in the most equitable and fairest way, it is necessary,

First, that the general band be subscribed by all the noblemen, gentlemen, and heritors within every sheriffdom, who shall be conveened for that effect, by the persons after specified, and whilk persons shall make a particular accompt, betwixt the day hereof and the     day of next     to come, with a particular note of all those who have subscribed the same, and those who refuse and deny to subscribe the same in burgh or land.

Secondly, that the noblemen, gentlemen, and others, heritors within the presbytery, at least so many of them as after intimation to be made to them may conveen, do make choice of four or more landed sworn men or others of good same and credit, who shall take exact trial in just manner as they shall think fit, of the yearly worth of every man's estate in money, victual, or other rent, whereby yearly commodity arises without burgh, and to distinguish the particular rents of every several parish, and to make the estimation of the victual, as they shall think reasonable.

Thirdly, they must keep the particulars of every particular man's rent by themselves, that the samen be not divulged to their own neighbours among themselves.

Fourthly, the said persons shall take up and esteem the said rents all as free rents, without deduction of any burdens, except ministers stipends and feu duties, or others due to his majesty, as where there are clauses irritant. p. 208

Fifthly, the rents of buyers and sellers of victual, and others, traffickers without burgh, must be estimate according to the flock.

Sixthly, liferenters must pay as heritors, and their rent given up in like kind with them; consideration must be had where grassums are paid at the entry, and small duties thereafter, that their rent may be estimate conform.

So soon as the said persons have taken an exact trial of ilk man's particular rents within ilk parish of the prebyteries, they must set down a roll of the parishes within their presbyteries, together with the total sum in cumulo of the rent of the parish, as well in victual as money; whilk roll must be subscribed by them, testifying the same to be true, upon their honour and credit, according to their knowledge. There is one appointed in every presbytery within the kingdom for agenting this business, and to see it put to a speedy and final conclusion, who must be answerable to give an account thereof, and report the samen to those at Edinburgh who shall be intrusted in the common business, and that betwixt the    day of     next to come: and for keeping the proportion due by the burghs, it is condescended, that betwixt and the    day of    next to come, the magistrates within the burgh shall make choice of their own ordinary number and quality of the persons used in such cases, who shall be sworn to make a just and true estimate of every man's rent within the burgh, burgage land, and trade, (their dwelling-house excepted) and give up the samen in particular to the foresaids magistrates, who shall be obliged to report the same in cumulo to those that shall reside at Edinburgh, under the said magistrates hands, at their honour and credit; and for eschewing the discovery of every man's estate within or without burgh, whereby their credit may be engaged, it is to be remembered, that every man must pay for his rent (except the ministers stipends and feu duties foresaid) as free rent, without any burden of debt, valued bolls, or other duties whatsomever; for recompence whereof every debitor shall have retention from his creditor of a proportional part, according as the composition shall be laid on, and the annual rent shall be free of any other payment for that service out of which the p. 209 proportional part shall be deduced, and shall not be stented for the samen, whether he dwell within or without burgh; providing always, that in case the said annual rent be not payed yearly, at the least within three months thereafter, there shall be no retention of the said proportional part; the like retention is to be had for the valued bolls or other burdens, and debts payed out of their lands or rents; and left the said common relief should be hindered or delayed in any sort, it is condescended, that if the report shall not come frae the parishes, presbyteries or burghs at the day prefixed, in that case it is determined, that those who shall have trust in the common affairs shall have power to impose upon the said parishes, presbyteries and burghs, such proportional parts as they shall think expedient:. So we intreat you to see these things done, as we shall be your assured friends, (sic subscribitur)

Edinburgh, 18th
  January, 1640.

The foresaid ambiguous and blanked band frighted many from the subscribing thereof, as done without warrant of his majesty or authority of parliament, set out by subjects upon subjects, whilk ought not to have obedience, nor men to give out their gear upon such lawless statutes. Others again of the covenant yielded more willingly, and were content to subscribe to the good cause, suppose against their wills (if they durst have avowed it). Thus this band and information came to Aberdeen about the 3d day of February, as is said before; they went to council and concluded, that what the kingdom and rest of the burrows should do, the town of Aberdeen would do the like. No trouble followed upon the subscribing this band, as was looked for; yet Aberdeen payed well, as ye may see.

Upon the 14th of February, Ludowick Gordon came to George Middleton's house in Old Aberdeen, with trunks and money, to be carried to the marquis of Huntly, his father, now at court In England. He shipped at Aberdeen, having the lairds of Cluny and Foveran, and some others in his company, upon Good Friday the 3d of April. p. 210

Sunday the 16th of February Doctor Guild read out the covenant in New Aberdeen, after sermon, with the assembly of Edinburgh's explanation, and the earl of Traquair his majesty's commissioner's ratification of the same, and approbation of the council, and exhorted the people to swear and subscribe the samen. Doctor Scroggie upon the same Sunday in Old Aberdeen exhorted ilk master of a family to use the imprinted family exercise, morning and evening, whilk some were not able to do, others not capable to read.

Upon Monday the 2d of March the earl Marischal and lord Fraser came into Aberdeen with about 16 horde; they lodged in skipper Anderson's house, and got wine and confects frae the town. Their errand was to see the covenant and band subscribed by the township; the drum goes charging all to conveen within the tolbooth, where Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, Doctor Guild, and Robert Keith sheriff depute of the Mearns, were directed to attend their subscriptions; but the nobles stayed in their lodgings. Now the provost, baillies, and haill council (except Mr. Thomas Gray one of the baillies, and Thomas Buick, Adam Gordon and George Morison, three of the council) being all prime covenanters, and for that cause put in office, came into the tolbooth, and subscribed the same covenant, and swore also and subscribed the band formerly expressed; but the foresaid four would in no wise yield thereto. George Piper, Magnus Robertson, and William Ord, three of the deacons of the crafts, sware and subscribed, to brake the ice for the rest; many others, both burgesses and craftsmen, sware and subscribed, others constantly refused, whose names were noted down. At last the earl Marischal and lord Fraser commanded the provost and baillies to see the haill town swear and subscribe the samen (whereas some were absent, others took to be advised, and others had subscribed and sworn) otherwise to take up the names of the refusers, and so they rode home again upon the 4th of March. But before their way-going, the earl Marischal caused William Robertson town clerk, produce a band of allegiance, subscribed at command of the lord Aboyne by the burgh of Aberdeen, as ye have before, wherein they obliged themselves to stand and abide by the p. 211 king in all fortunes, against whatsomever other factious and seditious persons; not to disobey his commands, but to submit in all obedience, nor enter into any covenant. This band was by common consent consigned to the keeping of the said Walter Robertson. The earl Marischal gets word of this from some of the Covenanters who had subscribed the same, and whilk they would for their own honesty have seen destroyed. The earl sends for the same clerk, and craves this band, whilk he refused to him, but delivered the same to Patrick Leslie, who promised to warrant him; and the said Patrick delivered it to the earl, who immediately tore and destroyed the same, that it should never be known what Covenanters were the subscribers; and syne he with lord Fraser departed Aberdeen in manner foresaid.

The king had indicted a parliament to be holden in England, and to sit down at Westminster on the 13th of April 1640. The king was in a manner (craftily) compelled to indict this parliament (which bred him great sorrow, as after ye shall hear) upon two contrary ends, the king seeking reparation of the Scots; they (his English, subjects) seeking a parliament for reformation of kirk and police, according to the manner and form concluded betwixt the House of Commons and some nobles of England, and some of our nobles and clergy of Scotland in a clandestine covenant made betwixt them, whereby the church and state government should in both nations be alike and in one. The king ignorant of this business, and taking none to be the beginners and carriers on of this reformation but the Scottish, craves the English to assist him against them, but they answered, without a parliament they could not condescend to the raising of war; and though his majesty was loath to grant a parliament for diverse good reasons, yet he is compelled thereto, to get his will over the Scots, by granting the same. So he indicts a parliament , they sit down the foresaid 13th of April at Westminster; the first article that came in was (his majesty looking that they should have begun at the raising of an army against the Scots) about the incoming of the Spanish Armada defeated in the Downs; the estates were under deadly suspicion of his majesty, but p. 212 he knew nothing of their coming nor of their intention; the estates .alleged that they were sent (with the king's knowledge) by the pope and king of Spain to assist the papists of England. But his majesty having purged himself, craved subsidy of men and money to war upon the Scottish. The upper house, for the most part, and bishops, were content, but the lower house sent up to the upper house (before they would condescend) a commissioner with three articles, 1st, Settlement of religion. 2nd, Privilege of parliament. 3d, Right of subjects, which articles his majesty would in no wise hear, since he said it was not for this cause that he indicted a parliament, but only to have gotten power to subdue the Scottish, whilk being done, that then they should have their desires; but they would neither lead nor drive; whereupon the king in great anger raises his parliament, without any more ado. It was vehemently suspected that the duke of Buckingham's faction,, viz. the archbishop of Canterbury and divers papists had been privy to the inbringing of this armada. However this parliament is broken up by persuasion of the lieutenant of Ireland. Doctor Gordon medicinar, and one of the founded members of the College of Old Aberdeen, and common procurator thereof, departed this life upon the 10th of March, in his own house in Old Aberdeen; a godly, grave and learned man, singular in public works about the College, and putting up on the steeple thereof the stately and glorious crown, which you see thereon, which was thrown down by the wind. Mr. Robert Ogilvie subprincipal, was chosen common procurator of the said college in his room.

Upon the     day of March the earl Marischal compelled the town of Aberdeen to pay 600 merks for maintenance of some captains and other officers who had lyen, and wintered in New Aberdeen. Thus is this town grievously oppressed.

In this month of March there came an imprinted paper to. Aberdeen, intituled, An information from the estates of the kingdom of Scotland to the kingdom of England.

In this paper was set down diverse and sundry heads, as 1st,the form of the Covenanters procedure, justifying their covenant to be lawful, according to the laws of Scotland; p. 213 willing therefore their neighbour kingdom, not to square their doings by the English laws, nor to take meddling betwixt their king and them in state-matters, more than they do betwixt their king and them about the same in England. 2dly, They find fault with the earl of Traquair anent his behaviour at our parliament, being the king's commissioner, and of some speeches spoken by him in presence of his majesty and council of England. 3dly, They find fault for putting of some lords from the council, without hearing or trial, as ye have before. 4thly, They find fault with the copper cuinzie parting for two pennies, being little or nothing worth. 5thly, They find fault with a treatise alleged set out by Mr. Walter Balcanqual, garnished, as they alleged, with 2000 lies and calumnies, and that they could not get him liable to the censure of the Scots laws for this his slanderous writing; there is diverse other regrets concerning both church and police set down in this paper, and withal they use a friendly admonition towards Englishmen, wishing them in nowise to move war against the Scottish, lest the papists should take advantage of thir divisions, and subdue this island to popery. These are some of the particular heads of their paper, whilk was printed, and a Scotsman called James Colvill was sent out of purpose with 2000 copies of it to England, there to disperse and spread the samen through the country, to make their cause good, and grievances intolerable. The king hearing of this, takes it highly, and causes apprehend the spreader thereof James Colvill, and ward him for dispersing of such seditious pamphlets, but he was shortly set at liberty.

This Walter Balcanqual was a laureat doctor, and a. learned man, who had served the king as one of his chaplains; he attended the General Assembly holden at Glasgow, and marked their procedure particularly, whereupon he took occasion to write a treatise, declaring the plotters and projectors of this covenant, the order and procedure of the. Assembly aforesaid, their acts, ordinances, citations, deprivations, excommunications, and the rest to be altogether unlawful, against the laws and authority of the king's majesty, and offered to prove and verify ilk particular of their procedure to be no wise warrantable by law or authority, p. 214 or could subsist as lawful, as is at great length set down in his printed paper. But how soon this piece came to light, it enraged the confederates so as they could get no rest till they had him censured therefore, and wrote to his majesty as it is noted in the information; but he fled to the king for safeguard, who, (instead of sending him to Scotland, as the confederates desired), preferred him to an English benefice of one thousand pounds sterling a year to live upon, because he durst not bide in Scotland, and that was to be dean of Durham. It was said he dedicated this treatise to the king himself.

In this month of March Edinburgh begins to have a strong watch of about 400 men nightly; they raise fortifications to defend the town against the violence of the Castle; they raise midding mounts upon the causeway, and fill up sundry houses with sand and water to resist fire works; they set their engine to do what could be done to resist and withstand the firing of the Cattle cannon, if it occurred; they set 200 men on watch in Leith. General Ruthven seeing and hearing of these doings, sends down to the town of Edinburgh five articles,. 1st, To cast down such fortifications as were re-bigged. 2d, To desist and leave off from any further building, 3d, Not to muster their men daily in sight of the Castle, as was done. 4th, To discharge their daily drilling within the town. 5th, To send in men and material for repairing of some fallen down walls within the Castle, otherwise to be upon their guard. The town discharged mustering before the Castle, and were content that captain Scrimgeour should come down and make interruption to the bigging of their mounts, by casting down three or four shovelfuls frae the work, which was done; and then sent in men and materials for helping of the walls within the Castle, and a peace in the meantime, till both the town and Castle advertised the king, and each sent unto him several messengers to that effect, and for a certain space a truce was kept between the town and the Castle; but before any answer came frae the king, the truce expired, whereupon the town of Edinburgh began again to their fortifications, raised midden mounts at Heriot's Work, and upon the causeway, and sundry other p. 215 parts within and about the town for their defence, filled cannons on ilk ane of their mounts for pursuit of the Castle; whereupon the Castelians began to shoot at the town with great shot, but did no skaith; the town's people not shooting again, but suffering patiently, and complaining by their letters to the king of this pursuit. General Ruthven thought he had good reason to do what he did, not only for their raising thir fortifications, but also for refusing him fresh meat, whereupon some of his soldiers stole away over the walls, others of the English soldiers fell sick of the flux. Now Edinburgh undermines the spur, thereby to take in the Castle, but they wan nothing thereat. Letters were daily interrupted, whereby they of the Castle had no word frae the king, because Edinburgh laid wait for such letters.

Word came to Aberdeen about the last of March, that the earl of Southesk, Mr. James Fairlie bishop of Argyle, Sir Lewis Stuart advocate, Mr. James Gordon keeper of the signet, Mr. James Farquharson writer to the signet, Mr. Robert Petrie agent, with diverse others, about 24 persons, were all taken and apprehended in Edinburgh, as enemies to the confederates. They were all warded in town's mens houses of Edinburgh, yet nightly watched that none should go out nor come in without their knowledge, because they were all anti-covenanters. Many marvelled at thir proceedings, how the king's subjects should be taken and abused by subjects, without authority of the king, law or reason; whether they would or not, they behoved to swear and subscribe the covenant, before they wan to liberty, together with the band of relief.

Thereafter the new stiled estates send the earl of Southesk to England with a new imprinted information to inform them of England of their business. Sir Thomas Thomson was also taken; he comes in, swears and subscribes the covenant and band of relief; he is put upon the council thereafter, and entrapped for sending some of the king's letters privately to general Ruthven in the Castle, whereat the estates were highly offended, he sitting at the council table; for the whilk he is laid fast in the irons in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and thereafter put to liberty, and had to the Bowlroad with the rest. p. 216

Upon the 2d day of April Doctor Guild, rector of the Old Town College, with some masters and members thereof, had a meeting, where some of the regents had their stipends augmented. Mr. James Sandilands demitted his place as canonist with great subtilty, because our kirk would not suffer him to bruik it, nor let the canon laws be teached, but he finds out moyan to be civilist, to make up commodity for light service; whereat the College members still grudged, he being also commissary clerk of Aberdeen.

Friday, or Good Friday the 3d of April, no preaching or communion in either of the Aberdeens, as was used and wont, nor yet given on Pasch-day.

Great frosts and snows in this oat seed time, no ploughs going, and little seed sowing, so vehement was the storm; no peats could be had to burn, for a load would have cost a merk, whilk would have been cost other years for two shillings; the brewsters left off to brew for want of fire. The reason of this scarcity was, because the Covenanters coming here in March 1639, caused the servants who should have casten the peats for serving of both Aberdeens, flee out of the country for fear, so not only were our peats dear, but through the unseasonableness of the spring the victual also became very dear.

It is said that about the 4th of April a Lyon Herauld, accompanied by James Philp now clerk to the secret council, came to Dunnotter, and charged the earl Marischal personally to compear before his majesty and parliament of England, at Westminster the 13th of April, to hear and see our Scottish commissioners (now lying at court) receive an answer to their supplications, and for such other reasons as were contained in the charge, under the pain of treason; and upon this charge the Herauld took instrument in this James Philp's hands, who was sent with him for that effect. The earl welcomed the Herauld, and desired him to stay and drink, whilk he would not do, but took his leave. It was said that this Herauld had given also the like charge to divers other nobles, such as the earls of Rothes, Montrose, Cassilis, Kinghorn, Argyle, General Leslie, the lords Lindsay and Balmerinoch, but they all disobeyed the charge; and upon their own reasons made protestations against the same. p. 217

About this time Felt Marischal Lesly is again chosen general of our Scottish army, and the nobles, barons, gentry, burrows, and clergy sworn to follow him as their general. Upon the     day of April the earl of Murray established his only sister in his dwelling-house of Elgin, and gave order for keeping her house in honourable manner; he gave her the haill jewels and goldwork that belonged to her defunct mother; he keeped her pose himself; and after settling of his affairs, he goes directly to England; but shortly thereafter the laird of Grant is quietly married to the said lady Mary, without advice of her brother or any other friends.

Mr. John Peter, minister at St. Andrews Kirktown in Murray, about this time was deprived for not subscribing the covenant.

The king causes put in garrison within the town of Berwick about this time, for his own service, about 2000 soldiers.

You see before some order taken with the passing of turners, whereof some were appointed to pass for a penny, but now they would give nothing for king Charles' turners, but king James' turners only should pass; whereby all change and trade was taken away through want of current money, because thir slight turners was the only copper passing through all Scotland.

About this time the earl of Stirling departed this life at London, who for all his court and accedents left no great estate nor means free behind him. The earl of Lanerk, brother to the marquis of Hamilton, and Sir James Galloway, fell conjunct secretaries in his place, for he was both secretary of Scotland, and secretary of the Scottish council of England.

About this time the king sent down. a letter to the provost and baillies of Edinburgh, with a proclamation, bearing that it was his majesty's will to discharge the earl of Argyle of his justiciary of Argyle and Tarbet, and that none of the king's lieges and good subjects should answer or obey him the said earl, in taxes or feu duties, or other homages belonging thereto, as and while he should compear personally before the parliament of England, to answer to such p. 218 things as were said to his charge. Likeas the king commanded the foresaid provost and baillies to cause proclaim thir letters at the mercat cross of Edinburgh, under all highest pain and peril. They advise with the council table, and write back to the king, that in such troublesome times, the country being in uproar and afraid of the incoming of the sea and land armies, and also with the daily threatnings of the Castle of Edinburgh, they durst scarcely hazard to make any such proclamation against the person of such a prime nobleman; besides, it was not agreeable to the Scottish laws, to deprive him of his estate or dignities but by advice of council and Scottish parliament, and therewith no nobleman could be assured of his life, lands, or goods, if this past as a practice; and further none of our noblemen are holden to answer but before his country council and parliament, and to be tried by his own Scottish peers, and not to go to England to underly their censure. Thir, with diverse others reasons, were written back to the king, and in sundries judgment were found reasonable, alledging the king cannot deprive any man of his estate or goods but by trial of parliament in manner aforesaid, yet that his majesty had power of himself to suspend any nobleman frae his offices and rents, while the matter of his accusation were truly and formally tried; and so this proclamation was left unpublished, contrary to the king's desire.

The third Tuesday and 21st of April our provincial assembly sits down within the session-house of New Aberdeen; Mr. James Martin minister at Peterhead was chosen moderator; they cry out the non-subscribants of the covenant and band of relief. Dr. Scroggie, minister at Old Aberdeen, and Doctor Sibbald one of the ministers of New Aberdeen, were referred to the next committee, for their outstanding, and so with little more ado they dissolve.

Mr. Robert Melvin minister at Dyce is made moderator of the presbytery of Aberdeen till the next assembly: and in the mean time the foresaid two doctors at this meeting had no voice in the assembly, and the said Mr. James Martin to endure moderator till the next assembly by the voices of his brethren and ruling elders; a novelty indeed! p. 207a

About this time word came that major general Monro was coming with an army to Aberdeen to guard the country, by direction of the new stiled estates; but his purpose was rather to oppress the king's loyal subjects; whilk being suspected by some barons in this country, they began to fortify their houses, such as the laird of Drum, Gight, Banff, Federet, Foveran, and sundry others, and furnished them with men and muskets, meat and drink, and other devices of defence against this Monro's coming , but he turned all these doings to nothing, as after does appear.

Ye heard before how the lord Loudon, the sheriff of Teviotdale, and Mr. Robert Barclay were sent to supplicate the king. Now about the 21st of April word came home that they were all warded, and Loudon put into the tower, upon a letter revealed and produced by the earl of Traquair before his majesty, alleged to be written to the king of France by some of our Scottish nobles, whereof this Loudon. was one, whilk letter was subscribed with his hands. It was not delivered to the king of France, but appears to have been keeped up by the earl of Traquair, as he who was upon the council at the plotting and devising of the bishops overthrow with the rest, suppose not consenting to other matters that fell out thereafter. However Loudon is accused of subscribing this letter before the king.

About the 27th of April the earl Marischal (having some meetings in the Mearns, and gathered some soldiers) wrote to the provost and baillies of Aberdeen, that he was to come to the town, and desired that no ship should go out of the haven till his coming, because he was under fear that the town's anti-covenanters would flee, whilk the provost obeyed, and took the sails from the ships yards. Many townsmen hearing of Marischal's coming to the town, took the flight, among whom Robert Buchan of Portlethen, with his second son, after his house and ground was plundered, took to sea, and so ilk man shifted for himself, part by sea, part by land, as they thought best.

Upon the 5th of May the earl Marischal, (being about 23 years of age, young and stout), comes to Aberdeen, about p. 208a 160 horse, with sound of trumpet, in peaceable manner. The lord Fraser and master of Forbes, and divers barons rode out to meet him; he took up house in his own lodging. There was a committee chosen to sit in Aberdeen, such as the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the lairds of Philorth, Monymusk, Craigievar, and George Baird of Auchmedden, and five other commissioners subordinate to them, to hold a council of war; whilk committee and council should sit weekly in Aberdeen at the council table, for guiding and ruling of the town and shire of Aberdeen in thir troublesome times; and the earl took the commissioners oaths to do nothing but by his advice, as being general of the north.

In the mean time they ordain the town of Aberdeen to subscribe the common bond of relief, who had not yet subscribed; the baillies went quarterly about, to cause ilk inhabitant subscribe, whereof some were absent, some subscribed, and some refused; at last the town was compelled for wealth and trade, to compone within the burgh and freedom of the same, (the landward heritage belonging to burgesses excepted) for payment to the earl of the sum of 6000 merks. Thus is the king's burgh compelled to pay for this common band, the foresaid sums, without law or warrant of the king, and is sore crossed and vexed, as ye have heard several times before; and is the third time now fined, extending in all to the sum of 26,000 merks, by and attour many and divers oppressions besides.

Thir things done, this general or governor Marischal, upon the 8th of May rides back to Dunnotter, and the rest go home, and at that time dissolves; but young Tolquhon, and divers others of the name of Forbes, went out to convoy Marischal a piece of the way. Mr. George Lesly and William Fraser of Bogheads (both good-brothers and the earl's tenants) being with the rest in his company, met with the young laird of Tolquhon, and unhappily discorded. Mr. George hurt him in the head upon the Tullo-hill; they were parted, he and Bogheads disarmed, and the governor promises satisfaction to Tolquhon, who took his leave frae him and returns to Aberdeen, and he forward to Dunotter; where the said Mr. George Lesly and William p. 209a Fraser (suppose he was innocent) were both laid in the irons. Upon the morn they were sent about by sea, shackled in irons, to Aberdeen, with warrant to the provost of Aberdeen to ward them both in the tolbooth, and to cause strike off Mr. George Lesly's right hand at one stroke, for hurting the young Tolquhon, in the general's company, against the discipline of war. The provost receives them, wards them, and causes loose their shackles, but thought he was not judge to this punishment for such a riot committed in the shire of the Mearns, where Marischal himself was sherrif, who was only judge thereto. Many people murmured against this rigorous sentence given out against a gentleman for such a slight fault, done also in his own defence. Nevertheless the general of his own authority, upon the 18th of May, caused fix fast in the causeway at the mercat cross of Aberdeen a stock, and an axe beside it laid down; and a little scaffold of timber bigged about, with a fire kindled to burn the blood when the hand was cut off. There was also a chair set beside the stock, and the hangman ready. The gentleman is brought from the tolbooth, and as he is coming down stairs, the people being conveened in great numbers about the cross, cried out pitifully against this cruelty, used so rigorously to the gentleman. However he lays down his arm upon the stock, and the hangman ready to give the stroke: beyond the expectation of the beholders, the master of Forbes suddenly comes, and lifts his hand from the stock, and made him free; whereat the people mightily rejoiced. It was had back to the tolbooth, where he was arrested at the instance of Mr. James Clerk, and remained in ward while the 25th. of June following, syne put to liberty, but William Fraser was relieved out of the tolbooth upon the 25th of May.

The general did this for satisfying of young Tolquhon, and as was said, he had never mind to take the gentleman's hand who was his own tenant, but only made a shew, whereof doubtless the gentleman had certainty, otherwise he would not have gone without more trouble.

Now the English ships begins to take our merchants ships, and has them to Berwick and Holy Island, where their goods were loosed and inventaried, that none should be lost, and the men let go; but the king was deceived p. 210a herein. Likewise he got liberty to take our ships, but none to meddle with our goods.

Upon the 11th of May there was wonderful high tempestuous winds, marvellous in May, whereby sundry persons died, and a lax fisher drowned the water of Don, and a ship going with victuals to Dumbritton likewise perished.

Upon the 13th of May a muster was made of both Aberdeens in the links, by order of Governor Marischal. They were divided, and of few number, not passing 260 persons, and 20 out of Old Aberdeen; they had three captains, two called Forbes, and the third called Crookshank, given to them by the general, who wonted to be served with their own commanders; they were but few that went out, and that sore against their wills. The roll is called, many are absent, and so ilk man goes home without shooting a shot as they were wont to do, being heartless and divided amongst themselves.

Upon the 18th of May the lord Sinclair with about 16 horse comes to Aberdeen; he lodges in skipper Anderson's, and commanded the provost to cause watch his lodging all night, whilk was done. Marvellous how Aberdeen was compelled by any subject without warrant of the king! upon the morn he rides for Caithness; he was one of the tutors to the pupil earl of Caithness.

Upon the 21st of May there was a meeting of the name of Gordon at Strathboggie, and diverse others, amongst whom was the laird of Drum, counselling about the coming of general Monro with an army. However they dissolve, and the laird of Drum returning, happened to come by where the laird of Monymusk was in a moss, causing cast peats. He sends out one named William Forbes, brother to the laird of Pitnacaddell, upon his best horse, to ask who Drum was, being about 24 horse; but through this gentleman's own miscarriage he is dismounted, and his master's horse taken frae him, and he sent on foot to tell the laird tidings, whereat he was mightily offended.

Now the commissioners were written for by the estates to the parliament to be holden at Edinburgh the 2d of June next, and Mr. Alexander Jaffray went commissioner for Aberdeen. p. 211a Now remember, the English laboured still for a parliament, whilk the king was not willing to grant; but being granted, they slighted the king's desire to punish the Scottish rebellions, and labour to settle him and them in peace to their contentment, whilk in end craftily they did.

The Castle of Edinburgh is now daily shooting at the town; few durst keep the causeway, many fled the town for plain fear with their wives, bairns, goods and gear, and some persons were shot and slain dead.

About this time the earl of Airly went to the king and court, leaving his eldest son the lord Ogilvy behind him; but in his absence his stately castle was cruelly casten down> and his ground pitifully plundered; such as Airly and Furtour, whilk he by the marquis of Montrose's assistance nobly revenged upon his enemies in anno 1644 and 1645.

Now there were divers barons, gentlemen, and country people within Athol, Lochaber, and Badenoch, and highland parts thereabout, who would not come in and subscribe the covenant, but stood out against it, and withal brake out, molesting and perturbing all such whereof they might be masters. The tables advertised hereof, gives order to the earl of Argyle to settle this business, who conveened about 5000 men, and marched into Athol. The earl hearing of Argyle's coming, sends commissioners to him, promising that he nor none under his power should trouble or molest the country, and farther that he should concur and assist the good cause to his uttermost, and for further assurance sent eight hostages, principal men and of note within the country, of Stuarts and Robertsons. Argyle heard the commission, and pleasantly received the hostages, and said he should have a care to keep them, but would no wise grant assurance of peace to the earl of Athol, till he should first come to him himself.

He being advertised hereof, resolves upon some considerations to come to Argyle, who how soon he heard of his approach, craftily sent out some men who lay in ambush by the way, and took him and brought him to Argyle, who was coming of his own accord; but this was done to make Argyle's service the more thought of. The earl in all haste sends the earl of Athol and his eight hostages to the tables, p. 212a to abide their censure. Others said he sent the hostages to Edinburgh without Athol's knowlege, syne trysts and causes the earl swear and subscribe at his pleasure, whilk was thought a fair way. Having pacified the country of Athol, he marches into Lochaber.

About this time he takes David Spalding, baron of Ashentillie in Strathardell, for his loyalty to the king, and warded him in the castle of Dunstaffnage, while he paid to him 4000 merks, and subscribed the covenant; thereafter he is put to liberty, and deceases without heirs of his body, to whom succeeded William Spalding, whom for standing to the covenant Montrose in his wars burnt his castle of Ashentillie, and plundered and harried his ground pitifully.

His majesty by his letters patent had made the earl of Northumberland captain general of his forces both by sea and land; but he refused to accept, and renounced his admiralty in the king's own presence, whereat he was displeased, and shortly gave the samen charge to the deputy of Ireland, his loyal subject, who accepted the same humbly.

About this time the estates sent an herauld with the king's coat of arms to the castle of Dumbritton, commanding and charging the captain thereof, called Sir John Henderson, to render and give up the castle to the estates, whilk he manifestly refused, challenging the herald that he did by his office, wearing the king's arms and charging to render his master's castle, without his own command, to his subjects; and that he should compt for this his high offence; and he desired the herald to shew the estates that he would not obey their charge, which he did, but it was not long ungiven up.

Now the town of Edinburgh is very diligent in raising midding mounts and other engines to defend the town frae the cannon shot of the Castle and walls thereof, and likewise in making mines to undermine the walls of the Castle; but this Castle stood not long out, but was rendered.

Upon the 23d of May governor Marischal directs the town of Aberdeen to have a nightly watch of men and arms, and their ports closed, which was obeyed. Upon the 25th of May the drums tucked through both Aberdeens in the governor's name, charging all manner of men p. 213a at their highest peril to muster upon the morn in the links in their best arms; they conveened very few, 160 or thereby, out of the town, and about 60 out of the Oldtown, evil armed and worse hearted. After their muster they returned home to their houses.

The samen day the drum tucked likewise, charging the burgh of Aberdeen to make provision upon their own charges for general Monro and his army, wherewith they were not well pleased, albeit they durst not disobey.

Tuesday the 26th of May there was heard in both Aberdeens, shooting of ordnance about Dunnotter, which fell out betwixt an English and Scottish ship who was pursued and fled in among the craigs of Dunnotter; but she was boarded by a frigate and hauled out perforce to the sea.

The barons and gentlemen, of the name of Gordon for the most part (except the lairds of Haddo and Straloch, who would not keep their meetings) hearing of major Monro's coming to Dunnotter with soldiers, upon the 28th of May sent Mr. James Gordon minister at Kearn, with letters to the earl Marischal, and general Monro, craving assurance of peace, and to be no wise troubled, since they and their friends and followers were peaceably set, and not disposed to offend any. They received and read thir letters, but would write none back again, but sends this answer, that they could have no assurance of peace except they would all come in and swear and subscribe the covenant, and obey whatsoever should be enjoined them for furtherance of the good cause. Mr. James Gordon returned and told their answer, whilk the Gordons took in evil part, as they had reason so to do.

Upon the 28th of May the inhabitants of the burgh of Aberdeen were charged by tuck of drum to go out in their best armour and meet governor Marischal and major general Monro; whereupon 120 musketeers and pikemen went out and met them at the bridge of Dee. They were estimate to be about 800 footmen and 40 horse, who had also six piece of iron ordnance. They were in good order, having blue bonnets on their heads, with feathers waving in the wind. They entered Aberdeen, and were quartered. p. 214a Marischal lodged in his own house, together with Monro. They watched nightly with threescore soldiers always. Monro delivered to the provost and baillies certain articles in write, whilk he lent in before the incoming of the army to the town, and whereof the tenor follows:

Articles of Bonaccord, to be condescended unto by the the magistrates of Aberdeen, for themselves, and as taking burden upon them for all the inhabitants, to be presently sealed, subscribed and delivered to major general Monro, as having warrant from the earl Marischal, in name of the estates of this kingdom, and general Lesly.

1st, Desires the magistrates to give in a roll or list of those inhabitants absent or present who have not subscribed the covenant and general band, that they may be. discerned as bad and evil patriots.

2d, Desires the provost, magistrates, and all the inhabitants to give their great oath of fidelity not to correspond or keep interchange of intelligence with any that has not subscribed the covenant or general band, under pain of losing of their lives, and confiscation of their goods.

3d, Desires them to condescend willingly to contribute to the entertainment of the regiment, according as they shall be stented, in paying of their tenth part, and their soldiers being quartered in this town, that they be obliged for themselves and inhabitants not to injure any of them, under the pain of death.

4th, Desires they be obliged for themselves and inhabitants not to hear any minister within their town who hath not subscribed the covenant, under pain of banishment, both preachers and hearers.

5th, Desires the regiment (being quartered and billeted within the town) may be entertained during their residence there in meat, drink, and lodging, according to the general order subscribed by the committee of estates, for the two part of means allowed to inferior officers and soldiers, according to the list of pay, given in to the township by the major general under his band, in name of the committee of estates, the general and of the earl Marischal.

6th, Desires the magistrates to deliver to the major general before his entry, the keys of all their ports, and entry p. 215a of their magazines and store-houses, tolbooth, or meeting-houses of the town, together with the keys of goal and prison, to be keeped at his pleasure during his abode there, for the good of the kingdom and safety of the town and regiment, against intestine and foreign enemies.

7th, Desires that all corn in store within the town be put under inventary, for entertainment of the regiment, in part payment of their tenth parts, and that the magistrates and inhabitants to be obliged to pay the rest in money once in the fortnight, according to the order for paying the third part of the soldatista their pay in money, till they be superexpended of the tenth part.

8th, Desires they be obliged to deliver all the common spare arms, ammunition, spades, shovels, or mattocks that they have or can find, on their great oath, to be used at his pleasure in manner foresaid for the good of the kingdom., against intestine and foreign enemies, and for both their safeties, and that they be obliged by their great oath to join with him and his regiment or associates in fighting or working against the enemy, in whatsomever the earl Marischal and he commands for the good of the kingdom and their own safeties.

9th, Desires they be obliged to set all their baxters and brewers to work against the 2d of June next, to have provided and in readiness 12,000 pound weight of good biscuit bread, together with 1000 gallons of ale and beer, to be put in small barrels for the intended expedition, for which they shall be paid, or at least allowed to them in their parts.

10th, Desires that in testimony of their bonaccord with the soldatista that had come so far a march for their safeties from the invasion of foreign enemies, and the slavery they and their posterity might be brought under, they may be pleased out of their accustomed generosity and present thankfulness to the soldatista for keeping good order, and eschewing of plundering, to provide for them 1200 pairs of shoes, together with 3000 ells of harden, tycken or sail canvass, for making of tents to save the soldatista, from great inundation of rains, accustomed to fall out under this northern climate. p. 216a

11th, Desires to provide against the 2d of June, for the intended expedition, for settling good order in the country, and for suppressing our intestine enemies and evil patriots, that 50 horses may be in readiness for transporting our cannons, ammunition, spare arms, and provision whatsomever the earl Marischal thinks the army to stand in need of; which being accorded, sealed, and subscribed by the magistrates, for themselves, and taking burden as said is, for all the inhabitants of the town, we will enter the town friendly, and be answerable for ourselves and soldatista for for any disorder committed by any of our number, or under our command, and in case of not fulfilling and obeying our just commands (so far as concerns the military part especially) we do hereby signify to you, in name of the estates and general of the army, that we will take such speedy course and order with you and all the inhabitants refractory, as may strike terror in the heart of all others our opposites, following your example and disobedience, as evil and wicked patriots; for eschewing whereof we heartily desire your subscriptions and seal to thir reasonable demands, or a peremptory or present answer of bon-accord or mal-accord.

The provost, baillies, and council of Aberdeen having received thir ridiculous, tyrannous and scornful articles, before Monro's entry to the town, went directly to council, to consider what was best to be done. Patrick Leslie being provost, with a number of the heads of the town, strong Covenanters, condescended to grant Monro's desire, and instantly sealed and subscribed thir disgraceful articles, and sent them to Monro; others of the loyal subjects, were sorry that Aberdeen should be so molested by Covenanters, against the king and his laws, and no burgh within the kingdom so oppressed as Aberdeen, for their love to their sovereign lord, and, as was said, done by the Covenanters, who brought Monro to the town, fearing the name of Gordon and other royalists.

How soon Monro received back thir articles, sealed and subscribed, Marischal and he comes into the town, and lodged and quartered; receives the town's keys, and gets obedience to his desire, whereat many honest men of the p. 217a royalists grudged heavily; whilk coming to Monro's ears, he publickly spake in the tolbooth in presence of the earl Marischal and others present, that it was sore against his will to come here, saying, the tables could get no rest night nor day for letters coming frae Aberdeen, crying and craving him to be sent with a regiment for their guard and protection; likeas the Forbesses and Frasers sought the same for their safety, against the name of Gordon and other royalists; but Aberdeen promised free quarters and good entertainment, and all things necessary during the space of a month, together with their own personal service of the town on all occasions; whilk tale proved most true; for the town was divided, some for the king and some for the covenant, but the Covenanters never thought to have been burdened with maintenance of this regiment, but to have escaped, and the royalists to have payed for all; wherein they were deceived, as just from God, and repented themselves for bringing men hither, when they could not help it. However, the royalists hated the covenanters so much the more for this business. The king afar off, hearing but not helping thir calamities, as Aberdeen hoped for, because that he now sees clearly that the lower house of England are upon the counsel of thir disorders, as hereafter does plainly appear. In the mean time honest men of the town, and loyal subjects to the king, seeing matters go thus, fled the town, and closed up their gates and doors before Monro's incoming to the town, such as James Crookshank, William Scot, and some others. Monro hearing of this, meddles with the keys of the said William Scot's house, put his wife and bairns to the door, plundered the goods, and destroyed trees and dales, whereof there were store. But himself and George Stuart fled the country and went to Norway.

They likewise violently brake down the four glass windows of the said James Crookshank's house, whilk he would never repair until he saw better days. They likewise masterfully took up his rents and living of Newhills and Bogfairlie, pertaining to him in heritage, as .likewise the multures of the town's milns of Aberdeen, whereof he was but tacksman, to his great skaith, whilk he suffered patiently. He p. 218a fled here and there through the country, and durst not be seen within nor without the town, being sore envied for his loyalty to the king; and he stood out so constantly, that he would never yield nor subscribe the covenant till February 1642, that he could do no more, and indeed few burgesses of his rank or above it did the like.

Monro caused big up betwixt the crosses a court de guard, for saving his soldiers frae weet or cold on the night, and wherein they should be, except such as were on watch. William Scot's timber now paid for all in his absence, being a true royalist, who sustained much more skaith besides. This court de guard was bigged betwixt the crosses, as said is, but on Sunday the 23d of January 1642 there rose a mighty wind that blew down the same.

Upon Sunday the last of May, Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, (by direction of the general assembly and presbytery of Aberdeen) teached here in Old Aberdeen. After sermon he read out another covenant, with the General Assembly's declaration following thereupon, affirming the covenant called the king's to be agreeable to theirs, and that episcopacy was not expedient in our kirk of Scotland. The Perth articles, high commission book of canons, were unlawful, after the reading whereof the samen was subscribed over again by such men as were within the kirk, yea by the regents, and by bairns about 15 or 16 years of age, albeit the regents had subscribed before in February, and myself subscribed this covenant presented to me by the magistrates, after I had subscribed the king's covenant presented by the marquis of Huntly, and another I subscribed in the same place, presented by the lairds of Benholm and Auldbar.

The preacher exhorted the people, by many persuasions, mixed with terror and threatning, to subscribe this holy covenant with heart and uplifted hand, assuring the contemners or disobeyers to be sorely punished. The people per force gave obedience, and such as were not in the kirk in the forenoon, he took their subscriptions in the afternoon after sermon, and such as had not subscribed, he carried their names with him in write. His text beforenoon was upon the first verse of the 17th chapter of Genesis. p. 219 He was a violent man for the good cause. Thus are thir covenants subscribed more through fear than the hearts of many, and all the ways that could be deviled to make the same steadfast and sure, made it never stronger, but was crost, as ye mall hereafter see.

The samen Sunday the earl Marischal (not now governor, because Monro had got the town's keys) with general Monro, went to the High Church to hear devotion, and their soldiers to the Gray-friars church. The minister of their own army preached to them, but Mr. James Sibbald, one of the town's ministers, a singular man, was then debarred from any further preaching, as an anti-covenanter, to the great grief of the town's people.

About this time the earl of Montrose, by direction of the estates, upon a sign of parley went to the Castle of Edinburgh, and desired general Ruthven captain of the said Castle, to render the samen to the estates, with the royal ornaments, such as the crown, scepter, and sword, lying within the samen, because the parliament was near the down-sitting; but the noble captain boldly and plainly refused. Montrose turns back and told the estates his answer, whereupon they caused write some few lines, charging him to give over the castle, and render the ornaments of the crown within 48 hours, under the pain of forfeiture of life and goods; whilk charge so written was wompled about an arrow head, syne shot up over the castle walls, where Ruthven might find the same, whilk he did, but stoutly he kept his charge, till at last he was forced to yield.

Upon the second day of June, Mr. John Gregory, minister at Drumoak, was brought in to Monro by a party of soldiers; he was taken out of his naked bed upon the night, and his house pitifully plundered. He was closely keeped in skipper Anderson's house, having five musketeers watching him night and day, and sustained upon his own expences. None, no not his own wife, could have private conference with him, so straitly was he there watched. At last he is fined to pay major general Monro 1000 merks for his outstanding against the covenant, and syne got liberty to go; but in the General Assembly holden in July he was nevertheless simpliciter deprived, because he would p. 220 not subscribe the covenant , and when all was done, he is forced to come in and yield to subscribe the covenant.

The said second of June the drum goes through Aberdeen, charging the haill inhabitants incontinent to bring to the tolbooth the haill spades, shovels, mells, mattocks, barrows, picks, gavelocks, and such instruments within the town, meet for undermining, whilk was shortly done. Thereafter Monro took up a new muster of his own soldiers, and of the young men also in the links. He directs before him four pot pieces, then goes to the array, and takes about 150 of the bravest men of Aberdeen, sore against their wills, and mixes in among his own soldiers. He caused carry also the foresaid instruments for undermining, and upon the said 2d day of June began about ten hours at even to march towards the place of Drum, and encamps hard beside. The laird was not at home, but his lady with some pretty men was within the house, whilk was furnished with ammunition and all provision necessary for defence of that strong house. How soon Marischal and Monro came within distance and shot of musket of the house, they shot off of the house two of Monro's men dead, whilk they beheld; then they directed frae the camp to the house a summonds, charging them to render and give over the house, whereupon the lady craved some short space to be advised, whilk was granted; after that she craved some time to advertise her husband, whilk was also granted. In the mean time of this parley, Marischal rides to Dunnotter frae the camp; the lady upon her own good considerations renders up the house to Monro, and delivers him the keys, upon condition that her soldiers should go out with their arms, bag and baggage, safe and free, and that herself, with her children and some serving women, should have liberty to remain within a chamber of the place, whilk conditions were granted, and Monro mans the house, leaves a commander with forty soldiers to keep the samen, and to live upon the provision already provided, and when that was done to live upon the laird's rents, so long as they stayed there, and the lady to send the laird to Monro. Many marvelled that this strong well provided house should have been so soon rendered without more danger. p. 221

Monro upon the fifth of June leaves Drum, and returns back triumphantly to Aberdeen, where the earl Marischal met him, and that same night about six o'clock they heard sermon, and gave thanks to God for the intaking of this strong house with so little skaith. Their soldiers lay in the place to the 5th of September upon the laird's great charges and expences.

Upon the foresaid 5th of June there came to Old Aberdeen about 600 of Marischal's men out of the Mearns, but they got little entertainment there. Upon the morn they were quartered in New Aberdeen, with Monro's soldiers, and remained, wrecking the town till the 18th of June.

Sunday, June 7, about eleven of the clock at night, there came out of New Aberdeen about 200 soldiers, with their commanders. At the bridge of Don they divided into three parts, whereof one went towards Foveran and Knockhall, another by White Cairns towards Udny and Fiddess; the third towards Fetternear; they broke up the gates of Foveran, Udny, and Fiddess; they took meat and drink, but did little more skaith, the lairds of Foveran and Udny being both absent and in England, as royalists and anti-covenanters. The lady Udny dwelling in Knockhall, renders the keys; they gave them back upon the morn without doing great wrong, and returned back to their quarters in Aberdeen.

Those who went to Fetternear found the gates keeped close, the laird himself being within. They began to pursue the entry gate, whilk was well defended, and one of their soldiers shot thereat, whereof he died. Shortly thereafter the rest leaves the pursuit, and that hurt soldier behind them, and returns back to Aberdeen without more ado. The laird, fearing some trouble to follow, displenished the place, left nothing tursable within, closed up the gates, and took his wife, children and servants with him to some other part; but shortly there came frae Aberdeen another party of soldiers to the same place; they brake up the gates and doors, entered the house and chambers, brake down windows, beds, boards, and left no kind of plenishing unhewn down, whilk did them little good,, albeit skaithful to p. 222 the owner. Such as they could carry with them they took, syne returned back to Aberdeen; but the laird fled the country, and to Berwick goes he.

Upon the 9th of June the laird of Drum with some few horse came into Aberdeen, according to his lady's promise at the rendering of the house; he met with Marischal and Monro, drank kindly and friendly together, and kept him still beside them, and in the mean time Montrose sent out parties of soldiers, and brought into Aberdeen the lairds of Fornett, Fedret,Haddo, Hiltoun, Culter, Aughter-Ellon, Camphell, Nethermuir, Mr. John Gordon minister at Birse, (who was taken out of his naked bed) and diverse other known anti-covenanters, whom he kept beside him also untill he went to Edinburgh, and had them all with him.

Thomas Cheyne of Raniestone, as a papist, was brought in to Aberdeen, where he was forced to swear and subscribe the covenant, syne wan home.

Thomas Crombie being absent in England, his place of Kemnay is taken in, his girnel broken up, and store of victual taken out, and parted among the soldiers. Thus all forts of people who would not swear and subscribe the Covenant, and contribute to the good cause, were grievously overcome and oppressed, without law or authority of his majesty.

Upon the 9th of June the craftsmen of Old Aberdeen were compelled amongst them to furnish out five foot soldiers, to help to make up Monro's regiment, who had more need of support to keep in their lives.

Upon the said 9th of June the lord Gordon, the laird of Cluny, with some few servants, came frae England quietly by sea; they land a boat at the Cove, and brought aboard Alexander Gordon of Prasmoir, and Mr. Thomas Gordon at Kettock's-mill, who told how the country was ruled; they came ashore unespied, with whom landed James Farquhar, burgess in Aberdeen. The bark goes to sea, and lands at Nether Buckie in the Enzie, and James Farquhar comes home to his own house; but he is shortly taken and warded by Marischal and Monro, and demanded who came in the bark; he declared the truth, and so was let go, after some other querries. p. 223

The lord Gordon stayed at home till about the 23d of July, syne hoisted sail at Nether Buckie, and comes along this coast towards England; his departure is spied, and Monro is advertised, who sends out a bark with well provided soldiers to attend him; they come in sight, and were very near her, but being at the windward she escaped and wan safely away, they being all the time ignorant of this plot.

Upon the 10th of June the soldiers were drilled in the Links, and thereafter a council of war was holden in the tolbooth of Aberdeen, by Marischal and Monro,. and the rest. There were brought before them the lairds of Cullier, Aughter-Ellon, Camphell, Nethermuir, Fornet, Thomas Nicolson, George Johnston, George Morison, George Gordon, Robert Forbes, Mr. Alexander Reid, David Rickart and William Petrie, townsmen and burgesses of Aberdeen, but the lairds of Drum, Haddo, Federit, and Mr. John Ross minister were not brought before this committee, but had South. The rest were accused for their outstanding and being contrary minded to the good cause; they made their own answers, but were not well heard; in the end they were all ordained to lodge in Mr. Henry Buchan's house, fit and prepare themselves to go to Edinburgh upon the morrow, and in the meantime set a strait guard about their lodging, that none should go in nor out without licence, whilk thir gentlemen were compelled to obey.

Upon the morrow they took their leave from Aberdeen, leaving their friends with sorry hearts. They were guarded and convoyed by soldiers as throat-cutters and murderers, whereat they were displeased, but could not mend it. The first night they came to Cowie, and sua forth to Edinburgh, convoyed by ilk sheriffdom to another.

The old laird of Gight, a sickly-tender man, being by chance at this time in Montrose, is taken by one captain Beatoun, and had to Edinburgh with the rest; his house of Ardessie pitifully plundered, because he was a papist, and outstander against the good cause. How soon they came to Edinburgh they were all warded in the tolbooth, and shortly our townsmen are first brought in before the tables. They are accused as contrary to the good cause; p. 224 they made their own answers, which were not well heard, whereupon they are committed again to ward, but in respect of the laird of Gight and Thomas Morison's sickness, they got liberty, and were confined in the town, where old Gight departed this life. After examination of our burgesses, the lairds of Cultur, Aughter-Ellon, Fornett, Camphell, and Nethermuir, were brought in and accused, and returned back to ward, where one and all were forced to stay during the space of six months, to their great displeasure and hurt of their health, with great charges and expences; at last it pleased the estates to fine them as follows; and first for our townsmen, Thomas Nicolson was fined in 2000 merks, George Johnston 1000 pounds, David Rickart 1000 merks, Robert Forbes 1000 pounds, William Petrie 1000 merks. George Morison and George Jameson by moyan wan free, and paid no fine. George Gordon 1000 merks. Mr. Alexander Reid by means of the earl of Mar was transported to Stirling, there to remain in ward till he paid 2000 merks, syne got liberty. The laird of Cultur was fined in 3000 merks, the laird of Aughter Ellon 1000 merks, Nethermuir 3000 merks, Fornet     merks, Camphell     . Thus Barons and burgesses are fast warded, syne fined and compelled to pay the samen before they went out of the tolbooth, then set to liberty and ilk man came home to his own house. Thus the king's loyal subjects are forced to suffer.

Ye heard how our parliament was adjourned frae the 14th of November 1639 to the 11th of June 1640, whilk day being come, the parliament sat down without either king or commissioner, whereof the like was never seen in the Christian World, where any king ruled, as our acts of parliament bears in the name of the king or his commissioner, &c. This parliament sits down, and the printed acts have no relation to the king or commissioner, but only entitled, Acts past and done in this present parliament, which sat down the nth of June, 1640.

The first act whereof choose Robert lord Burghlie to be president, in respect of the absence of the king's commissioner. p. 225

The second act constitutes the three estates of parliament, viz. nobles, barons, and burgesses, and abolished bishops.

The next act ratifies the acts of the assembly. The next had relation to John earl of Traquair, lord commissioner, suppose no mention of that parliament is amongst the printed acts. However, there is about 39 acts made up by this president, and three estates foresaid, without king, commissioner, crown, sword, or scepter. Uncouth to see! the same is prorogated to the 19th of November next, syne dissolves; whilk day being come, the said Robert Lord Burghlie is again chosen president by the estates, and adjourned to the 14th of January 1641, frae that continued to the 13th of April 1641, frae that adjourned to the 25th of May, frae that to the 15th of July 1641. Thus is this parliament continued from day to day, the lord Burghlie still chosen president, and to the whilk 15th of July the king came himself, as ye have hereafter.

After the last continuation of parliament Felt Marischal Lesly musters his army in the Links of Leith, who were estimate to 16,000 men, with expert captains and commanders. The young laird of Gight is forced by Marischal and Monro to come in, and upon Friday the 11th of June he came to Aberdeen before the council of war; he gets 48 hours protection. A challenge of combat past betwixt him and the laird of Philorth , Marischal gets word, sends a party of soldiers for him, to eschew this fight, and took him out of his naked bed, lying in Thomas Lesly's house in Old Aberdeen. Gight (under protection) marvelled at this business, not knowing Marischal's purpose, but he gets liberty frae the captain that took him, to ride beside him (who was also horsed) over to the town and speak with Marischal; the captain seeing his horse but a little nag, was content, and so they ride on till they come to the Justice Port, where Gight shifts the captain and all his keepers, and by plain speed he wins away to all their disgraces, and to Germany goes he, where he stays.

Major Monro upon the 13th of June received from the town of Aberdeen 5000 pounds for their tenths and 20ths to sustain his soldiers on, and 5000 pounds by virtue of the general band, with 1200 pairs of shoes, and 3000 ells of p. 226 harden to be his soldiers shirts. Marischal at this samen time took up from them 40000 pounds of fines also: thus is this noble burgh, without king or law, wrecked in their persons, goods and gear, for their loyalty to the king; and all the rest of the burrows living in peace.

Marischal and Monro having gotten money the samen day, Marischal removes his soldiers out of Aberdeen, and disbands them all. Monro leaves 700 soldiers quartered in Aberdeen, and goes South himself, having in his company the lairds of Drum, Haddo, Federat, Hiltown, and Mr. John Ross minister. He presents them to the tables at Edinburgh; they are all warded in the tolbooth, and for their loyalty to the king are fined, viz. The laird of Drum 1000 merks, Federet 4000 merks, Haddo 2000 merks; Hiltown by moyan wan free, and Mr. John Ross 3000 merks, but whether taken up or componed I cannot tell.

The 14th of June Mr. William Johnston doctor of physick, departed this life in New Aberdeen. Mr. William Gordon, another doctor of physick, departed this life a little before in Old Aberdeen, as ye have heard. Doctor Barron professor of divinity, and doctor Ross, one of the ministers of Aberdeen, four matchless men, yea and almost matchless in any burgh of Scotland, departed this life, to the grief of Aberdeen and the country also , and all this happened since the beginning of this covenant.

Upon Tuesday the 16th of June major Monro drew out both Aberdeens to muster in the Links; few came out of the town, because many were fled, whereat he was angry, and shortly commanded to go search the burgh, and bring with them old and young; but few were found, and such as came to the Links were deeply sworn upon what arms they had. He looked also to our Oldtown men, who were in the Links, about 100 men, for the most part without musket, sword or pike: he proudly demands, if they had no more arms; they answered not, because the laird of Craigievar had plundered their haill arms frae them before. Then says Monro, a mad bull may go through you all, and so left them, and ilk man returned home without more ado. p. 227

The committee of estates at Edinburgh had ordained two committees to be elected and chosen, the one thereof constantly to remain at Edinburgh, the other constantly to remain with Felt Marischal Lesly, at his excellency's camp; and ilk committee to consist of six nobles, six barons, and six burgesses; and thir two committees to order the country and camp, and in the meantime great preparations were made for raising of an army.

Upon Thursday the 18th of June Monro presses and takes perforce out of their naked beds, some Aberdeen's men and crafts boys, to make the number of 16 soldiers, whilk the town was stented to, for Old Aberdeen was stented to five, whilk they sent before; and thir soldiers with the country soldiers to make up 300, to be eiked to Monro's regiment, consisting then of 700, and to make up a full regiment of 1000. He causes put up betwixt the crosses a timber mare, whereon runagate knaves and runaway soldiers should ride. Uncouth to see such discipline in Aberdeen, and painful for the trespasser to suffer.

Upon Friday the 19th of June Monro drills in the Links, and thereafter daily, and there was coming and going to him continually country barons and gentlemen, and upon the same day there was a committee holden at Aberdeen by the tutor of Pitsligo, the laird of Monymusk, George Baird of Auchmedden, and diverse others, Mr. James Martin minister at Peterhead, moderator of the assembly of this diocese to the next provincial assembly, Mr. Thomas Martin minister at Deer, Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, and Mr. George Sharp minister at Fyvie. There were letters direct out frae this committee against certain outstanding ministers, such as Mr. John Ross minister at Birse, Mr. John Gregory minister at Drumoak, Mr. Alexander Strachan minister at Chapel of Garioch, doctor Forbes laird of Corse, doctor Sibbald minister at Aberdeen, doctor Scroggie minister at Old Aberdeen, Mr. Richard Maitland minister at Abercherder, Mr. John Forbes at Auchterless, with divers others, to compear before the committee to be holden at Aberdeen the 7th of July next to come, to answer for their disobedience and outstanding.

The earl of Airly went from home to England, fearing the troubles of the land, and that he Should be pressed to p. 228 subscribe the covenant whether he would or not, whilk by fleeing the land he resolved to eschew as well as he could, and left his eldest son the lord Ogilvie, a brave young nobleman, behind him at home. The estates or tables, hearing of his departure, directed the earls of Montrose and Kinghorn to go to the place of Airly, and to take in the same, and for that effect to carry cartows with them, who went and summoned the lord Ogilvie to render the house, (being an impregnable strength by nature, well manned with all sort of munition and provision necessary) who answered, his father was absent, and he left no such commission with him as to render his house to any subjects, and that he would defend the samen to his power till his father returned from England. There were some shots shot at the house, and some from the house, but the assailants finding the place unwinnable, by nature of great strength, without great skaith, left the place without mickle loss on either side, then departed there frae in June.

Now the committee of estates finding no contentment in this expedition, and hearing how their friends of the name of Forbes and others in the country were daily injured and opprest by highland lymmars, broken out of Lochaber, Clangregor out of Brae of Athol, Brae of Mar, and divers other places, therefore they give order to the earl of Argyle to raise men out of his own country and first to go to Airly and Furtour, two of the earl of Airly's principal houses, and to take in and destroy the same, and next to go upon thir lymmars and punish them; likeas conform to his order he raises an army of about 5000 men and marches towards Airly, but the lord Ogilvie hearing of his coming with such irresistible force, resolves to flee and leave the house manless; and so for their own safety, they wisely fled, but Argyle most cruelly and inhumanely enters the house of Airly and beats the same to the ground, and right sua he does to Furtour; syne spoiled all within both houses, and such as could not be carried they masterfully broke down and destroyed. Thereafter they fell to his ground, plundered, robbed, and took away from himself, his men, tenants, and servants, their haill goods and gear, corns and cattle whatsomever that they could get, and left p. 229 nothing but bare bounds of sic as they could carry away with them, and what could not be destroyed they despitefully burnt up by fire. This service done by this earl of Argyle against that nobleman the earl of Airly, the king's loyal subject, without any warrant or authority, he then addresses himself to Athol, (where the lord Loudon, being set at liberty out of the tower of London came to see Argyle) the earl of Athol hearing of Argyle's coming, offered to do what he would command him, and sent forth 48 men, chief in that country, of the names of Stuart and Robertson, till he should come and perform his promise. Argyle accepted the gentlemen, and without Athol's knowledge sent them to the tables, syne trysts and causes Athol swear and subscribe as he pleased. This was not fair play. From Athol he goes to Lochiber, and as he marches, he gets due obedience from barons, gentlemen, and others through the country, he plundered and spoiled all Lochaber, and burnt McDonald's house of Keppach, holden of the house of Huntly. He left a captain with 200 men to keep this country, but they were all killed by the people of that country. Thus Argyle goes through all, men offering subjection and obedience to him, whereof he sends some to Edinburgh to the tables, others he takes to swear and subscribe the covenant, band of relief, and contributing to the good cause, and suffered them to stay at home. This done he disbands his army, and comes down Dee side, about 1200 men, but what order he took of the broken men, oppressors of the country, was not mikle heard; so forward was he for the covenant.

About this time the old constable of Dundee being aged and sickly, was carried by coach, unable to ride, to Edinburgh, because he was an outstander against the covenant. Horrible oppression!

The king's ships are daily taking our Scottish ships, to the number of 80 small and great; they are had to Berwick, Newcastle, Holy Island, and such like ports, their goods loosed and inventaried and closely kept. The English beheld this, to humour the king in revenge of the Scots, but all was restored haill and sound to the owners without loss of a groat. p. 230

Upon Sunday the 21st of June six slight soldiers, alledging a warrant frae captain Wallace their captain, to take salmon frae the fishers of Don, whilk were tane on Sunday, came with six creels on their backs, and began to fill them up with salmon taken the night before. Prasmoir, an heritor of the said water, advertised hereof, goes with his brother John Gordon, takes back the fishes plundered frae him and his neighbours, and caused them carry them back in their own creels, and took from these six beastly fellows the fish and creels.

Upon Saturday the 26th of June six drums went through Aberdeen, commanding and charging the haill inhabitants to bring to the earl Marischal's close their haill armour, such as sword, pistol, and all other kind of arms, and commanded the baillies to go quarterly through the town that none should be obscured. The town's people gave obedience. Monro caused take up inventary of ilk man's arms, syne commanded them to lay down the same within the earl Marischal's close, or rather house, and ilk man to go home, for he would keep these arms for his own use. The town's people were passing sorry for bereaving them of their arms by such an uncouth slight, few burrows in Scotland having better, but no remead; they went home with patience per force, and forced to suffer this abuse for their loyalty to the king.

Now the committee of estates had given order to furnish out through all Scotland a number of regiments of rickmasters, consisting of 100 horse to ilk regiment, and he who could spend 50 chalders of victual or free rent of money, to furnish out one rickmaster, with sword, pistol, carabine, or lance, and an horse worth 80 pound; and siklike that there should be furnished out     footmen, with all kind of provision necessary, such as cloaths, sword, musket, hagbut, spear, pike, all under the pain of plundering. Ilk sheriffdom being particularly stented and valued through the kingdom, both Aberdeens were also valued and ordained to furnish out, (by and attour the footmen that was given before,) the furniture of six rickmasters, whereof the poor old town was put to two, whilk they were unable to do, not having so much free rent; but they got p. 231 about 40 chalders of victual and silver rent out of the bishop's kavil, consisting of three cobles on the water of Don, and other rents out of the samen water, to help to make up this furnishing. Here it is to be marked that no anti-covenanter nor papist was thus vexed nor stented in their land, goods nor gear, but only the Covenanters, whilk. bred suspicion that a greater evil was to befal them.

Upon Saturday the 27th of June, 200 men with their commanders past out of Aberdeen. They plundered the lairds of Balbithan, Hedderwick, and Lethentie, they brake up the laird of Newton Gordon's yetts and doors of Newton; they spoilzied what they could get unput aside; but finding little, they barbarously brake down beds, boards, ambries, and plenishing within the house, syne plundered out of and about these bounds, 12 horses frae the poor tenants. They plundered also the laird of Drum's grounds, himself lying warded in Edinburgh, and took frae his tenants about 18 horse. They also took an honest man within the same ground called James Irvine, alias Scalpie, and siclike Mr. Andrew Logie minister at Rain, Mr. John Cheyne minister at Kintore, Mr. William Leith minister at Kinkell, Mr. William Strachan minister at Daviot, and Mr. Samuel Walker minister at Montkeggy. Thir five ministers were taken as outstanders; they got no liberty to ride upon horses, but were compelled to go on foot with thir soldiers, who together with their prey of horse and goods, returned back to Aberdeen upon Wednesday the first of July: thus was this poor country brought in great misery by thir and the like oppressions, without warrant of law or justice, and expressly contrary to his majesty's former proclamations.

Upon Thursday the last of June one of captain Daizell's soldiers swimming for his pastime, was pitifully drowned at the more of Aberdeen; and an old man of the town, called James Birnie, Webster, above threescore and twelve years of age, hearing of his death, answered, He wished all the rest to go that gate, was shortly warded for these words; syne rode the mare, to his great hurt and pain. Thus none durst do nor speak any thing against them.

Upon Thursday the 2d of July the earl Marischal returned back to Aberdeen, from the parliament holden in p. 232 Edinburgh. He suffered the laird of Haddo to go to Kelly from Dunnotter. It is true, he had quitted the company of the Gordons, and cled himself with the earl Marischal, his near cousin, and attended and followed him South and North at his pleasure, otherwise he behoved to suffer plundering and oppression as the rest of his friends did. In the mean time it was reported he fined him in a thousand merks, and a brave horse worth 600 merks, and caused him against his will to pay the samen. The laird of Newton Gordon, seeing the world go so, yielded and came in the earl Marischal's will, promising to attend his service, in all fortunes and against all persons, at his command; and because he had no other security, he said beside the earl his charter chest for his faithful obedience. Nevertheless he kept neither oath nor promise, as he had promised.

The same second of July rickmaster Forbes charged Old Aberdeen to make preparation for lodging and entertaining 100 horsemen in meat and drink, and in stables for payment, except their beds; but the Lord looked down upon the miserable oppressions of this town, unable to sustain themselves frae cold and hunger, and delivered them from this oppression by the goodness of Marischal and Monro, who hearkened to a supplication given in by an Old Townman, and incontinent caused them all to be had over to New Aberdeen, there to be quartered that same night.

Friday the 3d of July there were numbered and heard upon the cawsey of Aberdeen about 28 shots of cannon, in a sea fight about the Cove, betwixt a stranger great war ship and two little Scottish barks, which were chased in among the craigs of the Cove, where the great ship durst not follow them, and therefore shot to have sunk them. The barks landed a man who hastily came to Aberdeen, declaring their danger to Monro, craving his aid and assistance, who incontinent directed captain Dalzell with 58 soldiers musketeers. They went over the water, by Torrie, and Marischal goes himself to see this sport.—The shipman told that he feared the enemy to board their ships by boats, and spoil all their goods; to prevent this danger, he convoys them secretly under the scong of a rock, to attend p. 233 if any of their boats would loose, but none came, so she left thir two Scottish ships in the craigs, and goes to sea. Dalzell returns back to Aberdeen, and the two barks wins away; but the Covenanters were somewhat dashed at the noise of thir canons, till the matter was declared.

Marischal upon the 4th of July rode down to Kelly, where he stayed with his cousin the laird, till Monro took gate to Strathbogie.

Sunday the 5th of July a fast was solemnly kept till five hours at even in New (but not in Old) Aberdeen, praying for peace; and that samen night about 10 hours at even, major Monro begins to march from Aberdeen towards Strathboggie. He had about 800 men, whereof there were some town's men, and six putters or short pieces of ordnance, and thus he marches that night to Kintore, where the earl Marischal met him with some company. In Monro's absence colonel Alexander, master of Forbes, had orders with some few soldiers to keep Aberdeen. Monday frae Kintore they march to Harthill, whose ground they spoilzied pitifully, himself lying warded in Edinburgh. Tuesday they march to Gairntullie, and did the like spoilzie there. Wednesday they march thence, and on Thursday the 9th of July they came to Strathboggie, and by the way as they came, they took horse, nolt, sheep, and kine, driving them all the way before them, slew and eat at their pleasure. They brake up girnels wherever they came, to furnish themselves bread; thus coming after this manner to Strathboggie, the first thing they entered to do was hewing down the pleasant planting about Strathboggie, to be huts for the soldiers to sleep in on the night, whereby the haill camp was well provided in huts. The marquis of Huntly being absent himself in England, Marischal sends to his good-dame's sister the marchioness of Huntly, to render the keys of Strathboggie, herself dwelling in the Bog, whilk she willingly obeyed; then they fell to meddle with the meal girnels, whereof there was store within that place, took in the office-houses, began shortly to bake, brew, and make ready good chear,. and when they wanted took in beef, mutton, hen, capon, and such like, out of Glenfiddich and Auchendown, where the country people p. 234 had transported their bestial and store, of purpose out of the.way from the bounds of Strathboggie. So they wanted not good entertainment for a little pains.

In the meantime a notable lymmar, seeing the world go so, brake loose, called also John Dugar, an highland rogue, and fell to in his sort of plundering likewise; he stole, reft, and spoilzied out of the sheriffdom of Murray a great number of country people's horse, nolt, kine, and sheep, and brought them without rescue to the fields of Auchindown, where he was feeding them peaceably. Monro hearing of this, sends out rickmaster Forbes with good horsemen and 24 musketeers, to bring back thir goods out of Auchindown frae this robber thereof, but John Dugar stoutly bade them, and defended his prey manfully. Monro then commanded them to charge them on horseback, whilk also they bade, till they shot all their guns, syne fled all away, and Forbes followed no more, but returned back, whereat Monro was angry, seeing he did not follow and take those limmars. He answered, it was not riding-ground. The laird of Auchindown being within the place with about 400 of his friends and others, who fled to the same as a strong hold for refuge, seeing this pell mell betwixt John Dugar and thir soldiers, issued out of the place about 16 horse, and set upon rickmaster Forbes, betwixt whom was some bickering without great skaith. Monro with more number of men comes forward to this guise, and Auchindown was forced to flee back to the place with no skaith. Monro pursued not the house, finding it difficult to conquess, but shortly fell to plundering, and out of thir bounds took Dugar's goods and others, above 2500 horse, nolt, and kine, with a great number of sheep, and bought them with him to Strathboggie, and were sold by the soldiers to the owners back again for a merk the sheep, and a dollar the nolt, but still kept the horse unsold. Shortly thereafter the place of Auchindown was willingly rendered, the men within left the same desolate, and the keys were delivered to Monro. Forbes took for his part of this spoilzie about 60 head of nolt, and sent them to be fed upon the bounds of Dyce, his good brother's lands. Monro hearing of this, compelled him to bring back the same nolt frae p. 235 Dyce to Strathboggie, and to fell them to the owners with the rest, and thereafter worthily cashiered him for his feeble service, in not following Dugar more closely than he did.

In the mean time Marischal's men, who were plundered by the Gordons and their company at Strachan, Kintore, and Hallforest, as ye have before, soundly repaid themselves at their own hand with interest, without making of price. So one good turn meets another.

But before Forbes was cashiered, he proved truly stout in one piece, whilk was at Monro's command. He went to Mortlich, took his near cousin Mr. William Forbes minister there, and brought him per force to Strathboggie, where Monro kept him till he paid a fine of 600 merks, syne got leave home. Thus Forbes with a party of soldiers did to his near cousin, who was doing no harm, but sitting peaceably in his own house, fearing no trouble. The marquis with his three sons being absent, and out of the country, and having no head nor captain left among his friends, they at last resolve to yield and let this storm pass; so both barons, gentlemen, and others able for service came in and undertake service to go with Marischal to the Bowlroad, such as were unable were plundered by the purse, and forced to furnish able men, but neither work-horse nor saddle-horse was left about Strathboggie, but either the owner was forced to buy his own horses, or let them go for serving of the army. Their muskets, swords, pistols, hagbutts, and other arms, pitifully plundered frae them, wherever Monro or his soldiers could get trial of them. The lady marquis sent to Monro fifty golden angels to buy him a horse with, because she had not a worth saddle horse to send to him, as he desired her to do.

Upon Monday the 16th of July there was great bickering betwixt the Castle of Edinburgh and the town. Ten town's soldiers were slain at the entry of the outer gate, and other ten slain within the entry gate, and their dead bodies thrown over the Castle wall, to the great terror of the town's people,, besides many others sore hurt, occasioned, as was reported, for hanging a man called Baxter, for convoying a pacquet of letters (sent frae the king) to the p. 236 captain of the Castle; but his death was fully revenged by the Castelians.

Ye heard before how certain ministers were summoned to compear before a committee holden at Aberdeen the 7th of July; so this committee was holden, where Mr. John Forbes parson of Auchterless, was deposed; Mr. John Ross minister at Birse, Mr. Richard Maitland minister at Chapel of Garioch, doctor Sibbald one of the ministers of Aberdeen, Mr. Andrew Logie minister at Rain, with some others, were suspended frae preaching till the third day of the next general assembly. Doctor Forbes of Corie and Doctor Scroggie were both attending, yet none of them called for at this time, except Doctor Scroggie, who with the rest was also suspended.

Wednesday the 8th of July a committee was held in the King's College of Old Aberdeen by lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, the laird of Frendraught, Mr. James Forbes of Haughton, and some others, for ordering the members thereof, but there was nothing done, all being continued to the next General Assembly.

About this time Alexander Lindsay some time of Vane, and Robert Keith sheriff depute of the Mearns, great guiders of the earl Marischal, alledging them to have power from the tables, and constitute commissars for uplifting of the rents of the bishoprick of Aberdeen frae the tenants and vassals thereof, upon Thursday the 9th of July, caused charge the feuers of Old Aberdeen to make payment of their feu duties for the three last terms, upon their discharge, under the pain of plundering. This uncouth charge was heartily obeyed, and in their names paid to George Middleton.

Right sua order was given out for meddling with the king's own proper rents; they uplifted the earl of Traquair's rents, except 5000 merks allotted to his lady to live upon, not within her own house, but within the king's palace of Dalkeith.

The earl of Findlater had likewise order to uplift the laird of Banff's haill rents, who oversaw not that business; having no good will at Banff.

Mr. Robert Farquhar was made commissary, and Walter Cochran his depute, for uplifting of the 10ths and p. 237 20ths through the haill sheriffdom of the Mearns, Aberdeen, and Banff, for the which they had betwixt them of monthly see 300 merks. Attour both Aberdeens were charged, under the pain of plundering, to subscribe a bond, whereby ilk man should submit himself, his life, lands, goods, and gear to the earl Marischal, according to a power granted by the tables to him.

Friday the 10th of July a Spanish frigate happened to come to our bulwark. Colonel master of Forbes, now in Monro's place, governor of Aberdeen, directs down a commander with some soldiers to try what she was. The captain desires (upon assurance of safe return) to come on shore, whilk he with seven of his men did, but shortly (under trust) they are apprehended and brought per force up to the town, and there demanded what was their errand. They answered, they had a pass frae their master the king of Spain; they believed they might come in safety here, because of peace standing betwixt their master and our king, and if they got any wrong, Aberdeen should pay for it. But the master of Forbes most unjustly and unmercifully caused put thir silly poor strangers within the tolbooth, where they lived in great misery. The frigate seeing no return of their men, quickly takes the sea, leaving them in ward, whereat the colonel was sorry that she should have escaped without searching, which was very hard to do, being a frigate of war. Thir poor strangers were almost hungered to death, they cry out lamentably at the tolbooth windows against this undeserved cruelty, saying what evil had they done? put them to a trial, and either set them at liberty or take their lives, rather than torment them with hunger; but no hearing at all. The merchants perceiving this horrible cruelty, contributed among themselves to help to sustain them in some better sort. Now happened some soldiers to come to the town, and devised to ly in the tolbooth, whereupon the Spaniards are removed and warded in the correction-house, where they remained miserably, while the 27th of August, whilk day five escaped and fled away to Leith; the other three went with Monro and his regiment to the South. This brave piece of service was acted thus by the colonel, drawing on expences upon the p. 238 town's merchants, to sustain innocent captives, who had burden enough with the soldiers that were in the town.

Saturday the 11th of July captain Middleton came with about 80 soldiers out of the Mearns to New Aberdeen, where they were quartered; his order was to take and apprehend such persons as would not subscribe to the earl Marischal. Alexander Lindsay and Robert Keith commissaries foresaid, conveened about 56 burgesses of Aberdeen, who had stood out, and had not subscribed this band: but this people with the rest yielded and gave obedience; others, such as Gilbert Harvie, Walter Morison, and James Innes, refused, who incontinent are taken by captain Middleton, warded in skipper Anderson's house, and watched by a party of soldiers, thinking to transport them South to the tables. They seeing this, yield and subscribe, and so did the haill town that were residing at home unfled and gone away. Middleton thereafter goes back with his company to the Mearns.

Sunday the 12th of July no preaching nor prayers here in Old Aberdeen (though the people were conveened) through Dr. Scroggie's suspension from preaching, nor ever preached at this kirk after this Sunday, because he was simpliciter discharged and deprived.

This samen Sunday the lady Pitmedden, the good wife of Iden, Mr. William Lumsden and his wife, Alexander Collieson, with some others, were excommunicate in both kirks of New Aberdeen, being all papists.

Monday the 13th of July the earl Marischal came back frae the camp at Strathboggie to Aberdeen, where upon the morn Mr. James Baird advocate met him. He was directed by the tables to attend the earl, and to advise him in matters questionable, the earl being but young. Now the haill wives of such burgesses as were lying warded in Edinburgh, fearing more trouble, began to shift their goods, and lay aside their plenishing, fearing all to be taken from them. But Mr. James Baird pacified their humour, caused bring back their goods, and promised they should incur no danger, as indeed they did not.

Upon Tuesday the 14th of July, charge and strait direction was given by tuck of drum through both Aberdeens, p. 239 that no man should take on with whatsomever colonel or captain, while earl Marischal's regiment should be complete, whereby both Aberdeens were heavily vexed.

Wednesday the 15th of July Doctor Scroggie's house was taken in by a party of soldiers out of Marischal's regiment; they are served one night, on the morrow they got five dollars, syne removed, but himself went over upon the morrow, paid 600 merks to the earl Marischal for a protection to the next General Assembly, and so he lived in peace for a while.

Monro was resolves to go and see the bishop and house of Spynie; he takes 300 musketeers with him, with putters and some pieces of ordnance, with all other things necessary, and leaves the rest of his regiment behind him, lying at Strathboggie, abiding his return. By the way he was met by sundry barons and gentlemen of the country, who convoyed him to the place of Spynie. The bishop of Murray, (beyond the expectation of many) came forth of the place, and spake with Monro, and presently without more ado upon Thursday the 16th of July renders the house well furnished with meat and munition; he delivers the keys to Monro, who with some soldiers, enters the house, and received good entertainment; thereafter Monro meddles with the haill arms within the place, plundered the bishop's riding-horse, saddle, and bridle, but did no more injury, nor plundered any other thing within or without the house. He removed all except the bishop and his wife and bairns, and some servants, to remain under the guard of a captain, lieutenant, and 24 musketeers, whom he ordered to keep that house, while further orders came frae the tables, and to live upon the rents of the bishoprick, and no wise to trouble the bishop's household, provision, nor to be burdenable to him. The bishops used the commanders most kindly, eating at his own table, and the soldiers were sustained according to direction foresaid.

Monro having gotten this strong strength thus beyond his expectation, with so little pains, whilk was neither for scant nor want given over, he returns back again to Strathboggie triumphantly, beginning where he left, to plunder horse and armour, and to fine every gentleman, yeoman, p. 240 herd and herdsman that had any money, without respect, whilk obediently without any show of resistance was done, and paid besides their 10ths and 20ths which they were liable in payment to the commissaries, as occasion offered. Thus he spoilzied and plundered all, and kept the monies fast, not paying his soldiers, as became him, they living only upon meat and drink without wages, whilk bred a murmuring amongst them; but Monro quickly pacified them by killing the principal murmurers, and one seditious person with his own hand, whereat the rest became afraid.

It is said about this time by mitigation of the earl of Findlater, Harry Gordon of Glassaugh, (being the earl's cousin german) his ground was spoilzied and plundered, his place of Glassaugh abused, his goods taken out of Aultmore, himself with his two sons narrowly escaped; done by Monro's soldiers by instigation foresaid. Thus at Strathboggie lies Monro while the 10th of August.

Sunday the 19th of July Mr. David Leech, minister at Logie, a principal outstander and gainstander of the covenant, and who had left his church and gone into England, returns home, becomes penitent, and the foresaid Sunday he preached in Old Aberdeen a penitential sermon, directed by our church, whilk that day was not found satisfactory; therefore he was once again ordained to preach upon the 14th of September another penitential sermon in the kirk of New Aberdeen, whilk he did, and was found satisfactory, whereupon he was kindly received to his church and charge, whilk he was loath to want, and therefore yielded first.

The foresaid Sunday there came to the road of Aberdeen a Scottish ship, well loaded with powder, ball, musket, cartow, and other armour, brought frae Holland, intending for Leith, but she espying a great ship lying at anchor, and taking her to be one of the king's ships waiting upon her, me took no anchor, but swiftly failed about the nook to Montrose, disloadened her burden, whilk the estates, as was reported, would not suffer to be brought about by sea, but by land only, for fear of danger, because Edinburgh stood in great need of such provision.

A little before this time, viz. upon Tuesday the 14th of July, Alexander Gordon of Prasmoir was taken by a party p. 241 of Marischal's soldiers out of his own house in Old Aberdeen, and had to the town in quiet manner, where Marischal fined him in 2000 merks; but upon condition that he should go with him to the Bowlroad he should be free, and so he came back to his own house, whereat the Oldtown was well content. He rode South with Marischal once upon his own expences, but never more, so wan free of fine and going to the Bowlroad.

Monday the 20th of July Marischal came to the Oldtown, and commanded the baillies to take out of their town 20 soldiers, and deliver them to one of his officers, called Sir John Douglas, to help to make up his regiment, with eight score pounds in money for their forty days of loan; whilk for plain fear they were forced to do, being poor silly bodies. Then the Oldtown is commanded to furnish them arms; they said their arms were plundered frae them by the master of Forbes and Craigievar, so they had none to furnish; then it was speared with what arms they served the lord Aboyne, they said with the king's arms furnished by the laird of Cluny, who had received them back again; whereupon letters were direct, commanding Cluny to return them back to the Oldtown soldiers, but Cluny was not at home. Auchterfowl made answer, these arms were long ago had to Auchindown, but for eschewing of further trial he sent in six muskets; there were seven taken out of the College, belonging to the Marquis of Huntly, and other seven furnished by commissary Farquhar at Marischal's command. Thus. were the Oldtown soldiers armed, and the town wan free. Thus they opprest Old Aberdeen, by and attour the furnishing of other five soldiers, and a rickmaster, as ye heard before.

Wednesday the 22d of July the burgesses of New Aberdeen who had subscribed Marischal's submissive band, were cruelly fined by himself in their goods, and ilk man compelled to make payment that samen day in real money of their fines to Marischal himself, being present. Thus is that noble burgh daily more and more vexed by flight and by might, but surely God delivered Old Aberdeen frae this scourge, and none fined in a groat upon this submissive band. p. 242

Ye heard before how the goodman of Harthill was warded in New Aberdeen. Now looking out at the tolbooth windows, he railed out against some honest men walking anent the tolbooth, whereupon they fettered him fast that he should not come near the window, and fastened his foot in a chain, giving him liberty to walk up and down, but not near the tolbooth windows; besides he was tormented with hunger, for he got not his fill of food, whilk bred in him a sort of madness, without regard to his place or person. Now somewhat sickly, he is straitly kept for a little offence.

Mr. Matthew Lumsden, commissioner for Aberdeen to the convention of burrows holden at Irvine, returned home, bringing with him a pacquet to the earl Marischal, directed from the tables, desiring him not to use the town of Aberdeen who had subscribed the band rigorously, such as were friends to the good cause, but to use such as were known enemies to the good cause, at his liking. After the receipt of thir letters Marischal desired the town to make out a list of six persons, the best men in the town for knowledge, and out of this six he should choose two, who should behold and see his proceedings, and by whose advice he should fine or absolve. Out of thir six he drew out Mr. Robert Farquhar and John Leslie, to sit and give their advice in thir affairs, whereby the inhabitants fand more favour.

Thursday the 23d of July the laird of Elsick and Andrew Hampton servitor to Marischal, with lieutenant Crowner Middleton, were by Marischal directed to go to the lands and baronies of Drum and Pitfoddels, and there fence and hold courts upon their tenants, and decern them to pay their bygone duties to Marischal, and take new tacks of him as dominus fundi, and withal to prepare men for the Bowlroad. Thir poor tenants wanting their masters, Drum being lying in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and Pitfoddels fled out of the country as an anticovenanter, know not what to do, nor whom to obey, yet forced to obey Marischal.

Saturday the 25th of July captain Kaird with about 80 soldiers footmen of colonel Alexander master of Forbes p. 243 regiment, were quartered here in Old Aberdeen, to live upon the 10ths and 20ths within the colonel's division appointed to him by the tables, and not to have free quarters within the town. Ilk soldier had weekly given in allowance to him three pecks of meal at 4s. per peek, to sustain. him. The captain and other officers had their sustentation also, without any burden to the town. This was the first company that was quartered in Old Aberdeen, and had no great harm by them, except in bed rooms, whilk was well furnished to the captain and other officers, but the soldiers lay in their plaids. This captain's true name was Forbes, but nicknamed Kaird, because when he was a boy he served a kaird. He was a pretty soldier; he caused big up a trein mare at the cross for punishing trespassing soldiers according to the discipline of war.

General Felt Marischal Lesly by advice of our Scottish estates resolves to raise an army, and go speak with the king himself in England, since they could get no pleasant answer to their daily petitions.

Monday the 27th of July the earl Marischal with about 300 horse came into Aberdeen; Colonel Alexander master of Forbes came likewise in with his regiment; such of Monro's soldiers as were in the town were lent to Strathboggie to himself, that colonel Forbes' soldiers might get the better quartering, because the town was unable to quarter them all.

Tuesday the 28th of July the General Assembly sat down in the Gray Friar kirk of New Aberdeen, well plenished with desks and seats by the town upon their great expences before their incoming. The earls Marischal and Findlater, the lord Fraser, the master of Forbes, with sundry barons and gentry, as ruling elders, were there , the kirk is well guarded with partisans, and the doors well kept and attended.

Mr. Andrew Ramsay, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, was chosen moderator. There were sundry matters agitated, and then were called Dr. Forbes of Corse, Dr. Scroggie minister at Old Aberdeen, Dr Sibbald minister at New Aberdeen, Mr. Robert Ogilvie subprincipal of the King's College of Old Aberdeen, Mr. Alexander Middleton, Mr. Alexander Garden, p. 244 and Mr. Alexander Scroggie, the four regents (the principal Doctor Lesly being already deposed, was neither called nor summoned) Mr. John Gregory minister at Drumoak, Mr. Andrew Logie minister at Rain, Mr. John Ross minister at Birse, Mr. John Guthrie parson of Duffus in Murray, Mr. Richard Maitland minister at Abercherder, and Mr. Alexander Strachan minister at Chapel of Garioch, were with diverse others of the ministry summoned to compear before this General Assembly. They are referred to a committee to be holden in Marischal's house upon the last of July instant, called the Committee of the General Assembly, and that day there conveened the earls of Marischal and Findlater, the lord Fraser and master of Forbes, and the foresaid Mr. Andrew Ramsay moderator (to whom also came upon the morn the earl of Seaforth) members of this committee, and being set within the earl Marischal's house, Mr. Andrew Ramsay moderator caused call the forenamed persons; and first he began at Dr. Forbes of Corse, and after some queries and answers, no more process past against him at this time; but was continued upon good hopes of his incoming; but he could be no wise moved to subscribe the covenant, whereupon he was also deposed from the place of professor.

Next Dr. Scroggie is accused for not subscribing the covenant; besides for concealing adulteries and some fornications within his parish, abstracting of the beadmen's rents in Old Aberdeen, with some other particulars, maliciously given up against him; and whereupon Mr. Thomas Sandilands commissar (his great enemy) Mr. Thomas Lesly and Thomas Mercer, were brought in as witnesses. Dr. Scroggie's answer to ilk article was written, but upon the first day of August by this committee was he deposed and simpliciter deprived, and preached no more at Old Aberdeen.

Dr. Sibbald was next accused for not subscribing the covenant, and for preaching of erroneous doctrine and Arminianism. His papers were brought by some musketeers, at command of the committee out of his own house, partly written by himself, and partly by umquhile William Forbes bishop of Edinburgh, which were partly found orthodox, partly otherwise. p. 245

There was also a minister called Rutherford, who happened to be warded in Aberdeen at King James' command; he hearing Dr.. Sibbald at that time preach, stood up and accused him of Arminianism; but he defended himself. At last he was deposed and fled his country with a grievous heart, and passed to England.

Next Mr. John Gregory minister at Drumoak (by and attour his being fined in 1000 merks, as ye have before) is deposed; Mr. Andrew Loggie also deposed, with Doctor Leslie principal, and Mr. Alexander Scroggie younger regent; Mr. John Ross minister at Birse comes in and offers to subscribe the covenant, with heart and hand; he is received and enjoined to preach so many penitential sermons, thereafter to be received at his own kirk again. Mr. John Guthrie, Mr. Richard Maitland, Mr. Alexander Strachan, and some others, upon hope of yielding, are continued. This committee of the General Assembly then dissolved.

At this assembly Dr. Barren's wife was ordered to be brought by a party of musketeers out of his own house in Strathisla, with her husband's papers, whilk being seen by the assembly, were not found sound. There was also brought there a missive letter directed by the bishop of Canterbury to the said umquhile Dr. Barren, with two other missives directed to him and umquhile Mr. Alexander Ross, by the bishop of Ross, all tending to the maintenance of Arminianism, promising therefore reward, and withal willing them to cause Raban imprint in the Book of Common Prayer some passages of Arminianism, whilk letters and papers they carried with them, and suffered the gentlewoman to go.

Monday the third of August Mr. Andrew Cant, by a voice of the General Assembly, is ordained to be translated from Newbottle to Aberdeen, to serve at the kirk thereof; but he went first preaching to General Leslie's camp at Newcastle.

Wednesday the 5th of August the earl of Seaforth, the. master of Forbes, Mr. John Adamson, principal of the college of Edinburgh, William Reid burgess there, Dr. Guild doctor of the King's College of Old Aberdeen, with some other barons and gentlemen, held a committee at the said p. 246 King's College, where Mr. James Sandilands (before discharged from being canonist) is now made civilist. Loath to want all therefore, they came all riding up the gate to St. Machar's Kirk, ordained our blessed Lord Jesus Christ his arms to be cut out of the fore front of the pulpit thereof, and to take down the portraiture of the blessed Virgin Mary and our Saviour in her arms, that had stood since the up putting thereof, in curious work, under the ceiling at the West End of the pend whereon the great steeple stands, unmoved till now; and gave order to colonel master of Forbes to see this done, whilk with all diligence he obeyed; and besides, where there were any crucifixes set in glass windows, those he caused pull out in honest men's houses; he caused a mason strike out Christ's arms in hewn work, on each end of bishop Gavin Dunbar's tomb, and siklike chizel out the name of Jesus, drawn cypher ways, out of the timber wall on the foreside of Machar's Isle, anent the consistory door; the crucifix on the Old Town Cross was thrown down, the crucifix on the New Town closed up, being loath to break the stone; the crucifix on the West end of St. Nicholas' Church in New Aberdeen thrown down, whilk was never touched before. But this diligent master of Forbes kept not place long time thereafter, but was shortly cashiered; and after diverse fortunes, at last he with his lady went to Holland.

Now there was diverse and sundry acts made at the General Assembly, which is referred to their own book. James Murray, servitor to Mr. Archibald Johnston, was substitute clerk to this General Assembly. Among the rest of their acts it was ordained, that prayers should be made at all parish churches within Scotland for the good and happy success of the army, then raising to go into England to speak with the king.

They indicted a new General Assembly to be holden at St. Andrews the third Tuesday of July next 1641; thereafter dissolved, and ilk ane went a sundry gate, who had many blessings following them for eating and destroying of the poor labourers corns about the town, with their ill attended horses, whereof they had little regard.

Sunday the 9th of August Doctor Guild preached before and afternoon in Old Aberdeen, Mr. Robert Ogilvie p. 247 subprincipal, publickly sitting in Alexander Gordon of Prasmoir's deck, as he was ordained by the presbytery, subscribed the covenant after forenoon's sermon. Prayer was made by Doctor Guild for the king, and also for good success to the army going to the king albeit at his first subscribing of the covenant it was with limitation, and though he wrote a pamphlet against rising in arms.

Monday the 10th of August, seven score burgesses, craftsmen and apprentices, were prested and taken per force, to help to fill up Marischal's regiment to go to general Lesly. The honest men of the town, wondering at this manifold oppression, fled; took fisher boats and went to the sea, lurking about the craigs of Downy till the storm past.

The same day Monro lifts his camp frae Strathboggie, sends back the haill keys to the lady marchioness, without doing any offence or deed of wrong to that stately palace; but they among the rest took mickle bleached cloath in whole webs, bleaching up and down Strathboggie ground, whereof there uses there yearly to be plenty, and would hang them over the walls of the place to dry, to the great hurt of the poor country people. Monro had lyen there with his army frae the 9th of July to this 10th of August, when they lifted their camp. They set all their lodges on fire, they toomed out what was left unspent within the girnels, they carried with them some men, money, horse, and arms, destroyed the bestial, and left nothing behind them that might be carried. They left that country almost manless, moneyless, horseless, and armless, so pitifully was the same born down and subdued. The people sware and subscribed the covenant most obediently, and now Monro leaves them thus pitifully oppressed, and forward marches he to Forglen, one of the laird of Banff's houses, and to Muiresk, his good son's house, (themselves being both fled, into England) plaguing and plundering the country people belonging to them most cruelly, and without any compassion. Syne comes directly to the burgh of Banff, and encamps upon a piece of plain ground called the Dowhaugh. The soldiers fell quickly too to cutting and hewing down the pleasant planting and fruitful young trees, bravely growing within the laird of Banff's orchards p. 248 and gardens (pitiful to see!) and made up huts to themselves to lie all night, and defend them frae storms of rain; they violently brake up the gates of his stately house of Banff, and went through the haill houses, rooms, and chambers belonging thereto, broke up the victual girnels, (whereof there were store) for their food, and spoilzed his ground and his haill friends of their haill goods and gear and cattle, that by any means they could get, by and attour whereof the earl of Findlater, his unnatural friend, by command of the committee, meddled with and by force took up his haill rents and living out of the tenants hands for maintenance of the good cause.

Tuesday the 11th of August colonel Alexander master of Forbes directed out a party of musketeers from Aberdeen to the barony of Balgowny, and parishes of New Machar and Old Machar, and other land within his division appointed to him by the tables; commanding the heritors, under pain of plundering, to pay to him the tenth penny of their free rent, whilk for fear they obeyed and paid. He commanded also to press and take up the fourth man per force of both poor and rich, and ilk heritor to furnish his prest men with 40 days loan, and arms conform, to the effect this colonel's regiment might be effectually made up, and those who disobeyed, the soldiers sat down in their houses, and lived on their goods.

Word came to Aberdeen the foresaid Tuesday, that the earl of Nithsdale, standing to the king's opinion, with crowner Stuart and some brave soldiers, manfully defended two strong holds, Lochmaben and Carlaverock, against the fearful assaults of one captain Cochran, accompanied with about soldiers, and slew sundry of the assailants.

Friday the 14th of August the earl Marischal came into Aberdeen, collecting of his own men, who came out of Buchan, Mar and Mearns, willingly, pressing of others, and with the rest 140 out of New Aberdeen, and such others as he could get within his division. The laird of Haddo came in to him; the laird of Newton bade back, albeit his charter chest was in Marischal's custody for his loyalty; Alexander Gordon of Prasmoir made himself ready, well horsed, to go, rather than pay his fine; and with the rest p. 249 goes forward; so upon Monday the 17th of August he takes journey out of Aberdeen towards the bowlroad, leaving behind him colonel Alexander master of Forbes to be governor in Aberdeen. He rides to Inglismadie, takes up a muster of his men, and had but about 800, whereas his regiment consisted of 2000 men; he was wroth at such as had broken promise, and hastily rides to Edinburgh to complain of thir delinquents; charging his brother German captain Robert Keith, to make up with the 140 men taken out of New Aberdeen before, and 150 soldiers, with 40 days loan, commanding the burgh also not to receive or entertain any of the runaway soldiers, under the pain of plundering, whilk was duly obeyed; and he ordained this captain to follow him with his regiment and such others as he could get, who were well furnished with the town of Aberdeen's brave arms, and forward goes he to the earl, where his men mustered about Musselburgh were 800 foot men, and directed them with his brother to go to general Lesly, and himself returned back to Aberdeen, making great search for more soldiers. Alexander Gordon returned back with him frae Edinburgh to Dunnotter, where he left him, syne had liberty to come to his own house in Old Aberdeen; he returned not back to Marischal's service, but bade still at home, without fining or other perturbation.

Colonel master of Forbes, now governor of Aberdeen in Marischal's absence, took up his dwelling in William Scot's house anent the Mercat Cross (himself being out of the kingdom) and put his wife and bairns to the door, how soon he entered the house, whilk was upon the 18th of August. He began where Marischal left off, to oppress and plunder the haill country within his division, and daily sent out parties of musketeers to honest men's houses in Machar's parish for the fourth man, arms, and 40 days loan to make up his regiment, otherwise to dwell upon them, and bring in the masters themselves, whilk per force they behoved to obey, and pay over again. Marischal and he sorted not well upon their divisions, whereupon he conveened the lord Fraser and about 100 gentlemen of his own kin, who upon their own charges convoyed this colonel p. 250 to the tables to complain upon Marischal, who had neither left man nor money in his division, whom Marischal soon followed.

Saturday the 15th of August a proclamation was made at the Cross of Aberdeen, charging all manner of men within burgh or land within the sheriffdom to pay the tenth penny of their rents, victual rent, silver rent, or annual rent. 2ndly, To deliver their silver work, upon security for repayment of the price, according to the weight thereof, 3dly, To send out their monies upon sufficient security of the payment, with the annual rent. 4thly, To take order with the runaway soldiers.

This proclamation doubtless was made at the crosses of the haill burrows of Scotland, whereunto was given obedience, except the silver work that was not craved in this town, and they had little money left them to lend out on security.

Tuesday the 18th of August, doctor William Guild and one Mr. Robert Baillie, were put on leet, which should be chosen principal of the King's College of Old Aberdeen, now vacant by deposition of Dr. William Lesley, principal. The list seemed strange, and against the foundation, where any person not learned within the College, should be preferred before persons educated and brought up therein, and of no less gifts and learning than these strangers, whereof some then within the college were regents. However they go on; Dr. James Sandilands, commissary of Aberdeen, was chancellor of the said university in absence of the bishop of Aberdeen, and was present in the College Hall; the regents, grammarians, and remanent founded members were there; Mr. Thomas Sandilands younger, commissary, in name of the earl of Lothian, Mr. William Davidson sheriff depute of Aberdeen, in name of the earl of Angus, Mr. James Baird advocate, in name of the earl of Mar, and Mr. Patrick Chalmers sheriff clerk in the name of the earl of Murray, were there, whilk four noblemen being the four nearest countries about this College had, by virtue of the foundation, voice and place in the election of ane principal (sede vacante by decease or deprivation). Well, they conveened altogether; Patrick Rankine, p. 251 servitor to the said Mr. James Baird is the court's clerk; they go on, where this Dr. Guild is chosen principal of this university ad vitam aut culpam, and the other rejected; but what warrant these four had, who compeared for the noblemen, either by procuratory or otherwise, to make this election, I know not, but order apparently was given by the tables to this effect. Now this Dr. Guild, who first subscribed the covenant with limitation, prays for the good success of the army, whereas he wrote against raising of arms; thereafter Dr. Lesly rendered up the haill keys of the college library, and all which he had, to Dr. Guild, wherewith he shortly possessed himself. Dr. Lesly was allowed to keep a chamber to himself within the college, to ly in and study, but bought his meat in through the Oldtown, where he pleased, with great modesty, resolving with patience to abide the good will of God without murmuring or appearance of discontent, where or in whatsoever society he happened to be.

Mr. Patrick Gordon was brought out of the laird of Haddo's place, being servant to him, and chosen regent, in the deposed Mr. Alexander Scroggie's place, and so this meeting dissolved.

The said 18th of August, major Monro with some few company rides frae Banff towards Murray, (leaving his regiment behind him) for giving order there, and to Ross, Sutherland, Caithness, and Strathnaver, to raise the fourth man with 40 days loan, to go for the Dunse to general Lesly. Many barons and gentlemen met him, and honoured him by the way; he hastily returned again to the camp, and by the way broke up the iron gate of Inchdrewer, (a place where Banff used most commonly to dwell in, and keep) and forcibly took it off, syne sold it for five merks to a countryman, whilk an hundred pound had not put up, They brake up doors and windows, entered the house, and defaced all, and left nothing within it whilk they might carry with them, without authority or law.

General Lesly is now at Dunse with about 20,000 brave soldiers, horse and foot; he encamped at Chelsea wood, hard beside Dunse; they had good provision of all things necessary, and had ten cannons of battery, and eighty field p. 252 pieces. Edinburgh zealously furnished them 9000 ells of canvas and harden to be tents and pavillions; they delivered upon their great oath, all the silver work within their whole town, without respect. of persons, on security of repayment in current money according to the weight, whilk silver work was hastily coined in good money to pay the soldiers. There were in this army many brave captains and commanders, of purpose sent for by the Covenanters to France, Germany, Flanders, and Holland, and store of arms, powder and ball, daily furnished and brought from Holland; and thus lies he still at Chelsea wood, in good order, drawn on by the English commoners and others, projectors of our troubles and common calamities within that and our own country; still privately urging this general to come forward with all diligence.

The king informed of thir troubles and proceedings, . raises an army also of about 16,000 foot and 4000 horse, minding by himself in person to come to the field, and by open proclamation at the haill parish churches of England and mercat crosses, declared this our army to be traitors, commanding also and straitly charging all Englishmen his good subjects, in no wise to recept, supply or support these Scots, in meat, drink, or other necessaries, under the pain of high treason, intending also to be at Newcastle, where the king's magazines lay, before General Lesly should be there; but all for nought; the king is disappointed. Well, this army consisting of about 20,000 brave captains, cavaliers, and soldiers, by and attour 10,000 baggage men, is now at the lifting , but before the camp was raised they set forth a paper, intituled, The intentions of the army of Scotland declared to their brethren of England by the commissioners of the late parliament, and by the general, noblemen, and barons, and other officers of the army.

Ireland goes to arms, sets forth a remonstrance, avowing the Roman Catholic religion, in despite of us and our proceedings, and therewith fell to against our English and Scottish inhabitants, contrary to their profession, burnt their biggings, corns, and all that they had, murdered and slew man and wife and child without remorse, banished ministers Scots and English, and with an uplifted hand vowed, p. 253 protested, and declared their own rebellion and popish religion, against our covenant and proceedings; yea to the admiration of many, saying, as our covenant expelled prelates and papists, so they would expel both protestants and puritans.

Now thir intentions being printed and set forth, as said is, there followed another imprinted piece upon the back thereof, called, Information frae the Scottish nation to all the true English concerning the present expedition.

Upon Tuesday the 18th of August or thereby general Lesly raised his army frae Chelsea wood beside Dunse, and passed over the Tweed that samen day.

Thursday the 20th of August a committee was holden at Aberdeen by colonel Alexander master of Forbes; the lord Fraser, the lairds of Monymusk, Towie and Bainagalk, and some others, were present.

Sunday the 23d of August a fast was kept in Old Aberdeen, according to the direction of the last General Assembly, for the good cause of our army, and peace and quietness of the country, which was also kept on Thursday thereafter, with abstinence from all handicraft. This two fast days were universally kept through all the parish churches of Scotland.

About this time captain John Forbes, alias Kaird, removed his soldiers out of Old Aberdeen to New Aberdeen, where they were quartered. They remained in Old Aberdeen frae the 25th of July to the 21st of August without great burden to the citizens.

Our Scots merchants goods and ships were daily taken by the king's ships, coming or going, and had to Berwick, Newcastle, or Holy Island; their goods unloaded, inventary taken of them, and all put up in safety, doubtless for our weal, by advice of our English friends, lest they might have been preyed upon as traitors goods; but the ships were still kept from the sea, to our great grief, by direction of the king, but were all restored back again afterwards.

About this time the Castle of Edinburgh, scarce of fresh meat, shot muskets at the town, and people shearing their harvest, where some were slain, and shot some cannon at the town, but they feared not, nor would suffer any provision to be had to the Castle; at last it was given over. p. 254

Upon Friday the 4th of September, after Monro's soldiers had spoilzied, plundered, destroyed, and carried away everything almost belonging to the laird of Banff, his men and tenants, Monro lifted his camp frae Banff, and sent in the bishop of Murray to New Aberdeen before him, with his two sons, under a convoy, where, he stayed, abiding his incoming.

Then Monro and his soldiers, now amounting to 1000 men, made up by the help of the earls of Seaforth, Murray, Ross, and Sutherland, marched that night to Turriff; Saturday they marched therefrae to Inverurie and Kintore; Sunday they marched therefrae to Aberdeen, and by the way at Bucks Burn they had a sermon, taught by their own minister. Monro directed his soldiers to be quartered in the town where they were quartered before. The town's people cry out that their rooms were already taken up by the master of Forbes' men; Monro answered, he had sent word to provide for him before his coming, and therefore he would be served. No remead; it behoved to be done; and so they were quartered, to the great grief of the honest town's people, where they stayed while the 5th of September.

Sunday the 6th of September there was no preaching in Old Aberdeen, but prayers; after prayer John Kilgour stood up, charging the heritors of St. Machar and Old Aberdeen to go over the morrow to the master of Forbes, and give him up their rentals truly; ilk man for omitting one boll to pay ten bolls, and for one pound ten pounds; besides their oaths being taken. Whereupon the Oldtown heritors drew up in write their rentals about the town, extending to about eleven chalders of victual, whereof one chalder was deduced for payment of their feu duties, and the tenth part of the rest was a chalder, whilk ipsa corpora, was presently paid to Mr. Robert Farquhar, commissary appointed for uplifting the tenths for maintainance of Marischal's and the master of Forbes' regiments, according to their divisions ordered by committee. The rental was given up by virtue of ilk heritor's oath, subscribed by the Oldtown Baillies, and had over by Mr. Thomas Gordon their commissioner, to the master of Forbes' lodging, p. 255 and produced before Patrick Lesly provost of Aberdeen, Mr. Thomas Sandilands commissary, and some other honest men, appointed for receiving of the rents of the tenth parts. There fell out some questions betwixt Marischal and the master of Forbes anent the uplifting of thir tenths; the one alledging that Marischal plucked up all, both men and money, within his division, whereby he was unable to furnish out a regiment according to his order, having warrant from the committee to take up the tenths of 25 parishes, and men also, to make up his regiment, whereof Marischal defrauded him, and whereat the master of Forbes and his friends took exception, and shortly rode South to the tables, with 100 brave gentlemen of his friends, who accompanied him upon their own charges, to complain upon Marischal, who also followed quick after.

Monday the 7th of September, major Monro, with his captains and haill other officers, were made burghers of Aberdeen, and got the banquet (no doubt with good will for his good service). Ilk man got a burgess-act, whilk they put up in their bonnets.

Ye may read before, how general Lesly raised his army frae Chelsea wood. The king had his train bands and other soldiers, about 16,000 men of foot, and 4000 of horse, who did little good. Forward goes Lesly with little trouble, being a matter plotted betwixt him and the English, as may appear, whose progress had the success following, taken frae a printed paper in thir Words, Sure news from Newcastle, and frae the Scottish army, the 27th of August 1640.

Upon Thursday the 27th of August at night our army arrived within a mile of Newcastle, and expecting to have past there-through were disappointed, in respect of the English garrison that was therein, which general Lesly perceiving, upon Friday morning betimes marched forward to Newburn Ford, and resolved to pass there in spite of all opposition, where being advanced, and finding the pass fortified with strong trenches and breast works, and six pieces of cannon, did find it somewhat hard, being guarded with 3000 horse or thereby, and 1200 foot; therefore wisely he commanded his cannon to be secretly conveyed p. 256 alongst a low way, to be placed upon the face of a hill near to that place, where having a perfect view of the English trenches and quarters, he did play so hard upon them, that they were forced to throw away their arms, disband in confusion, and blow up their own powder; which rout the English cavalry perceiving, they resolved to make good the pass, and recover the cannon and arms which the infantry had left; which thing our general perceiving, commanded his own colonel Lesly with the five troops, seconded by colonel Ramsay, together with that of Sir Thomas Hope his own lifeguard, amounting to 1500, to go forth, who did so resolutely assault them, that they were forced to retire, notwithstanding of their number being about 2500, and quality of their horse and arms far beyond ours; after which retreat they resolved yet once again to have recovered what their foot had lost, but our troops redoubling their resolutions and courage, did make good not only their first attempt, but also put sir John Suckling back with his troops of horse, being the prime of all England, to the retreat, took some of his horses, whereof one (being most excellent) was presented to our general by Sir Thomas Hope, captain of the lifeguard; the rest were left to the takers, to encourage every brave gentleman to adventure. There were lost in this conflict, (which lasted from Friday at twelve o'clock till six at night,) about 80 English, and 40 taken, three whereof being commanders, the commissary general Sir John Digby and others. Of ours only there were three lost, Sir Patrick M'Gie's son, Thomas Darling a writer in Edinburgh, and one called Baxter in Fife, and some others hurt, but not deadly. Thereafter the general past the ford and encamped at Reyton-field, where after thanks given to God for their safe passage, delivery, and so good a beginning, they stood to their arms all that night, (my lord Carnegie's regiment being left on the other side to guard the baggage) the general resolved in person to cognosce the entry to Newcastle on the South-side; and taking for his convoy three horse trops, with 400 foot and commanders, did advance thereto, and upon Saturday thereafter had the town rendered to him, where now they are by the favour of God, having power of all the coal and salt, which from thence doth furnish all England. p. 257

From the Border the 27th of August 1640.

The garrison of Berwick perceiving that our army were gone towards Newcastle, after they were well advanced, (as they were assured) they resolved to break upon our magazine of victuals being at Coldstream, and either to have taken or burnt up the samen, but being preserved by the resolution and diligence of my lord Haddington, with the Humes of the Merse, and a regiment under the command of lieutenant colonel Kinmouth, who were left to attend and guard the samen, they were disappointed of their intention, put back to their garrison, with the loss of some of them, and taking others prisoners, since which time they kept themselves quiet.

From Dumbarton the 27th of August 1640.

Upon Thursday the 24th of August the earl of Argyle came to the castle of Dumbarton, and having conveened the committee of war in that shire, did shew to them his direction from the estates, and his undertaking accordingly, for taking the castle: whereupon the governor of the castle hearing hereof, and not being able much longer to hold out, sent first for a parly for a certain space, which the earl denying, thereafter upon some articles agreed upon, he had the castle rendered unto him, where he found a great number of excellent brazen pieces, and 12000 weight of powder, with much other warlike preparations. The garrison was suffered safely to come out and ship at the Ness in West Lothian for England.

At the end of this paper was also written, Surgente Deo, disperguntur Inimici ejus.

Now may be seen with what policy both Newcastle and this strong strength of Dumbarton is taken in without shot of musket or stroke of sword, to the marvel of many who knew not the secrets of their proceeding. There is found in Newcastie the king's magazine appointed for sustaining of the garrison within the town, wherein there was found abundance of bread, wine, beer, and all sorts of victuals and good provision, upon which the army made good chear during their abode. Dumbarton was thought to be given over for famine, for the king was so slighted, that he was not able to furnish that impregnable strength with victuals, whilk if he had done, it would have been invincible, but p. 258 now being rendered, the same is presently furnished with men, meat, and all necessary provision to stand at the country's (but not at the king's) opinion.

Newcastle thus taken in, the general causes quarter his army partly within the town, partly at Morpeth, and other parts round about, within 12 miles distance of the camp, where to their incredible joy they lived both on burgh and land at their pleasure, ay and so long as they remained in that bounds, but this mirth was suddenly mixed with melancholy, for upon Sunday the 30th of August the earl of Haddington, with about 80 persons of knights, barons, and gentlemen, within the place of Dunglass in the Merse, pertaining heritably to the lord Hume, was suddenly blown up in the air by a sudden fire, occasioned thus: Haddington with his friends and followers, rejoicing how they defended the army's magazine frae the English garrison of Berwick, came altogether to Dunglass, having no fear of evil, where they were all suddenly blown up with the roof of the house in the air, by powder, whereof there was abundance in this place, and never bone nor lyre seen of them again, nor ever trial got how this stately house was so blown up, to the destruction of this nobleman, both worthy and valourous, and his dear friends. This grievous accident was bewailed of many, but chiefly of his dear lady, the lady Jean Gordon, who lost her husband, as she did her brother, both after one manner and by sudden fire. It is said, when the king heard of this fire, he answered, he had lost a good subject, but the Lord God of Hosts was fighting for him.

Tuesday the 3th of September captain Forbes alias Kaird came from Bartholomew Fair with about 80 soldiers, collected of poor miserable creatures, herds and hiremen, under colonel master of Forbes' regiment, where they were quartered, himself with his wife takes in Mr. Thomas Lesly's house, where night and day by his drinking, boasting, and brawling, Mr. Thomas with his wife and bairns were sore vexed; the Oldtown people were compelled to give them free quarters, or to suffer plundering, and so they sustained his soldiers while the 14th of September freely without any payment. Thereafter they were transported to New Aberdeen. p. 259

The foresaid Tuesday ilk minister within the sheriffdom of Aberdeen came with the commissioner of his parish to the town, and there in presence of Patrick Lesly provost, and Thomas Sandilands younger commissary, and some others present, they subscribed rolls of the tenths given up by the oath of every subscriber, as they who had commission to receive and see the upgiving of the same, but commissary Farquhar took up the payment. Ilk minister also gave up a roll of the haill male communicants within his parish, whereby it might be understood how many fighting men might be levied out of each parish to the good cause.

Wednesday the 9th of September, major Monro commanded strictly the town of Aberdeen to furnish his soldiers with cloathing, shirts, and shoes, whilk was obediently done; next to.furnish presently to him ten thousand merks for convoying his soldiers South, and to receive payment back from commissary Farquhar out of the tenth within the sheriffdom of Aberdeen, whilk he and Walter Cochran became bound to do, whilk thereupon was provided by stenting of the town, and whereof I hope they got payment frae the said commissary and his said depute Cochran; and thirdly, the town to furnish carriage horses for transporting of his cannon, bag and baggage, to Stonehaven, He himself came over to the Oldtown, took the haill horses there, and other horses going back from the town with their toom criels, from carrying of peats. Monro having gotten his haill demands, leaves behind him in the burgh some of the master of Forbes' bands quartered within the town, sometimes free, sometimes for payment of a little, so that Aberdeen was still holden under the yoke of slavery and servitude, and thus on Saturday the 12th of September he began his march frae Aberdeen upon free quarters, whilk he duly repayed, as ye may see hereafter. He takes the three Spaniards with him, and his own men out of Drum, (whilk Marischal caused man with his men, with whom the lady was not so well contented as before, whereupon she left Drum, and dwelt in Cromar, while she saw about her, they still living upon the laird's rents) had them to Leith, where their other fellows were also taken, p. 260 but what came of them I cannot tell. Now Monro marches the first night to Stonehaven, where he sends back all the Oldtown and Newtown carriage horses, and furnishes others out of the Mearns, and sua forth to Dundee, where he also commanded them to give him ten thousand merks, whilk for fear of his residence they were forced to pay; and so he past to Edinburgh, where his army was now 1000 men good, of infantry, with some horsemen; he brought also with him the bishop of Murray up the street, and presented him to the estates, who incontinent caused ward him in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, where he remained with heavy heart. His wife all this while remained in Spynie, and never went to see her husband in ward, nor out of it,

Tuesday the 15th of September parties were directed out by the master of Forbes to go within his division, and plunder such as had not payed their tenths and their fourth man, whereby the country people in this sheriffdom were daily grievously oppressed with thir parties of soldiers, and were forced to obey, otherwise they would sit down in honest men's houses, and live upon their means, whether they would or not.

General Ruthven, captain of the castle of Edinburgh, seeing no appearance of help frae the king, as was often promised, and finding victuals grow scant, having neither water, wine, beer, nor ale, that could laste long, resolved to seek a parly by drum. The earl of Argyle came up to the castle upon the tuck of the drum, and told him that Dumbarton was given over by Crowner Henderson, captain thereof; he could hardly believe the same, till he saw the captain, who was his own good brother. At last after good advisement he rendered the Castle, upon condition that he and his soldiers should go out honourably, carrying colours, burning matches, tuck of drum, with bag and baggage, and to march frae the Castle down through the town in good order and array. With some difficulty thir conditions were granted, after some skaith done to the town upon Argyle's first refusal. However the castle is now rendered, wherein the royal ornaments of the crown, viz. crown, sword, and scepter were securely kept, besides abundance p. 261 of ammunition, powder, ball, and other commodities (but very little meat or drink) whilk by command of the estates was all put in inventary: thereafter Ruthven came forth with about 70 soldiers and 32 women; they came down the street according to communing; there were about 160 persons died in the Castle, through a sickness contracted by eating of salt meat, 12 thereof being only slain all this time, and about 180 persons, men, women, and bairns of common people slain in the town, and great skaith done to their houses by shot of cannon frae the Castle. Some of the covenanting nobles convoyed Ruthven down to Leith, where he and such of his men as would follow him, embarked and sailed directly to Berwick, syne went to his majesty. Thereafter a townsman of Edinburgh called Stephen Boyd was made captain of the Castle, who entered with soldiers to keep the same; and about this time the strong Castle of Carlaverrock yielded also to the Covenanters. The Castle of Edinburgh was rendered the 15th of September.

Upon Wednesday the 19th of September Andrew Hampton servitor to the earl Marischal, and at his command, violently spoiled William Scot's house in New Aberdeen, (himself being fled frae the good cause out of Scotland,) of dales, trees, and other fine timber, salt, tobacco, and the like commodities, whereof there was plenty, and transported them by sea to Dunnotter, to the wreck of the honest man.

Friday the 21st of September, Mr. William Mushet, minister at Slains, with divers other outstanding ministers, came in, recanted, repented, and preached a penitential sermon; and Leech preached the same day, and gave obedience to the ordinances of the kirk. About this time both Aberdeens were commanded under pain of plundering, to lead peats to the master of Forbes' lodging in New Aberdeen, without payment; grievous to the people, being in the top of harvest.

Word came also about this time, that his majesty was coming fast forward with a great army, towards York, but he is most politically stayed, step by step, by our Scottish and English. p. 262

But at last, being come with his army to York, caused summon the peers of England to compear at York; but Essex and Hartford would not compear, but gave in their excuses, whereupon the king gart ward both their commissioners, but they were soon put to liberty. The rest of the peers obeyed the king's summons, and for the most part came to York; but there came 1000 Englishmen nearhand, but would not enter the town of York upon thir own reasons, and petitioned the king for a free parliament for redressing the grievances of that kingdom, both in church and state, and for settling his majesty with his subjects of Scotland. At this meeting also the Lower House, and some artisans of London petitioned the king for the same, whilk petition, as was said, had 7000 subscriptions. The king being thus urged with so many subscriptions and petitions for a parliament, all at this time of the convention of the peers at York, whilk was upon the 24th of September, at last yields to their importunate petitions, and indicts a parliament to be holden at his palace of Westminster the 5th of November next to come. How soon the English had got a parliament indicted, they then began to exult and rejoice, and resolved to have the Scots settled to their own contentment, and to work out their own desires in England, according to their own pleasure; and for our Scots party, they then began to draw on a meeting betwixt 15 English nobles and others, and 15 Scottish nobles and others, to meet at Northallerton the first day of October next for pacification, and his majesty to send a safe-conduct under his hand to the Scottish commissioners, and in the meantime a cessation from war to the 16th of December next, prisoners on both sides to be restored, and during this cessation from war the Scottish army to get monthly pay out of Northumberland, Westmorland, and Cumberland, for their sustentation, and to save the country from plundering. This was at this time condescended to at York; by and attour they had for their provision the king's magazine at Newcastle, and the customs of the coal and salt of that town, which is of no small importance, and daily supplied out of the bishoprick of Durham. Thus was our Scottish army that came to seek the king, royally entertained p. 263 at Newcastle, whereat the Englishmen were content, as being done by their own consent and privy paction, but the king had his army also lying in England, sustained upon his own pay and expences; so is he handled, and in place of taking order with our army, according to our deserts and his majesty's honour, a parliament is granted, and a parly of pacification betwixt him and his Scottish rebels, whilk parliament brought the king to many troubles, and to the shedding of mickle innocent blood, both in England and Ireland, as hereafter ye shall hear. However there followed no meeting at Northallerton, as was proposed, but the king leaves his army lying at York, and rides to the parliament. And because his majesty was not well acquaint with our Scottish laws, nor was able to give answer to the demand of the estates of Scotland without good information, therefore and to the effect his majesty might go on legally, he sends post for Sir Lewis Stuart, one of the prime advocates at Edinburgh, to repair upon his safe-conduct: to his court at York, who before his majesty past therefrae, came and conferred at length anent the laws of Scotland. What satisfaction he gave to the king, I cannot tell, but the king rode his way, but Sir Lewis got no thanks from the estates for his travel, but was reputed an incendiary, and brought under great trouble.

General Lesly lying at Newcastle, and hearing how matters went, gave licence to sundry gentlemen and others to come home to Scotland, upon strict condition of their return upon advertisement, so he lost nothing by their absence, because he was still payed for their meat and wages, as if they were on service.

Upon Wednesday immediately before Michaelmas and 23d of September, which is the ordinary day for election of the magistrates of Aberdeen, Patrick Leslie, a prime covenant, is now made provost, with a clear election for a year, suppose discharged of that place before; William Forbes, Thomas Mortimer, John Lesly, and Alexander Jaffray, baillies.

The laird of Drum lying warded in Edinburgh, is continued sheriff principal of Aberdeen for a year, and Mr. William Davidson remained sheriff depute, as he who was placed therein ad vitam. p. 264

Ye heard before of some miscontentment between the earl Marischal and master of Forbes; they both go before the tables. The earl alledged that none ought to have regiments in the shire of Aberdeen but himself, and that the master of Forbes should follow him in his service. He answered, he was the chief of a clan, who had got a regiment, and that he was not obliged to follow any subject in his service. The tables ordered that he should keep his own regiment, and take up men and money within his division, and that Marischal should have no meddling with him.

Thursday the 1st of October Doctor Scroggie being unable to keep his ministry, freely gives over the samen before the presbytery of Aberdeen; and Mr. William Strachan parson of Methlick was transported thereto, and therewith gets Dr. Scroggie's dwelling-house and yard, which with pains he had pleasantly planted. He had four hundred merks, as was said, from this Mr. William for his good will of the bigging and yards, and he entered thereto at Whitsunday then next 1641; and this honest old reverend man, of good literature, judgment, and understanding, forced to quit his place, his charge, and dwelling-place, besides the plundering of his means, as ye heard before; but do his best, (though out of time) he is forced to yield, come in, and subscribe the covenant. Thereafter by moyan he gets eight chalder of victual out of Ross, and his good son Mr. Alexander Innes minister at Rothemay, as mickle.

Saturday the 3d of October, a committee was holden at Aberdeen, where the cordiners of both Aberdeens, and in the land about the towns, were commanded under pain of plundering to give up upon oath the number of their leather, and to make up against the 11th of October instant, their portion of 20,000 pairs of shoes at 10 and 11 inches at the least, to be sent to Newcastle to general Lesly's army, and siklike the merchants were commanded to furnish their part of their cloaths and shirts, being 2000 suit of apparel, and 2000 shirts. The committee took exact trial what gray cloath and harden, bleached and unbleached, the merchants had; what should more? obedience and patience per force. But our country people had dear shoes thereafter, some paying 40 pence, some 36 pence, that would have been bought for 20 or 24 pence. Thir cordiners p. 265 were sore vexed, for with their own hands they were forced to work, ilk man his proportional part, because their servants and apprentices were taken frae them to Marischal's regiment, as ye have heard before. Thus is Aberdeen holden in continual misery. Old and New Aberdeen furnished out fourscore pair of shoes and four for their part, and got payment by the estimation of four sworn men for the leather, but no payment for the workmanship. The Oldtown people had 17 shilling for ilk pair, but if they had been selling them, they would have cost 30. However, shoes, shirts, and cloaths, are made up and shipped at Aberdeen, and from thence transported to Newcastle; and here it is to be observed, that the haill land had their part as well as the towns of Aberdeen.

The silver work of Dundee was about this time taken up upon surety, and coined for the army.

About this time also Mr. Gilbert Rois, minister at     was transported therefrae to Dr. Gordon's ministry at Elgin (who had fled the kingdom, being against the covenant) and by order of the General Assembly this was done.

Mr. Alexander Reid is now, upon his own large expences, put to liberty out of the Cattle of Stirling, and upon Friday the 9th of October he comes home to his own house in Aberdeen, having been in ward partly in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and partly in the castle foresaid, since the 11th of June.

Mr. Robert Farquhar commissary, raises charges in king Charles' name against the feuers and vassals of the bishoprick of Aberdeen, to make payment to him as commissary within this province, of the haill mails, farms, and duties, addebted by them to the last bishop, under the pain of horning, conform to an ordinance of the late session of parliament. This charge was given here in Aberdeen upon the foresaid 9th of October, and got obedience without delay.

Sunday the 11th of October, it was declared, that the communion was to be given in New Aberdeen the next Sunday; ordaining such as had not subscribed the covenant, to come in on Tuesday before, and subscribe, otherwise be debarred frae the table. This was told after sermon, out of the pulpit of New Aberdeen, by and attour to underly the censure of the kirk. p. 266

The parishioners of Old Aberdeen cannily joined in Mr. William Strachan foresaid to be in Doctor Scroggie's place for certain ends that some had in the business; they sent to the presbytery of Aberdeen two commissioners, declaring their minister was deposed; the parishioners had no sure minister to serve and celebrate the communion, and wished, if it might be done, the foresaid Mr. William Strachan to fill his place, as he who was both learned and of good life, as was most true, whilk was granted. Mr. Robert Ogilvie subprincipal, gets his kirk; Mr. Alexander Middleton becomes subprincipal; thereafter Mr. Patrick Gordon was made a regent, who was chaplain to the laird of Haddo.

Ye heard before how John Leith of Harthill was warded in Aberdeen, and chained by the foot. This gentleman being so roughly and uncharitably used, almost became furious and mad; he got a smith's file conveyed in to him, wherewith he shore the iron from his foot, and being loose, he came to the tolbooth window, and cried out horribly, threatning and boasting Patrick Lesly provost, and Mr. Robert Farquhar, with others his enemies, and with fire intended to burn through the prison, whilk misbehaviour being considered, the town wrote for a warrant from the committee to transport him to Edinburgh, whereby they might be free of his trouble; and so upon Tuesday the 12th of October Mr. William Davidson, sheriff depute of Aberdeen, conveyed him to the sheriff of the Mearns, and so frae shire to shire he was convoyed to Edinburgh, and immediately warded within the tolbooth thereof. Pitiful to see a gentleman so miserably handled, without mitigation or agreement, seeing none would become caution in lawborrows for him, being a fierce man; and so he lay there untill his excellency the marquis of Montrose commanded to set him and all the prisoners to liberty.

Thursday the 15th of October a committee was holden at Aberdeen by the lairds of Monymusk, Kemnay, Philorth, Craigievar, the tutor of Pitsligo, the goodman of Balnagask, Auchmedden, and some others.

The said Thursday, a ship belonging to Aberdeen, whereof Patrick Moir was skipper, loaden with iron, hemp, lint, and. other commodities of the like nature, with some money p. 267 also within her, was seen to sink, the day being calm and the fun shining, by springing of a plank. The men were all saved, but the ship and goods sank to the ground, to the furtherance of the loss of Aberdeen.

The presbytery of Aberdeen gave order on this Thursday to remove Doctor Guild frae his ministry in New Aberdeen, and to enter himself to the principality of the College of Old Aberdeen, according to his election. He obeyed and entered home that same day; the first work that he began to do was, he employed masons to cast down the walls of the Snow Kirk, and transport the stones to big up the College Yard dykes, and to employ the hewn work to the decayed windows within the college, whereat many Oldtown people murmured, the same being sometime the parish kirk of Old Aberdeen, within the whilk their friends and forefathers were buried.

Ye heard before of major Monro's going South frae Aberdeen. His men were quartered in Leith, Fisheraw, and Musleburgh, and other parts thereabout, where they remained while Friday the 16th of October, syne marched towards the army. By the way, being within three miles of Berwick, his soldiers began to prey upon the town's sheep, but some of the town's soldiers issued forth to defend them, and fell in bickering with Monro's soldiers, where his own sister's son was slain.

About the 16th of October, word came to Aberdeen that the bishop of Ross was advanced to a fat bishoprick in Ireland; a busy man in thir troubles, and thought to be an evil patriot and special inbringer of thir innovations within the church.

Now the drums were daily beating through New Aberdeen to make up colonel master of Forbes' regiment of 1000 men; but do his best, he could never make up 300 men, and such as he had were quartered still in New Aberdeen, and lived upon the tenths.

It was said, there fell out some miscontentment betwixt general Lesly and the earl of Montrose, where the earl was suspected of letters passing betwixt the king and him, without revealing thereof to the general, according to the laws of arms. Whether true or not, I cannot tell, but it was wisely and shortly supprest, as ye shall hear. p. 268

Monday the 19th of October skipper Findlay embarked within his ship the lord Ogilvie, the lairds of Pitfoddels elder and younger, the young laird of Drum, Donald Farquharson of Tulliegarmouth, Mr. James Sibbald minister at Aberdeen, with some others. They sailed out of the harbour, and to the sea for England go they. The master of Forbes hearing of their intended voyage, was offended, but could not mend himself, but he advertised the estates of their flight, who gave him no thanks for not waiting better upon his service.

The 3d Tuesday and 20th of October, the provincial assembly sat down in New Aberdeen; Mr. Robert Reid parson of Banchory, was made moderator till the next assembly, where Mr. William Strachan was ordained to transport himself frae the kirk of Methlick to the kirk of Old Aberdeen, to serve the cure there, in the deposed Dr Scroggie's place, whilk he obeyed.

Thursday the 22d of October, captain Kaird, a fashous drunken companion (otherwise a brave soldier) killed a poor man's horse in New Aberdeen, for the which he was warded, and thereafter for his miscarriage cashiered.

Ye heard before of the lord Sinclair's going to Caithness. He returns back to Aberdeen upon Thursday the 22d of October with 500 soldiers, whilk he brought out of that country. He quarters them in New Aberdeen, leaving some money with commissary Farquhar for their maintenance, and hastily rides South, to receive orders from the committee of estates; but before he came back again his allowance was spent, and the soldiers put to their shifts. Aberdeen would grant them no quarters, since the master of Forbes' regiment is quartered there already; whereupon ilk soldier began to deal and do for himself; some came over to the Oldtown, where they get nothing but hunger and cold; others spread through the country here and there about the town, especially to papists lands, plundering where they might get it, to the great grief of the country, and to Aberdeen also.

Now his majesty leaves his army at York, and about this time takes journey towards his own palace of Westminster, for keeping of the English parliament the 5th of November. p. 269

The Scots army lying still at Newcastle, it was said that general Lesly had sent out Sir Archibald Douglas, with about 40 men, to watch the fields about Newcastie, 12 miles frae the camp,, who rode 10 miles farther than order, and carelessly lighted at Boroughbridge, stabled their horses,and sat down to drink; but being spied by the king's out watches, they came first to the stables and took their horses, and syne to the house and took themselves, except four who escaped.; whereat the general was highly offended for their miscarriage; but they were shortly put to liberty.

The lairds of Watertown and Aughter-Ellon, with some burgesses of Aberdeen, who were warded in Edinburgh, came home about the 4th of November, after payment of their fines.

The parliament of England sits down upon the fifth of November at Westminster, whereby his majesty was grievously born down and also crossed, as after does appear.

No session sits down in Edinburgh at this time, yet inferior judicatories sits down in wonted manner.

Friday the 6th of November, an Aberdeen's boat perished pitifully in the sea, with seven men, to the further visiting of sinful Aberdeen.

Sunday the 8th of November, Mr. James Willox preached in Old Aberdeen; after sermon, he read out some acts of the committee, forbidding apprentices to leave their service without order, and setting down prices upon leather, whereupon followed shortly a strict command, charging the hail cordiners in both Aberdeens to make single soaled shoes to the master of Forbes' soldiers. No remead; it was obeyed, but little payment gotten for the leather, and none at all for the workmanship.

Monday the 16th of November, the lord Gordon with three or four attendants, came frae Berwick by sea, and landed at the Sandness, came to George Middleton's house in Old Aberdeen, to whom the master of Forbes sent two of his own officers, demanding news of him; he received them kindly, and answered there was no news, but of peace, and withal shewed them three patents, one frae the king, one frae general Lesly, and the third frae the governour of Berwick, to pass and repass at his pleasure. Thir gentlemen p. 270 took their leave, and returned to their colonel. The lord Gordon, after breakfast, causes hire horses, and goes for Strathbogie, having only with him John Gordon of Ardloggie. Patrick Innes son to Alexander Innes of Cotts, Alexander Gordon Swankie, and Robert Gordon his servitor.

About this time an Aberdeen's ship, whereof Thomas Boyes was master, coming with goods to Aberdeen frae Holland, is forced by contrary winds up the Forth, but at the estates command she is shortly boarded and manned, and her hatches closed, alledging her merchants in the beginning of thir troubles fled the good cause with their best goods, and went over to Holland, where they uttered unreserved speeches against this cause and authors thereof in Campveer, but now seeing appearance of peace, they would return home. The goods partly belonged to such as had fled, and partly to such as fled not, but they are all summoned to compear before the committee of estates at Edinburgh, whereof some were fined; the estates borrowed money upon band frae some of them, whilk was punctually paid, and the ship about the 4th of December got liberty home in peace; but at this voyage Paul Inglis and John Pershe, two fine merchants, departed this life.

About this time John earl of Rothes, Charles earl of Dunfermling, John lord Loudon, Sir Patrick Hepburn of Wachtoun, Sir William Douglas of Cavers, William Drummond of Richardtoun, John Smith of Edinburgh, Mr. Alexander Wedderburn of Dundee, and Hugh Kennedy of Air, as members of the estates of our Scottish parliament, and for the church Mr. Alexander Henderson and Mr. Archibald Johnston, were sent up to the English parliament.

Thursday the 17th of November the master of Forbes being informed that his regiment, (which never did service), was to be disbanded, rode shortly south to the estates, leaving his soldiers lying in Aberdeen, sustained upon the tenths and twentieths collected by commissary Farquhar.

Our Scottish parliament sat down the 19th of November at Edinburgh; but I refer what was done to the acts of parliament themselves.

Saturday the 20th of November, one of the lord Sinclair's soldiers minding to steal home to his wife and children, p. 271 is apprehended and hanged to the death without doom or law, betwixt the crosses of New Aberdeen.

Sunday the 21st of November and Thursday thereafter, there was fasting and prayer kept through all Scotland for the good success of the army and peace of the country, but no fast was kept in Old Aberdeen, by reason of want of our minister.

Ye heard before, how some of our Aberdeen's burgesses came home. George Johnston was fined in 1000 pounds, George Morison, David Rickart, and William Petrie, were ilk ane fined in 1000 merks, and were set at liberty, and came home about this time to Aberdeen.

Lieutenant Fotheringhame, with about 40 musketeers of the master of Forbes' regiment, went out of Aberdeen, having order to go out and plunder such persons as had not paid their tenths, and given up their men. He happened to be at Fyvie with his company, drinking at an alehouse, where John Gordon, second son to Ardloggie, William Seaton, chamberlain of Fyvie, and some others happened to be also; and upon some slight occasion, serjeant Forsyth in this company was suddenly shot by the said John Gordon, who wan freely away without revenge from the midst of Fotheringhame's musketeers, for the whilk this lieutenant, was pitifully disgraced thereafter.

Ye heard also before how major Monro, at his removing with his regiment South, was resting to the town's people money for his soldiers sustentation, whilk he now remembers, and causes commissary Farquhar pay every one according to his accompt; but he having store of old victual beside him, which was bought for three pound the boll, sells it out for 4 lib. again, whereby he made up his profit at the honest people's hands by this shift, having allowance. to have paid all in ready money.

The committee of estates ordained one hundred and fifty thousand guilders, at 20 pence each, to be paid by the haill burrows of Scotland, as they should be stented, for payment to the Hollanders for ammunition, powder and ball, sent by them to Scotland, the time of thir troubles; among the rest Aberdeen was stented in 16,000 guilders to be paid by the merchant traders allenarly, upon surety to be paid back p. 272 again by the estates. Thus ilk merchant's trade is tried and publickly considered within the tolbooth of Aberdeen upon or about the 24th of November.

Thursday the 25th of November, captain Arnot with a party of musketeers, was ordered down to Fyvie, to take or kill him who had slain Forsyth the serjeant, as ye have heard before; but the deed doer was fled. However the soldiers who were scattered at this slaughter, were gathered and brought into the town.

Sunday the 29th of December Doctor Guild preached both before and afternoon here in Old Aberdeen. Mr. William Strachan was received after the forenoon's sermon by the parishioners, elders, and deacons, there conveened, in the deposed Dr. Scroggie's place, whose room was still vacant frae the time of his deprivation, and the kirk was ill served by stranger ministers, till this time. We had good doctrine from this Mr. William Strachan ever since. Now Dr. Scroggie dwells still in his own house till Whitsunday next to come, during which time he very seldom came to hear Mr. Strachan, but went either to Aberdeen or Footdee upon Sunday, and liked rather to hear any other preacher than him out of his own pulpit, wherefrae he was thus wise removed, one who had served so long in the ministry, a learned, grave, ancient man, of singular good parts, who by following the king is thus overthrown, yet he was remembered since.

The same very Sunday after sermons, the laird of Haddo pursued the laird of Craigievar (both being come frae sermon) anent the bishop's stile with a rod in his hand, whilk he quickly defended with another, but they are parted without blood. But Craigievar apprehending himself to be behind, challenged Haddo daily, who answered him again, but it turned to nothing; yet irreconcileable malice remained in the breast of Craigievar.

Ye heard before of the master of Forbes and Marischal being before the tables. After this the master of Forbes rode to General Lesly, who established his regiment, otherwise he had been disbanded, or at least was to be disbanded by the estates; he returns home to Aberdeen from Newcastle upon the 4th of December, and again begins to uplift the tenths and twentieths within his division. p. 273

Sir John Lesly of Wardhouse departed this life in Tilliefour upon the 29th of November, and was buried within his own chapel at Tilliefour, where never laird of Wardhouse was buried before. His lady was shortly after married to the laird of Cluny.

Sunday the 6th of December, Mr. William Strachan after sermon before noon in Old Aberdeen, read out certain acts and instructions set down by the lords and others of the committee of parliament at Edinburgh of the 11th of November 1640, wherein a strict command is set down to all the committees of war, noblemen, barons, colonels, gentlemen, sheriffs, magistrates of burrows, elders, and constables in each parish, as they would be answerable to the estates of this kingdom, that they try, search, seek, and apprehend all fugitives, horse or foot, and to present them before the committee of war in ilk division, or sheriffs of the shire or magistrates of the burgh where the said fugitives shall be apprehended; and whilk committees, sheriffs, or magistrates, shall be obliged to decimate the said fugitives, by hanging the tenth man of them; and if there be but one or more of them within ten, to cause hang one of the said number, albeit there but one, and to send the rest to the committee of estates at Edinburgh, upon the public expences, to be punished with a mark of infamy, and to be sent back to his company; and whoso happens after publication hereof to receipt or entertain any of these fugitives, horse or foot, or shall not delate or deliver them in manner aforesaid, shall be reputed enemies to the good cause, and punished by the said committee of estates or committee of war where they shall dwell, and the half of his moveable goods ipso facto forfeited; the one half thereof to be employed to the use of the public, and the other half to be given to him who delates the recepters, and qualifies the same, by and attour receiving a reward from the committee of estates. And because there is a great number of all sorts of people lately come frae the army, and frae their companies, within this kingdom, now on foot (for defence thereof) whereof sundry have obtained a pass, upon condition they return within a short space; therefore it is statute and ordained, that whosoever shall not return to his colours p. 274 within four days after the publication hereof, at least after the expiration of their pass, shall be esteemed as fugitives, and shall be liable to the censure and punishment foresaid, and if the committee of war within each division shall be negligent in conveening and taking order with the said runaways and the recepters and concealers, or shall be deficient in putting this act to execution, each person of the said committee of war shall be outlawed and fined by the said committee of estates in the sum of 300 pounds Scots money for each failzie, toties quoties , and if the minister and elders shall be deficient in delating, and constables of parishes, or any other parishioner, shall be negligent in searching, apprehending and presenting of the said fugitives to the said committees of war or other magistrates foresaid, in putting the said acts in due execution, so far as concerns their parts thereof, each one of them who shall be found negligent shall be fined by the committee of war within their bounds, or by the committee of estates, in 100 pounds money foresaid, the one half thereof shall pertain to the public, and the other half to the informer in manner foresaid; and if it shall come to knowledge who hath or shall outrigg soldiers, horse or foot, that these outrigged by them are disbanded and fled frae their colours, the said out-putters of them shall be obliged to search for and apprehend the saids fugitives through the haill bounds of the presbytery where they dwell, or put them from their bounds, and in case of their failing so to do, they shall be obliged to make up their number by outputting of men in their places, sufficiently provided in arms and other necessaries, upon their own expences; and ordains these presents to be published at the mercat crosses of all head burrows, and haill parish kirks within this kingdom, that none may pretend ignorance.

Ye heard before how Aberdeen had furnished their part of the shoes and cloaths, but their silver work escaped, and was not taken up, as was done in Edinburgh and Dundee. Mr. William Strachan collected out of the Oldtown and Spittal bounds about 40 pounds of contribution. Conform to their instructions there was neither man nor wife, poor nor rich, but he searched for this contribution, and who p. 275 voluntarily would not give or refused to give, their names were noted.

No doubt but Aberdeen also paid of voluntary contribution the sum of     pounds Scots, and neither burgh nor land escaped, whereby also honest mens, yea poor mens purses were daily picked, by one slight or other, for maintenance of this good cause, albeit the army lived sufficiently upon England. Besides, upon Monday the 14th of December a committee was holden at Aberdeen, where orders was given out for furnishing victual out of the sheriffdom of Aberdeen, to be lent to Newcastle for sustaining of the army, of competent price upon bond for payment; it was said that there was sent out of the Sheriffdom of Aberdeen and Banff 12000 bolls of victual.

About this time it was said that the deputy of Ireland was warded in the tower of London, and that the archbishop of Canterbury was first committed to the black rod, thereafter to the said tower, like as our Scottish commissioners upon the 16th of December let out a printed paper, whereof the tenor follows:

This said paper was intituled, The charge of the Scottish commissioners against the bishop of Canterbury. Which runs thus:

Innovations in religion which are universally acknowledged to be the main cause of commotions in kingdoms and states, and are known to be the true cause of our present troubles, were many and great, besides the books of ordination and homilies, 1st, Some particular alterations in matters of religion pressed upon us without order, against law, and contrary to the form established in our kirk. 2d, A new book of canons and constitutions ecclesiastical, a liturgy or book of Common Prayer, which did also carry with them many dangerous errors in matters of doctrine, of all which we charge the prelate of Canterbury as the prime cause on earth.

And first that this prelate was the author and urger of some particular charges which made great disturbance among us, we make manifest, 1. By fourteen letters subscribed W. Cant in the space of two years, to one of our pretended bishops Bannatine, wherein he often enjoineth him p. 276 and other pretended bishops to appear in the chapel in white, contrary to the custom of our kirk, and to his promise made to the pretended bishop of Edinburgh at the coronation, that none of them after that time should be pressed to wear those garments, thereby moving him against his will to put them on foot that time, wherein he directed him to give order for saying the English service in the chapel twice a day for his neglect, shewing him that he was disappointed of the bishoprick of Edinburgh, promising him upon his greater care of these innovations, advancement to a better bishoprick, taxing him for his boldness in preaching the sound doctrines of the reformed kirks against Mr. Mitchell, who had taught the errors of Arminius in the point of the extent of the mercy of Christ, bidding him send up a list of the names of the council, lords, and senators of the college of justice, who had not communicate in the chapel in a form that was not received by our kirk, commending him when he found him obsequious to his commands, telling him he had moved the king a second time for the punishment of such as had not received in the chapel, and wherein he upbraideth him bitterly, that in his first synod in Aberdeen he had only disputed against our custom of Scotland of fasting, sometimes on the Lord's day, and presumptuously censuring our kirk, that in this we were opposite to christianity itself, and that among us there were no canons at all. Secondly, by two papers of memoirs and instructions from the pretended bishop of St. Andrews to the pretended bishop of Ross coming to this prelate, for ordering the affairs of the kirk and kingdom of Scotland, as not only to obtain warrant to order the exchequer, the privy council, the great commission of surrenders, the master of Balmerinoch's process, as might please our prelates, but also warrants for sitting of the high commission court once a week at Edinburgh, and to gain frae the noblemen for the benefit of the prelates and their adherents, the abbacies of Kelso, Arbroath, St. Andrews, and Lindores, and in the smallest matter to receive his commands, such as taking down galleries and stone walls in the kirks of Edinburgh and St. Andrews, for no other end but to make way for altars and adoration towards the east, which besides other evils, made p. 277 no small noise and disturbance among the people, deprived hereby of their ordinary accommodation for public worship.

The second innovation which troubled our peace was a book of canons and constitutions ecclesiastical, obtruded on our kirk, found by our General Assembly to be devised for establishing a tyrannical power in the persons of our prelates over the worship of God, over the consciences, liberties, and goods of the people, and for abolishing the whole discipline and government of our kirk by general and provincial assemblies, presbyteries, and kirk sessions, which were settled by law, and in continual practice since the reformation; that Canterbury was the master of this work, is manifest by a book of canons sent to him, written upon the one side only, with the other side blank for corrections, additions, and putting all in better order at his pleasure, which accordingly was done, as may appear by interlinings, marginals sent to our prelates, and filling up of the blank pages with directions sent to our prelates, and that it was done by no other than Canterbury, is evident by his magisterial way of prescribing, and by a new copy of these canons, all written by the bishop of St. Andrew's own hand precisely to a letter, according to the form sent back for the king's warrant unto it, which accordingly was obtained, but with an addition of some other canons, and a paper of some other corrections, according to which the book' of canons thus composed was published in print, the inspection of the books, instructions, and his letters of joy, and of other letters of the prelate of London and the lord Stirling to the same purpose, all which we are ready to exhibit, and will put the matter out of all debate.

Besides this general, there be some things more speciall, worthy to be adverted unto, for discovering his spirit. 1st, The fourth canon, chap. 8. for as much as no reformation in doctrine or discipline can be made perfect at once in any church; therefore it shall and may be lawful for the church of Scotland at any time to make remonstrances to his majesty or his successors, and because this canon holdeth the door to many more innovations, he writeth to the prelate of Ross, his private agent in all this work, of his gladness p. 278 that this canon should stand behind the curtain, and his great desire that it might be fully printed, as one that was to be most useful. Secondly, The title prefixed unto these canons by our prelates was, Canons agreed upon to be proposed to the several synods of the kirk of Scotland, and is thus changed by Canterbury, Canons, and constitutions ecclesiastical, &c. ordained to be observed by the clergy; he will not have canons to come frae the authority of synods, but the power of prelates or king's prerogative. Thirdly, The formidable canon, chap, 1 and 3. threatening no less than excommunication against all such persons as shall open their mouths against any of these books, proceeded not from our prelates, nor is to be found in the copy sent from them, but is a thunderbolt forged in Canterbury's own fire. Fourthly, Our prelates in divers places witness their dislike of papists; a minister shall be deposed if he be found negligent to convert papists, chap. 18 and 15, The adoration of the bread is a superstition to be condemned, chap. 6. 6. They call the absolute necessity of baptism an error of popery, chap. 6 and 2. But in Canterbury's editions the name of papists and popery is not so much as mentioned. Fifthly, our prelates have not the boldness to trouble us in their canons with altars, fonts, chancels, reading of a long liturgy before sermon, &c. but Canterbury is punctual and peremptory in all these. Sixthly, Although the words of the l0th canon, chap. 3. be fair, yet the wished intentions of Canterbury and Ross may be seen in the point of justification of a sinner before God, by comparing the canon as it came from our prelates, and as it was returned from Canterbury, and printed. Our prelates say thus, it is manifest that the superstition of former ages hath turned into a great profaneness, and that people are grown cold for the most part in doing any good, thinking there is no place to good works, because they are excluded from justification; therefore shall all ministers, as their text giveth occasion, urge the necessity of good works as they would be saved, and remember that they are via regni (the way to the kingdom of heaven) though not causa regnandi (the cause of salvation). Here Ross giveth his judgment that he would have this canon, simply commanding p. 279 good works to be preached to the people, and no mention made what place they have or have not in justification. Upon this motion so agreeable to Canterbury's mind, the canon is let down as it standeth, without the distinction of via regni or causa regnandi, or any word sounding that way, urging only the necessity of good works. Seventhly By comparing canon 9. chap. 18. as it was sent in writing from our prelates, and as it is printed at Canterbury's command, may be also manifest, that he went about to establish auricular confession and popish absolution. Eighthly, Our prelates were not acquainted with canons for inflicting penalties; but in Canterbury's book is this, Wheresoever there is no penalty expressly set down, it is provided that it shall be arbitrary as the ordinary shall think fitted. By these and the like, it is apparent what tyrannical power he went about to establish in the hands of our prelates over souls and goods of men, overturning from the foundation the haill order of our kirk: what seeds of popery he sowed in our kirk, and how large an entry he made for the grossest novations afterward, which must have been a main cause of all thir commotions. The third and great innovation was the book of Common Prayer, administration of the sacraments, and other parts of divine worship and service, without warrant from our kirk, to be universally received as the only form of divine service, under all highest pains both civil and ecclesiastical, which is found by our national assembly (besides the popish frame and forms of divine worship) to be filled with many errors and ceremonies, and the seeds of manifold gross superstitions and idolatries, and to be repugnant to the doctrine, discipline, and order of our Reformation, to the Confession of Faith, constitution of general assemblies, and acts of parliament establishing the true religion; that this also was Canterbury's work, we make manifest by the memoirs and instructions sent unto him by our prelates, wherein they give a special account of the diligence they had used to do all which herein they were enjoined, by the approbation of the service books lent to them, and of all the marginal corrections wherein it varieth, shewing their desire to have some things changed in it, which, notwithstanding, was not granted, Thus we p. 280 find written by the bishop of St. Andrews' own hand, and subscribed by him and nine other of our prelates. By Canterbury's own letters, witnesses of his joy when the book was ready for the press, of his prayers that God would speed the work, of his hope to see that work set up in Scotland, of his diligence to send for the printer, and directing him to prepare a black letter, and to send it to his servants at Edinburgh for printing the books; of his approbation of the proofs sent from press; of his fears of delaying bringing the work to an end for the great good of the church, of his encouraging Ross, who was entrusted with the press, to go on in this piece of service without fear of enemies, all which may be seen in the autographs; and by letters sent by the prelate of London to Ross, wherein he rejoiceth at the Scottish canons, which although they should make some noise at the beginning, yet they would be more for the good of the kirk than the cannons of Edinburgh for the good of the kingdom; so concerning the liturgy he sheweth that Ross sent to have an explanation from Canterbury of some passages of the service book, and that the press behoved to stand till the explanation came to Edinburgh, which he had therefore in haste obtained from his grace, and sent the dispatch away by Canterbury's own conveyance; but the book itself as it stands, interlined, margined, and patched up, is much more than all that is expressed in his letters, and the changes and supplements themselves taken from the mass book and other Romish rituals, by which he maketh it to vary from the book of England, are more pregnant testimonies of his popish spirit and wicked intentions which he would have put in execution upon us, than can be denied. The large declaration professeth, that all the variation of our book from the book of England, that the king understood, was in such things as the Scottish humours would comply with better than with that of the English service. These popish innovations therefore have been superstitiously inserted by him without the king's knowledge, and against his purpose. Our Scottish prelates do petition that some things may be abated of the English ceremonies, such as the cross in baptism, the ring in marriage, and some other things, but Canterbury will not only have these p. 281 things kept, but a great many more worse things superadded, which was nothing else but adding fuel to the fire. To express and discover all would require a whole book; we shall only touch at some few in the matter of communion.

This book inverteth the order of the communion in the book of England, as may be seen by the numbers setting down this order of communion, 1. 5. 2. 6. 7. 3. 4. 8. 9. 10. 15. Of the diverse secret reasons of this change we mention only one; in beginning the spiritual praise and thanksgiving which is in the book of England pertinently after the communion with the prayer of consecration, and that under the name of memorial or oblation, for no other end but that the memorial and sacrifice of praise mentioned in it may be understood according to the popish meaning. Bellarmine de Missa, lib. 2. chap. 21. not of the spiritual sacrifice, but of the oblation of the body of the Lord.

It seems to be no great matter, that without warrant of. the book of England, the presbyter going from the north end of the table shall stand during the time of consecration at such a part of the table as where he may with more ease and decency use both hands; yet being tried, it importeth. much, and that he must stand with his hinder parts towards the people, representing (saith Durand) that which the Lord said of Moses, thou shalt see my hinder parts. He must have the use of both his hands, not for any thing he has to do about the bread and wine, for that must be done at the north end of the table, to be better seen of the people; but (as we are taught by the rationalists) that he may be stretching out his arms to represent the extension of Christ on the cross, and that he may more conveniently lift up the bread and wine above his head, to be seen and adored of the people, who in the rubrick of the general confession a little before are directed humbly to kneel on their knees, that the priest's elevation so magnified in the mass, and the people's adoration may go together; that in this posture, speaking with a low voice and muttering (for sometimes he is commanded to speak with a loud voice and distinctly) he be not heard by the people, which is no less a mocking of God and his people, than if the p. 282 words were spoken in an unknown language. As there is no word of all this in the English Service, so doth the book in king Edward's time give to every presbyter his liberty of gesture, which yet gave such offence to Bucer, the censurer of the book, and even in Cassander's own judgment, a man of great moderation in matters of this kind, that he calleth them nunquam satis execrandos missæ gestas, and would have them to be abhorred, because they confirm to the simple and superstitious, Ter impiam et exitialem missæ fiduciam. The corporal presence of Christ's body in the sacrament is also to be found here, for the words of the mass book, serving to this purpose, which are sharply considered by Bucer in king Edward's liturgy, and are not to be found in the book of England, are taken in here. Almighty God is invoked, that of his almighty goodness. he may vouchsafe so to bless and sanctify with his word and spirit those gifts of bread and wine, that they may be to us the body and blood of Christ.

The change here is made a work of God's omnipotency; the words of the mass, ut fiant nobis, are translated in King Edward's book, that they may be unto us, which are again turned into Latin by Alsius, ut fiant nobis. On the other part the expressions of the book of England at the delivery of the elements, of feeding on Christ by faith, and of eating and drinking in remembrance that Christ died for thee, are utterly deleted. Many evidences there be in this part of the communion, of the bodily presence of Christ, very agreeable to the doctrines taught by his secretaries, which this paper cannot contain. They teach us that Christ is received in the sacrament corporaliter, both objectim and subjectim, corpus Christi est objectum quod recipitur; et corpus nostrum est subjectum quo recipitur.

The book of England abolisheth all that may import the oblation of any unbloody sacrifice; but here we have, besides the preparatory oblation of the elements (which is neither to be found in the book of England now, nor King Edward's book of old) the oblation of the body and blood of Christ, which Bellarmine calleth sacrificium laudis, quia Deus per illud magnopere laudatur. This also agreeth well with their late doctrine. We are ready whenever it shall be p. 283 judged convenient, and we shall be desired, to discover much more matters of this kind, as grounds laid for missa sicca, or the half mass, the private mass without the people, or communicating in one kind, of the consumption by the priest and consummation of the sacrifice, of receiving the sacrament in the mouth, and not in the hand, &c.

Our supplications were many against these books, but Canterbury procured them to be answered by terrible proclamations. We were constrained to use the remedy of protestation; but for our protection, and other lawful means which we used for our deliverance, Canterbury procured us to be declared rebels and traitors in all the parish kirks of England; when we were seeking to possess our religion in peace against decrees and novations, Canterbury kindled war against us: in all this it is known that he was, although not the sole, yet the principal agent and adviser. When by the pacification at Berwick both kingdoms looked for peace and quietness, he spared not openly in the hearing of many, often before the king, and privately at the council table and privy junto, to speak of us as rebels and traitors, and to speak against the pacification as dishonourable and meet to be broken, neither did his malignance and bitterness ever suffer him to rest till a new war was entered upon, and all things prepared for our destruction.

By him it was that our covenant, approven by national assemblies, subscribed by his majesty's commissioner, and by the lords of his majesty's council, and recommended to be subscribed by all the subjects of the kingdom as a testimony of our duty to God and our king, by him was it called ungodly, damnable, and treasonable;. by him were oaths invented and pressed upon diverse of our poor countrymen, upon pain of imprisonment and miseries which were unwarrantable by law, and contrary to their national oath.

When our commissioners appeared to render the reasons of our demands, he spared not in presence of the committee to rail against our national assembly, as not daring to appear before the world and kirks abroad, where he himself and actions were liable to endure trial, and against our just and necessary defence, as the most malicious and treasonable contempt of monarchical government that any p. 284 bygone age had heard of. His hand was also at the warrant for the restraint and imprisonment of our commissioners sent from the parliament, warranted by the king, and seeking the peace of the kingdoms.

When we had by our declaration, remonstrances, and representations manifested the truth of our intentions and lawfulness of our actions to all the good subjects of the kingdom of England; when the late parliament could not be moved to enter into war against us maintaining our religion and liberties, Canterbury did not only advise the breaking up of that high and honourable court, to the great grief and hazard of the king, but (which is without example) did sit still in the convocation, and make canons and constitutions against us, and our just and necessary defence, ordaining under all highest pains, that hereafter the clergy shall preach four times in the year such doctrines, as is contrary, not only to our proceedings, but to the doctrine and proceedings of the reformed kirks, tending to the utter slavery and ruin of all estates and kingdoms, and to the dishonour of kings and monarchs; and as if this had not been sufficient, he procured six subsidies to be lifted of the clergy, under the pain of deprivation to all that should refuse, and which is yet worse, or above which malice cannot ascend, by his means a paper is framed, printed, and sent through all the parishes of England, to be said in all churches in time of divine service, immediately after the prayer for the king and royal family, against our nation by. the name of traitorous subjects, having cast off all obedience to our anointed sovereign, and coming in a rebellious manner to invade England, that shame may cover our faces as enemies to God and the king.

Whosoever shall impartially examine what hath proceeded from himself in these two books of canons and common prayer; what doctrines have been published and printed these years by past in England by his disciples and canissaries, what gross popery in the most material points we have found, and are ready to show in the posthume writings of the prelates of Edinburgh and Dumblane, his own creatures, his nearest familiars, and most willing instruments to advance his councils and projects; shall perceive, that his intentions were deep and large against all reformed p. 285 kirks and reformation of religion, which in his majesty's dominions was panting, and by this time had rendered up the ghost, if God had not in a wonderful way of mercy prevented it, and that if the pope himself had been in his place, he could not have been more zealous in negotiating for Rome against the reformed kirks, to reduce them to the heresies of doctrine, the superstitions and idolatries of worship, and the tyranny in government which are in that see, and for which the reformed kirks did separate from it, and came forth of Babel. From him certainly hath issued all this deluge which hath almost overturned all. We therefore are confident that your lordships will deal effectually with the parliament, that this firebrand be entirely removed from his majesty's presence, and that he may be put to trial, and to his deserved censure, according to the laws of the kingdom, which will be good service to God, honour to the king and parliament, terror to the wicked, and comfort to all good men, and to us in special, who by his means principally have been put to so many and grievous afflictions, wherein we had perished if God had not been with us.

We do indeed confess that the prelates of England have been of very different humours, some of them of a more hot, others of a more moderate temper, some of them more and some of them less inclined to popery; yet, what known truth and constant experience have made undeniable, we must at this time confess, that from the first time of reformation of the kirk of Scotland, not only after the coming of King James of happy memory into England, but before, the prelates of England have by all means been incessantly working the overthrow of our discipline and government; and if it hath come to pass of late, that the prelates of England have prevailed and brought us in subjection as. to the point of government, and finding their long watched opportunity, and a fair congruity of many spirits and powers ready to operate for their ends, have made a strong assault upon the whole external worship and doctrine of our church, by which they did not aim to make us reform to England, but first to make Scotland (whose weakness in resisting they had before experienced, in the innovations of government and some points of worship) and thereafter p. 286 England conform to Rome, wherein England had separated from Rome ever since the reformation; an evil therefore which hath not so much issued from the personal disposition of the prelates themselves, as the innate quality and nature of the office and prelatical hierarchy, which did bring forth the pope in ancient times, and never ceaseth till it bring forth popish doctrine and worship, were it once rooted, and the principles thereof fomented and closely followed; and from that antipathy and inconsistency of the two forms of ecclesiastical government, which they conceived, and not without cause, that our island, united also under one head and monarch, was not able to bear, the one being in all the points and powers the same that it was in time of popery, and now is in the Roman church; the other being the form of government, received, maintained, and practised by all the reformed kirks, wherein by their own testimonies, and concessions, the kirk of Scotland had no small eminency. This also we represent to your lordships most serious consideration, that not only the firebrands may be removed, but also that the fire itself may be provided against, that after this there may be no more combustions.

With this paper, knit together in one volume, followed another printed paper, intituled, The charge of the Scottish commissioners against the lieutenant of Ireland.

Both these papers are dated the 16th of December 1640.

Thir papers thus set forth and printed appear to be directed by our Scottish commissioners to the lords of the lower house, or House of Commons of England, who accepted and acted their part, to the full desire of our commissioners; for, first, the bishop of Canterbury is laid by frae the king, and committed to the Tower, and then the lieutenant of Ireland is laid by and committed to the same; so his majesty against his will is made quit of both.

Upon the 19th of December one of the lord Sinclair's soldiers, by command of the committee of estates at Edinburgh, was had to the Heading Hill of Aberdeen, bound to a stake,and three soldiers appointed ilk ane after another, to shoot at him till he was dead, and that for the slaughter of another fellow soldier in the same regiment, lately committed p. 287 by him in Aberdeen. This example made them keep better order in the town.

Sunday the 20th of December, thundering out of pulpits against Yool-day in Aberdeen, charging merchants and craftsmen, under pain of punishment, to keep their booths, buy, sell, and labour as on any other work-day, all and every one, husbandmen, and others. The booth-doors stood open, for fear, but there was little merchandize bought, far less work wrought. The grammars had 20 days play, and the collegenars had eight in Old Aberdeen, conform to use and wont at Yool.

Yool-day the 25th of December, no preaching in either of Aberdeens, as was wont, and as little work wrought all the three days. It was said Doctor Guild would not keep Yool-day, falling this year upon Friday, but on Yool-even he had good chear, where the lord Sinclair, the master of Forbes, the provost and baillies, with some others, were well feasted, all made merry that night, but no memory of Yool-day on the morrow. But upon the 26th of December, he going through Aberdeen, collecting the voluntary contribution, unhappily wrested his coot or leg, whereby he might not stand to preach. In the pulpit was found a paper declaring his hypocrisy for feasting upon Yool-even but not upon Yool-day, whereat he was offended, but could challenge no man with it.

Wednesday the 30th of December, colonel master of Forbes sent out a captain with 32 soldiers to take in the place of Gight; the house is rendered by the lady, but she came in and dealt so with the master of Forbes, that they were all removed and came back again to Aberdeen.

About this time Alexander Annand of Caterlyne removed out of Drum, and another captain put in his place, with whom the lady was better pleased , and he remained there till about the 9th of February next.

About this time also returned from London the lairds of Pitfoddels elder and younger, the lairds of Udny, Muiresk, Fetternear, and diverse others, who had fled the covenant, after they had spent their means, and were forced to submit to the judgment of the committee of estates, who fined every one them at their pleasure for outstanding, compelled p. 288 them to swear and subscribe the covenant, syne gave them leave to come home to their own houses, greater fools than they went out, without succour or relief from the king, but first they were all kept long in ward in Edinburgh tolbooth, thereafter fined and set at liberty.

It was reported about this time, that the lord Boyd upon his death bed revealed a band made up by divers lords, whereof himself was one, founded upon some miscontentment, not against the covenant, but against the earls of Argyle, Rothes, the lords Lindsay, Loudon, Balmerinoch, Couper, and some others, who took upon them to rule and guide all, and to govern as worthy nobles as themselves in the public business. Shortly .after the revelation, the lord Boyd deceased.

This band, as was said, was made up and subscribed by the earls of Montrose, Marischal, Mar, Strathern, Southesk, Seaforth, Wigton, Perth, lord Napier, and others. The committee of estates thought heavy of this , they are accused, they confess, and produce the band, which is burnt in the fire.

Monday the 28th of December,Mr. Gilbert Ross minister at Elgin, accompanied with the young laird of Innes, the laird of Brodie, and some others, without authority brake down the timber partition-wall dividing the kirk of Elgin frae the quire, whilk had stood ever since the reformation, near seven score years or above. On the West-side was painted in excellent colours, illuminated with stars of bright gold, the crucifixion of our blessed Saviour Jesus Christ. This piece was so excellently done, that the colours never faded, but kept haill and found, as at the beginning, notwithstanding this college or channery-kirk wanted the roof since the reformation, and no haill windows therein to save the same from storm, snow, fleet, or wet, whilk myself saw; and marvellous to consider, on the other side of this wall, towards the East, was drawn the day of judgment; but all is thrown to the ground. It was said their minister caused to bring home to his house the timber thereof, and burn the same for serving his kitchen, and other uses; but each night the fire went out wherein it was burnt, and could not be kept in to kindle the p. 289 morning fire, as use is, whereat the servants marvelled; and thereupon the minister left off and forbore to bring in or burn any more of that timber in his house. This was remarked and spoke through Elgin, and creditably reported to myself. A great boldness, without warrant of the king, to destroy churches at that rate: yet it was done by order of the assembly.

The foresaid Monday proclamation was made at the cross of Aberdeen, commanding both Newtown and Oldtown to furnish out to General Lesly's army, and to ilk soldier thereof, their share of a stand of gray cloaths, two shirts, and two pair of shoes, under the pain of plundering. Search was made, but found they were not able to do the samen, in respect of the provision made by them before to some of the same soldiers; whereupon order was given out to search the country for hides, gray cloaths, and farking cloath, and to pay the sellers out of the town of Aberdeen's voluntary contributions; such as might be got was brought in and furnished, and the taylors and cordiners of both Aberdeens were set to work to make up thir cloaths and shoes, and sempsters to sew thir shirts, but they got nothing for their travel, and their commodities were per force brought to the town from the country-people by a party of soldiers, direct out to search and take wherever they might be found.

Anno 1641.

Captain Forbes, alias Kaird, upon Saturday the 9th of January is warded in the tolbooth of Aberdeen, for robbing a merchant on the high way called Liddel, syne transported therefrae to the committee of estates at Edinburgh, there to abide censure, where he was warded, and lay miserably therein till by moyan he was set to liberty about the     day of     1642 years. Both Aberdeens were glad to be quit of him, he being troublesome in drink.

The 14th of February Robert Lord Burleigh was chosen president of the meeting of the estates of parliament, p. 290 without either king or commissioner, yet conveened by his majesty's authority, as the acts of that parliament bear, and which estates continued this parliament to the 13th day of April next to come.

Ye heard before of the lord Gordon's coming to this country. He remained some while about his affairs, and upon Friday the 15th of January ships at Banff, and back to Berwick sails he; and frae that to Newcastle, where, by persuasion of his uncle the earl of Argyle, he subscribed the covenant, and became a good bairn.

Ye heard also how serjeant Forsyth was slain by one John Gordon, where lieutenant Fotheringhame was brought in and accused before the committee of war in Aberdeen, the lord Sinclair and master of Forbes being present, for not revenging of Forsyth's death upon the committees thereof in a military manner. After some reasoning, he was disgracefully degraded, and upon Saturday the 16th of January, by order, the hangman brake his sword between the crosses of Aberdeen and betwixt the gallows trams standing there, and to his perpetual disgrace, and in example of others to commit the like; thereafter he is with shame convoyed out of the town through Futtie port to seek his fortune.

Ye heard likewise before of the voluntary contribution taken out of Old Aberdeen; there followed shortly the uplifting of the tenths and twentieths through the country, and also of their farms, and the tenth penny of ilk house maill within the town was also uplifted, reserving the bigging where the heritor himself dwelt free, allenarly. Thus is burgh and land continually vexed.

Ye heard also before how the lord Sinclair's lieutenant had cruelly caused hang up a soldier for deserting, whereat, and some other faults, the lord Sinclair was highly offended, and shortly discharged him, and planted his own lawful brother Colonel Sinclair in his place, whilk was thought good service by the people for such cruelty; and now the lord Sinclair with his associates began to hold committees in Aberdeen.

About this time the victual was daily transported frae Aberdeen, Newburgh, Frasersburgh and Peterhead, and p. 291 diverse other parts, towards Newcastle, towards general Lesly's army's maintenance, being uplifted out of the tenths and twentieths and the bishops rents.

The master of Forbes' regiment was before the 9th of February discharged and disbanded by the committee of estates (not without the Earl Marischal's procuring in some measure) because they were but silly poor naked bodies, burdenable to the country, and not fit for soldiers. Thus is he set beside the cushion, for his sincerity and forwardness in the good cause.

The committee of estates at Edinburgh, hearing how the forbidden name of McGregor and their accomplices brake loose about this time, and were sorning and troubling the king's lieges day and night, condescended with the laird of Invercauld, for a certain sum of money, to defend the sheriffdoms of Angus, Mearns, Aberdeen, and Banff, (whilk were the countries wherein they did most injury and oppression) for a year to come, from all rief and spoilzie; what was taken by thir robbers frae them, he was obliged to repay the same to the complainer within the space foresaid; for executing the whilk office, this forenamed laird of Invercauld was captain himself, and gathered together out of his own friends and others about 250 men, and kept the said four shires both night and day so carefully, that none suffered skaith, theft, or oppression, but lived in all peace and quietness, whilk the estates perceiving, discharged him of his office, but gave him not good payment of what was promised at the making of the bargain, thinking the country would be free of any more vexation; but thir lymmars hearing of his discharge, brake out again under John Dugar, to trouble and molest the country, to their great grief and skaith.

Upon Thursday the 18th of February, there came to Old Aberdeen out of the marquis of Huntly's bounds about 100 silly poor pressed bodies, with a captain called Gordon, of the house of Tillieangus; they nighted for their own pay in the Oldtown; upon the morrow they offered their service to the earl Marischal, who directed them to his regiment lying at Morpeth in England; but how soon they came to Edinburgh to get pay from the estates, p. 292 they were directed home as unworthy soldiers incontinent, and got not a plack, but came begging home through the country from Edinburgh.

About this time Lewis Gordon, being with his father the lord marquis of Huntly at London, upon some alledged miscontentment left his father's company, without his knowledge, and to his great grief; for he unwisely conveyed away with him his father's haill Jewells in a cabinet, being of great worth, and to Holland goes he, leaving his father sorrowful for his lewd miscarriage, whilk amongst the rest of his crosses he behoved patiently to suffer, although he had not great store of wealth lying beside him at that time, for maintenance of his noble rank.

Upon the 9th of March the lord Sinclair directed his brother lieutenant colonel Sinclair, with a party of 200 soldiers, from Aberdeen to Murray, Ross, Caithness, and Sutherland, for inbringing of men to his regiment, with the tenths and twentieths of these countries. He remained at Inverness, and got good obedience, for they came there to him outstanders and others, and willingly suffered all, lest he had lived upon all their estates and plundered their goods, accordingly to the military discipline, whilk they had no will of. He stayed at Inverness till about the third of May, syne returned.

Ye heard before him how Mr. John Gregory was deposed from the ministry of Drumoak. The laird of Drum deals for him, being his own pastor, and upon swearing and subscribing the covenant, and teaching penitentially, with great difficulty he was again restored to his own parish kirk.

Upon Tuesday the 16th of March Mr. Thomas Thoirs minister at Udny, a great anti-covenanter, who had also fled to England, comes now calmly in, when he could do no better, and gladly swears and subscribes the covenant, begins his penitential sermons this day, and gives obedience, so that he is in peace.

Friday the 15th of March the lord Sinclair sends out a party of soldiers to live upon the laird of Lethentie's lands, until he should come in and pay his lordship 3000 merks of fine, whilk the laird thought heavy, seeing he paid to this p. 293 same regiment 600 merks before, and that they had plundered frae him his best horses, worth as much; however he is compelled to come in and agree with his lordship, and so was made quit of the soldiers, who would have shortly harried his ground, if he had not agreed.

About this time the committee of estates at Edinburgh directed William Blair messenger to go and charge divers gentlemen and barons of the name of Gordon, and others in this country, to compear before our Scottish parliament, to be holden at Edinburgh the 13th of April next to come, and there to answer at the instance of Sir Thomas Hope, his majesty's advocate, Sir Thomas Nicolson, Mr Alexander Pearson, Mr. Roger Mowat, and Mr. James Baird, advocates and procurators for the estates, to underly the law for lies-making and misinforming his majesty against his good subjects,. for sowing of sedition, for raising of arms against the country, as incendiaries, and diverse other points, with certification, if they compeared not, they should be declared traitors, and their estates confiscated and forfaulted. This same messenger came and used thir charges, but none gave obedience, and nothing followed upon their disobedience.

Upon the 23d of March the place of Kandechyle, pertaining to the marquis of Huntly, by a sudden fire was recklessly burnt and destroyed, the haill plenishing consumed, to his great skaith. However, Crowner Garden happened to be dwelling at this same time in this house, who was compelled to agree and pay the marquis therefore.

There came frae the South to Dunnotter the earl of Whiton, with his son the lord Seaton, who had Mr. Andrew Cant, new come frae Newcastle, in their company. They were well entertained, the lady Marischal being the earl of Winton's daughter, and upon the said 23d of March they with the earl Marischal came to Aberdeen, and visited both the towns.

Upon the morrow, by warrant directed from the committee of the kirk, to eleven persons nominated by them, and dwelling within the next adjacent countries about Aberdeen, as they were the body of the General Assembly to nominate, elect and choose three ministers for serving the cure at the kirk of New Aberdeen,, (now p. 294 vacant by death partly, and partly by deposition of their own ordinary ministers) which eleven persons compeared, being ministers and elders of the presbytery, and countries aforesaid, and according to the power given, elected Mr. Edward Wright minister of Clackmannan, Mr. George Gillespie minister at Weems, and Mr. Andrew Cant minister at Newbottle, to be preachers and ministers of the said burgh. Mr. Andrew Cant being present, was upon the foresaid day received, and he accepted; the other two were absent and accepted not; but others were put in their places. The town of Aberdeen were not fully glad at Cant's coming. Then the foresaid lords, having seen both the towns of Aberdeen, returned back again to the South.

Sunday the 4th of April, a solemn fast was kept in both Aberdeens, and through the haill kingdom, for the happy success of the army, peace and quietness of the land.

Upon Saturday the 10th of April the lord Gordon, by advice of the earl of Argyle his uncle on the mother's side, came out of Berwick to Edinburgh (the marquis his father being still out of the kingdom) where he gave content to the committee of the General Assembly for his fleeing the country, and outstanding; next he gave content to the committee of estates, by swearing and subscribing the covenant, and obliged himself that his name and his father's vassals should keep good order, and likewise that they should swear and subscribe the covenant in his own presence, or otherwise that he should deliver a note of the refusers names to the committee of estates at Edinburgh, before the 22d of May next to come. For expeding whereof, he forthwith came to Strathboggie, conveened his friends at Dumbennan, where himself first sware and subscribed the covenant over again, and then all the rest would subscribe, and took them obliged to keep order by virtue of their band, for his relief, and such as were absent, or being present refused, he took up their names, and then came to Edinburgh, and there shewed his diligence, whereof the estates were heartily well content.

Ye heard before of the Scottish commissioners their charge against Canterbury and the lieutenant of Ireland, and of the accusations given therein against them. It is p. 295 very apparent that their's and the English minds were set for their destruction fully, as the only two who had the king's ear in all affairs both in church and policy, in thir troublesome times, and who exprest themselves deadly enemies to our Scottish, proceedings, and faithful servants to his majesty. But on the other part, both English and Scottish being combined together, resolved to take them both from guiding the king or counselling him, after a kind of legal way; and first they moved the king to send for the deputy to Ireland, who being come, was shortly warded in the knight of the black rod's, and thereafter was transported to the Tower upon divers pretended accusations against England and Scotland.

But this noble lieutenant wisely and gravely made clear answers to every article. Yet they were all repelled, since the ground of his death was otherwise laid. His majesty left nothing undone for his safety that lay in his princely power, but he could nowise prevail against this plot, to his great grief.

At last sentence is pronounced, ordaining this nobleman's, head to be striken frae his shoulders upon the Towerhill the 12th of May next to come, whilk sentence they compelled the king to sign, (sore against his will) with his own hand.

Tuesday the 13th of April our parliament was prorogued to the 25th of May 1641; from that continued to the 15th of July the said year; from that appointing the next parliament to sit down the seventeenth of November 1644, whereat the king was present himself.

Upon Thursday the 15th of April, being a presbytery day, Mr. John Gregory, of whom ye heard before, teached a penitential sermon in New Aberdeen. It was not found satisfactory by Mr. James Hervie moderator, and the remanent members of the presbytery, and he was ordained to put the same in write; the brethren advised the same with the next provincial assembly, who found it not satisfactory, and therefore they ordained him to preach penitentially at certain kirks, till he gave content to the next ensuing General Assembly, whilk he obeyed.

Upon Tuesday the 20th of April the provincial assembly sat down in New Aberdeen. Mr. Adam Barclay minister p. 296 at Alford was chosen moderator to the next provincial assembly; there were sundry matters agitated there: and first anent Mr. John Gregory, as ye have heard. Mr. Walter Hempfeed was placed minister at Auchterless, in the deposed Mr. John's place; Mr. Andrew Logie minister at Rayne continued there, but was prohibited to preach till the next General Assembly, and to sustain a preacher out of his stipend to supply his place; Dr. Forbes laird of Corse and professor of divinity, was deposed, and his kirk declared vacant, by virtue of a warrant directed from the committee of the General Assembly at Edinburgh, grounded upon an act thereanent in the late General Assembly, as he who refused to subscribe and swear the covenant. For the present he suffered patiently, his wife being dead; he gave up his own home, and remained a while in John Forbes' house in Old Aberdeen, and thereafter in Mr. Thomas Lesly's house, quietly, upon his own expences; a learned pious man as was in this land. It was said he mortified the lodging wherein he dwelt to the professors after him; he offered the keys then to such as should come in his place, but none was present, and he kept his own lodging, wherein he lay all night, but at the same time boarded himself in manner foresaid. To this assembly there came out of ilk parish in this province, a commissioner chosen out of the ruling elders of ilk parish, most able and qualified for the purpose, like as at every provincial assembly since the reformation this order was kept; so ilk minister came with his ruling elder. There was divers other acts of this meeting, and upon Thursday the 22d of April the brethren dissolved.

Friday the 23d of April, alias Good Friday, there was no preaching nor communion given in either of the Aberdeens, as was wont to be before.

About this time the earl Marischal sends for Robert Keith writer, his old servant, who was then dwelling in Old Aberdeen, as cashiered by wrongous information, and was now guided by Mr. Alexander Lindsay sometime of Vane, and Robert Keith sheriff depute of the Mearns; however the earl now writes for him, who came to Dunnottor, and was received to wonted favour. Shortly the earl rides p. 297 (having him with him) to Edinburgh; and craved the estates for his charges disbursed in the good cause; they answered, that the fines lifted out of Aberdeen, and the tenths and twentieths out of the country within the division, was able to pay all his charges; he answered, that he and his doers had received no more out of Aberdeen, but 900 merks of fines: but they replied, he and his doers had received above 26,000 merks of fines from Aberdeen, by virtue of the common band. The earl marvels at this answer, and returns home to Dunnotter, to take trial of this business. Now his special doers were the said Alexander Lindsay and Robert Keith, Sir John Douglas, one of his captains (lying at Newcastle with the regiment at this time), and Mr. James Baird advocate at Dunnotter; he tries the said Lindsay and Keith, who constantly denied any such receipt, whereupon the earl presently quits Lindsay, and upon the morn being the 21st of April, sends Robert Keith to Aberdeen, with a warrant to conveen the town's people in the tolbooth, and there by virtue of their oath, and under their subscriptions, to declare what sums of money, goods or gear, they had given or payed in the earl Marischal's name to any of his servants orders, and to bring a true note thereof with him, which the said Robert Keith gladly did, and the town as willingly revealed. Among the rest it was told how Mr. James Baird plundered Mr. Alexander Davidson, a good honest man of the king's, of 300 merks. How soon the earl gets this note, he forthwith rides back to the committee of estates at Edinburgh.

Now were great rumours of stir in England by a paper found, bearing a content of the king's cabinet council (consisting of about eight or nine persons whom his majesty most favoured) for inbringing of the Spanish. Armada, for help and support of the papists. The king has this cabinet council nightly after supper, who had all consented with the lieutenant for Ireland, except only the marquis of Hamilton and earl of Morton, as was reported. However this paper of the foresaid alledged contents is delivered to the house of commons.

Upon the 29th of April the lord Sinclair conveens divers barons and gentry within the sheriffdom of Aberdeen, p. 298 and in a committee holden in the tolbooth thereof, orders was given to the commissioners appointed through the haill parishes to take up the names of the haill men able to bear arms, between sixty and sixteen, in ilk parish, and to report their diligence before the l0th of May, yet no distress followed on the country at this time, praised be God.

Upon Thursday the 29th of April the young prince of Orange, about the age of ten years, came royally convoyed from Holland to the city of London, and with much magnificence is married to our king's eldest daughter Mary, a bairn about eight years of age, conform to the conditions agreed upon betwixt his majesty and his council on the one part, and of the prince of Orange elder, and the estates of Holland on the other part. After the marriage the young prince remained royally entertained at the court of England; at last the prince of Orange his father sent for him to come home; he therefore took his leave frae the king, the queen, the prince of Wales, the duke of York, and all the king's children, and of the princess his young lady and spouse, whom he left behind him. His majesty gifted him with abundance of plate and other riches, and as he was passing by the Tower of London, he had a volly of 120 pieces of cannon. Thus leaving his young wife behind him, he returns back again safe and found to Holland. Some marvelled at this marriage, as being inferior to the marriages of the king's daughters of England, who were married to crowned heads, and that the greatest in Christendom; others thought it was carefully drawn on by the lords and lower house, who had their own designs of state and church matters in hand, whereby they might be sure at all hazards of the concurrence and help of their new ally the prince of Orange and estates of Holland; but contrary to their expectation this marriage proved to the singular good and assistance against their devilish device.

Upon Tuesday the 27th of April Mr. John Ross minister at Birse, teached a penitential sermon at New Aberdeen, disclaiming episcopacy, Perth articles, high commission, books of canons and common prayers, and the like, to be altogether unlawful in our kirk. This preaching was pleasantly p. 299 heard, and he esteemed a good bairn, however he was before.

Sunday the 2d of May about three o'clock in the morning the lord Sinclair rode suddenly from Aberdeen to Edinburgh. Upon the morn his brother lieutenant colonel Sinclair returned back frae Inverness to Aberdeen; he brought in the fourth and eighth man out of Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and Murray, amounting to about 100 men; he also, with Walter Cochran burgess of Aberdeen and a commissary there, brought in store of money for the tenths and twentieths without contradiction.

About this time our new allies the Hollanders sent into Scotland, for maintenance of the good cause, a ship loaded with store of ammunition, powder, ball, and arms to our covenanters.

About the 3d of May word came to Aberdeen of a rebellion in Ireland, arising from our covenant, fearing against their confidences to be compelled to subscribe the same, albeit not warranted by the king, and find Scotland and England both under dissention about this covenant, church government and matters of state. They took advantage of the time, and giving out to be obedient to the king, they fell to with fire and sword against the covenanters, as well Irish as English and Scotch, within their kingdom, in most cruel manner. The papists were thought to be the principals of it.

Sunday the 9th of May Mr. William Strachan minuter in Old Aberdeen, after the forenoon's sermon read out of the pulpit certain printed acts anent runaways, and such as had got forloffs, for furnishing of rickmasters, and also for providing of gray cloath, harden, and shoes, and to deliver the same to be sent to the army to Newcastle, and to give up their silver work, with sundry other articles, but no silver work was taken up here in Aberdeen. After reading of thir acts, he also by direction frae the General Assembly, charged the masters and laxfishers of Dee and Don, within this parish, to forbear fishing upon Sunday, viz. frae Saturday at midnight till Sunday at that time, in all time coming; ilk trespassing servant to be punished for the first fault as a single fornicator, for the second as a double fornicator, p. 300 and for the third to be punished as an adulterer; and if the master trespass by directing his men to work upon the Sabbath-day, he shall be conveened before the session of the kirk, and censured conform to his fault. This assembly act got some obedience with great difficulty, for it was thought no sin to fish upon the Sabbath-day before.

The earl of Stafford being now out of the way, to the great joy and contentment of the confederate covenanters both in England and Scotland, there comes news to Aberdeen that some of the queen's most special friends and favourites had fled the court of England, as being suspected to be upon a plot intending to bring the king's army (lying at Cedess) to London, to whom should have joined the whole Frenchmen (of no small number) dwelling there, the whole papists within the town and country; and siclike that the king of France, having a sea army at this time lying at Piccardy, should have loosed therefrae and landed at Portsmouth in England, and to have met altogether, and gone to raise up the English parliament per force, before the peaceable conclusion thereof. The queen herself was suspected to be upon the council hereof, but this news turned to nothing, for there was no trial found that thir matters were true; but there comes forth hastily a proclamation against these persons who had fled, but no obedience followed, nor did the foresaid persons compear, being fled out of the kingdom. It was reported that the English parliament was much taken up about the discovery of papists plots; and first they had a committee anent fortifying of the Cinque Ports; they caused disarm several papists in and about London, and the queen's mother was commanded to remove out of the kingdom, which she did; and subsidies were raised for sustaining of the armies.

The king was now dealing earnestly with the lords of the upper house, that the bill should not pass anent taking away the civil officers of bishops.

That there should be a cessation of war betwixt the English and Scots frae the 16th of May to the last of June. This news came to Aberdeen about the English business, whilk for the most part proved true.

Doctor Guild, of whom ye heard before, sets out a printed paper, whereof the tenor follows:

To the nobility, p. 301 gentry, burrows, and others, and ministers of this late combination in covenant.

A friendly and faithful advice that the event of this great convention, June 6th, may by God's blessing end to his glory and the peace both of church and kingdom, by Dr. William Guild, sworn chaplain to his majesty, and minister in Aberdeen.

As remembering that the Lord is the searcher of hearts, and blesseth only the sincere designs which are intended for his glory and good of his church, chiefly when the samen is so gloriously pretended, ye would do well herein to examine more narrowly than Laban searched Jacob's tents, and to sift your hearts, that under pretence of zeal for religion only, no secret nor corrupt ends like Achan's thing be any wise hid, tending to your own private gain, or any other sinister respects, lest that (as God forbid) the happy hoped-for event of this solemn meeting be woefully crost, as Simeon and Levi pretending religion, but intending their own private vindict, were accused by him, who otherwise would have blest them.

2d, Consider that you have to do with your native and most gracious prince the anointed of the Lord; in dealing with him eye always God, whom he representeth, and with that loyal love and tenderness as becometh; remember your own places as subjects, and your duties accordingly, so to carry in all humility and due obedience, as you may approve yourselves to God, his majesty, to your own consciences, and to all good men both at home and in all foreign nations, shunning the foul aspersions of the least degree of lese-majesty, as having David's tender heart within you, and not touching the Lord's anointed, or so much as the skirt of his garment, with the least attempt of seeking to impair his royal and sacred dignity, or the lustre of that crown which God hath set upon his head, and whose flourishing ever we all should wish.

3d, Remember also that the eyes of subtile vigilant Romans are towards you waiting for your halting, and to make their most advantageous use of a miscarriage on your parts, thereby by their police to blow the coal of division, and to augment the samen for their own advantage, to bring the p. 302 truth in your persons to a disgust and reproach, and if they may (which I hope in God they shall never be able to perform; to alienate the affection of your gracious and religious sovereign from the very profession itself, and from that tender care which hitherto as a nursing father he hath had of the same.

4th, Especially remembering what ye pretend and profess of the king's defence and his sacred authority; abjure also the rest of the corruptions of Rome which ye so much abhor, and like loyal subjects put ye nothing in practice of that jesuitical and damnable doctrine of their's, that christian people may rise in open rebellion against their sacred sovereigns, and that they in ancient times opposed not violently, heathen nor heretical emperors, nor deposed them, only because they wanted force and powers so to do (as speaketh cardinal Bellarmine), which thing Tertullian, Ciprian, Ambrose, and many more, teach to be false. Tertullian in his apology for the christians under the persecuting heathen emperors, testifies, that if it had been lawful for them to be either secret or open revengers of their own wrongs, they neither wanted number nor power; yet what war is there, saith he, that we are not meet for, and would be ready also to undertake if that our religion taught us not the contrary.

5th, And if his majesty discharge these things that are unwarrantable bylaw, and have occasioned this fearful disturbance, peace would be so regarded, and the duty of native subjects to a gracious prince would be so remembered as his royal majesty may perceive by the loving hearts of his loyal people how much he is obliged to respect and give a patent ear hereafter to their farther grievances, seriously to consider thereof, and in the best manner, and in a fair way to give them contentment, rather than he would seem to foreign nations, by the subjects of one of his kingdoms to be fully inforced in a manner to yield to their desires, God forbid.

6. Likewise having the proof of a gracious prince's condescending so far, and his promise by public proclamation of a patent ear to all his subjects farther just complaints, that any seeming wilful imprudence by irruption on your p. 303 part, should insensibly embark the estate of this our free and native kingdom into such hazard of losses and crosses, cruelties and calamities, which upon the wrath of so great a prince, and the rupture between him and his subjects in so poor and distressed a kingdom as this is already, would be clearly seen to all nations to ensue; but rather giving what may be condescended to subjects humble desires, a fair way may be made to granting of farther—that Satan the author of all division may be disappointed, the popish hopes may be frustrated, so good a prince may be kept and duly respected, the peace of church and kingdom may be settled, all feared evils as fruits of this combustion may be prevented, and the hearts of all who love God's truth and good of the country may be comforted; which the Lord grant in mercy for Christ's fake, Amen.

Saturday the 15th of May a proclamation was made at the cross of Aberdeen, forbidding transportation of any more victual to our Army at Newcastle, whilk was good news to the country people, who were forced to pay great prices for victual, to sustain themselves; because, out of the sheriffdoms of Banff and Aberdeen there was transported 12,000 bolls of meal and bear, which raised the prices mightily, but the army was well served, and sent back some of their victual to Leith.

About this time John Gordon of Haddo is pursued before the committee of estates of parliament, at the instance of Andrew lord Fraser and John Forbes of Lesly, for oppressing of them, their men, tenants, and servants, plundering their girnels, horses, corn, and other goods, and casting thereby the Mains of Muchalls waste, extending to great sums, and for taking of the said John Lesly violently and per force, and carrying him to Strathboggie; for taking frae him his best horse, with a bond for payment of one thousand merks before he was put to liberty, and whereof he had got real payment. Thir complaints were strongly agitated before this committee, whereof the lord of Balmerinoch, brother-in-law to the lord Fraser, was president (no doubt his true friend) agented also by the laird of Craigievar, a deadly enemy to the laird of Haddo. True, Haddo was not guiltless of these complaints, but he had fled the p. 304 course which the name of Gordon was then upon, and came in to the earl Marischal his near cousin, and followed him, and for his safety and protection paid also to the earl 8000 merks, and by whose means he had got an absolvitor, as was alledged, from these claims, long before, in presence of a full committee.

Haddo trusting to this absolvitor, and Marischal's moyan, bade at home, the earl answering for him before the committee; but do his best, the first absolvitor was repealed, and he decerned by the committee of estates of parliament to pay to the lord Fraser for his losses the sum of ten thousand merks or thereby, and to the laird of Leslie 3500 merks, whereupon horning, caption and comprising was hastily raised, but Haddo made protestation against the decreets.

Sunday the 30th of May doctor William Guild minister, celebrated the communion in New Aberdeen to the people sitting, none daring to kneel, as was used before; he read out an act of the General Assembly, firstly charging and forbidding all such as had not subscribed the covenant to approach this table, or any others coming from their parishes without a testimonial; otherwise they should be removed publicly.

Friday the 4th of June, Mr. William Strachan our minister preached a preparation sermon before the giving of the communion; the next Sabbath Dr. Alexander Scroggie came and heard his sermon, which was the first he heard the said Mr. Alexander Strachan preach since his coming to the place; and upon Sunday the 6th of June he preached; after sermon he read out these alledged assembly acts to the people sitting, and after prayer he gave the bread on each side to one or two, thereafter the bason and bread lifted by an elder, and ilk man took his sacrament with his own hand; in like manner the minister took the cup, and gave it to one or two on each side, so each one gave the cup to his fellow, not done as was before, for the minister before gave each person communicating the blessed sacrament out of his own hand, and to ilk person the cup.

Upon this Sunday Sir Alexander Gordon of Cluny, knight baronet, his banns with dame Elizabeth Gordon p. 305 were proclaimed. Her husband deceased upon the 29th of November 1640. There was some suspicion of familiarity betwixt them, whereupon thir banns were proclaimed by direction of the presbytery, himself sitting in the desk in Old Aberdeen, hearing his own banns proclaimed, not ordinarily used.

General Lesly sent about this time John Monro of Assan, and a lieutenant in his army, with a letter to the committee of estates at Edinburgh, desiring him in to be warded in the tolbooth, for having conference with one of the king's army called Sir Donald Gorme, whilk was done. The earl of Seaforth was also holden in suspicion with us, and I believe little was proved against the one or the other as yet.

About the 6th of June, there fell out some anger betwixt the earl of Argyle and the earl of Montrose, upon some alledged speeches; there was some miscontent before betwixt General Lesly and Montrose at Newcastle, anent some letters passing betwixt the king and him, contrary to the order of war, whereat the general was offended, but this matter, though suspicious, was wisely supprest. Now it happened, that a minister called Graham had spoken that the earl of Argyle said, the king's majesty might be deposed and deprived of his crown, upon any of three reasons. 1st, For desertion; that is, leaving his kingdom without good government in church and policy, 2d, For prodition, that is, seeking the tinsel and loss of his kingdom, by destroying of their laws and liberty. 3d, For invasion; that is, raising arms against his loyal subjects. Which speeches this Graham alledged Argyle had spoken in Athol, at the time when he went there to cause that country people subscribe the covenant, as ye have heard before, and that he spake them in presence of diverse barons, gentlemen, and others of rank. How soon Argyle heard of this Graham's speeches, he conveens him before the committee at Edinburgh, and accuses him upon these speeches. This Graham answered, it was true he spake them; then he was demanded of an author; the earl of Montrose being sitting with the rest at the committee, he was loth to reveal his author; but Montrose spake boldly, Fear not, says he, tell p. 306 your author; he answers them, My lord, it is yourself that is my author; who also being enquired, confessed, that Argyle spake the speeches indeed; and his author being spiered for, Montrose pertly alledged and said, he would bide by them; and that Mr. John Stuart younger, commissary of Dunkeld, was his author. Argyle and his sister's son being both sitting at this committee, and hearing thir speeches, were nettled, and became offended with Montrose, betwixt whom fell out some quarrelsome speeches, but all were commanded silence by the committee for this time. Argyle causes charge Mr. John Stuart to compear before the committee to answer for thir speeches, who indeed obeyed the charge, and compeared and bade by the speeches, saying to Argyle, My lord, I heard you speak these words in Athol, in presence of a great many people, whereof you are in good memory. Argyle answered, saying, while he was in Athol, he found the Stuarts there against the subscribing of the covenant, to whom he said, this covenant was not against the king, but for religion and liberty of the kingdom; and if they would not subscribe the same, it might breed them both peril and skaith; for if the body of the country would not go one way, but be divided amongst themselves, it would be an highway to bring in the Englishmen into the land, to dethrone the king, and bring the nobles under servitude and slavery. This he remembered to have said, but denied any farther. Whereupon the said. Mr. John Stuart is presently warded and kept fast in the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and at last it cost him his life, as hereafter ye shall hear.

Now Argyle, seeing Montrose thus set against him, strives by all means possible to have a watchful eye over his ways, and understanding that Montrose had lately sent to court one captain John Stuart with letters, he quietly sends into England three or four trusty servants, to intercept this bearer in his home coming, whilk they did, and ripe this captain and find within his riding saddle a pacquet of letters; they bring him to Edinburgh, where Argyle presents him before the committee with his letters; they immediately brake the pacquet, and find diverse letters written to sundry of our noblemen by our Scotch nobles at court, p. 307 and one especially written by his majesty to Montrose himself, thanking him for his loyalty, desiring him also to persevere, and he should not rest unrewarded. What was written in the other letters, I cannot tell. Among the rest there was a curious obscure piece written after the form following.

Tell L. If G and B. be disbanded the parliament may be holden, and A and R may be cut off by A B C, and by thir means other matters not yet known may take effect, and D and T may effectuate what is desired by the assistance of A B C, &c. M relies upon L K looks for the performance of all promised to him in L his name. No officers of state should be chosen but by A B C; let L be informed by D and T that matters cannot go right till that serpent M that lies in his bosom be cut off.

Clavis. L, viz. Lyon, G B general and his band A and R, Argyle and Rothes, A B C banders, D T duke of Lennox and Traquair, M Montrose, K the laird of Keir, M that serpent the marquis of Hamilton.

This letter thus ambiguously written is after this manner found out and exponed among the committee, to their great grief and displeasure; then they go on and demand further of this captain John Stuart, what he knew in this business, and took his oath, solemnly to declare the truth, who deponed, he knew nothing what was in the paper; but that his master Montrose had written to his majesty, forbidding him to come to Scotland for holding the parliament, till first the Scottish army were disbanded,. otherwise he would be in jeopardy. Farther than this he knew not.

Thereafter he is committed to ward in the tolbooth of Edinburgh; in like manner the earl of Montrose, the lord Napier, (married to the earl's sister) a singular man, and sometime president to the committee of estates, the lord of Keir, allied to Napier, the laird of Blackball, sirnamed Stuart, a prime man, and one of the lords of council and session, being combined together, and guilty in writing of letters, expressly forbidden under the pain of treason, without consent of the committee, and suspect to be guilty in other passages besides; they therefore were all at the p. 308 time warded in the castle of Edinburgh, and straitly, keeped.

About the foresaid 6th of June there came from England to Scotland, an act intitled, An act for utter abolishing archbishops, bishops, chancellors, commissars, deans and chapters, archdeacons, prebendaries, chanters, canons, and all other offices out of the church of England.

This act plainly proved how both English and Scots had concluded the ruin and rooting out of bishops from the king's haill dominions, before the beginning of our covenant.

There came word also to us, that our Scottish commissioners met with a committee of the lower house, whom they had acquainted with the plots newly discovered touching Montrose and his accomplices; desiring their assistance to sequestrate Traquair from the king, and to send him home with the rest of the incendiaries, which at this time was not granted., That the parliament had seized upon the haill Cinque Ports of England, and furnished the same; and that the haill parliament had subscribed the English covenant except the papists.

Sunday, being Whitsunday the 13th of June, Mr. William Strachan gave the communion in Old Aberdeen (as before) the 2d time Doctor Scroggie, notwithstanding he was forbidden out of the pulpit to come to the table, as he who had subverted the covenant, took his communion, whilk bred some fear to the minister, who was doubtful to refuse him the communion or give it, but no impediment was made to him, and so he received it.

Upon the foresaid Whitsunday, the lord Sinclair came to the place of Old Montrose, by direction of the committee of estates at Edinburgh, and there violently brake up the gates and doors thereof, entered the house, searched and sought the haill coffers, chests and trunks within the same, to see what missives or letters pertaining to the earl of Montrose, or any of his friends, might be found, because his writes lay in this house. They took to Edinburgh also with them the earl's secretary, called Laniby, to try what he knew. The like was done to another house of the said earl's called Kincardine, and what was found was had to the committee p. 309 at Edinburgh, the earl himself lying warded in the castle. It is said they also demolished his stately house of Mugdok.

About this time the Flanders traders of Aberdeen are compelled to send to Holland 17,000 merks, in penny or pennyworths, for their part and for relief of the country, as was for them stented.

Now soldiers were daily coming out of Caithness and other parts, for making up the lord Sinclair's regiment of 500 men, but the earl of Murray is quit without furnishing any men.

Sunday the 20th of June Mr. William Strachan the third time gave the communion in Old Aberdeen, forbidding (before he gave it) out of the pulpit all outstanders and anticovenanters to approach the table; but doctor Forbes of Corse obeyed not this prohibition, but came to the table, and received the communion without impediment at this time. Thus both he and doctor Scroggie, as ye heard before, communicated, but doctor Lesly the principal did not communicate this year at all; and this same Sunday Mr. John Lesly, servitor to the said Doctor Forbes, and Mr. John Caffie stood up, and with uplifted hands subscribed the covenant, whilk they had not done before, and for their so long outstanding the presbytery ordained them to confess their error, and to subscribe and swear as said is.

Mr. Alexander Robertson minister at Cluny, upon Tuesday the 22d of June, married Sir Alexander Gordon of Cluny, with dame Elizabeth Gordon, after their banns were thrice proclaimed in Old Aberdeen, and whereupon Mr. William Strachan sent his testimonial, so they were married at Cluny, and their bridal held at Tilliefour, but she died shortly after.

Wednesday the 23d of June Dr. Scroggie, a reverend old preacher at this kirk, is now, sore against his will, compelled to quit his dwelling-house in Old Aberdeen, and yards pleasantly planted for the most part by himself; so he removes this day with all his family from the same, and delivers the keys to Mr. William Strachan, that he might enter, as well to the bigging as to the pulpit. He transported all to Ballogie, and took a chamber for his coming and going in New Aberdeen. Thus is this wise, famous, p. 310 learned old man, handled in his old age; however the said Mr. William Strachan paid him for his planting, before he got entry, 400 merks.

Upon Thursday the 24th of June, Mr. Andrew Cant comes with his wife and bairns to Aberdeen, takes up his house, enters his calling and ministry, by direction of the General Assembly; he was not very welcome to all, because he came not by the town's election; he began to make some innovations, as ye may see hereafter.

Now the papists are straitly put out in all places without respect, within the kingdom; among the rest the lady Dowager of Huntly, a noble, worthy, and honourable lady, is put at by the kirk to renounce her religion, and conform in severe manner. This lady, born in France, brought up in the Roman religion all her days, and of great age, would not now (her one foot being in the grave, as the saying is) alter her religion, but rather made choice to leave the kingdom; whilk she was forced to do for all her kindred's moyan and friendship that she could make. Thus resolutely she settles her estate, rents and living; leaves, with woe heart, her stately building of the Bog, beautified with many yards, parks, and pleasures, closes up the gates, and takes journey with about 16 horse, and upon Saturday the 26th of June she came to Aberdeen; lodged in Mr. Alexander Reid's house, and on Monday thereafter she rides frae Aberdeen towards Edinburgh. A strange thing to see a worthy lady of seventy years of age, to be put to such travel and trouble, being a widow, her eldest son the lord Marquis being out of the kingdom, her other children dispersed and spread, and albeit nobly born, yet left helpless and comfortless, and so put at by the kirk, that she behoved to go, or else abide excommunication, and thereby lose her estate and living, whilk was she loath to do. She left her oy Charles, son to the marquis, being but a bairn, with Robert Gordon baillie of Enzie, to be entertained by him, when she came frae the Bog; and she also sent another of his bairns called lady Mary, to Anne countess of Perth, her own eldest sister, to remain with her. These things done, she comes to Aberdeen, frae that she rides to Edinburgh, where she remains till about the end of September, p. 311 without help or remead, syne rides directly to Berwick, there to remain during her pleasure. It is said she had store of gold and jewels with her; afterwards she goes to France; she had about 300,000 merks in gold and money with her, by and attour silver plate, which did little good to the distressed estate of that noble house.

Sunday the 27th of June Dr. Guild, one of the ordinary ministers at Aberdeen, preached; after sermon he declared, that he was ordained to leave his ministry and become principal of the King's College of Old Aberdeen; he there took his leave of his auditory, whereat some were not discontent, he being somewhat seditious, and they would have been willingly quit of him; and therefore he now removed (and not till now) to the said college.

Ye heard before somewhat of the earl of Montrose and his complices; now about this time the committee of estates, as was said, sent the lord Balmerinoch to the castle of Edinburgh, desiring Montrose to come and speak with the committee, whilk he simpliciter refused, saying he would come to parliament before his peers, but not before a committee; thereafter another lord was sent to him, who got the same answer; whereupon the committee ordained the provost and baillies of Edinburgh to go in their name, and charge the constable of the Castle to render Montrose to them, and to bring him down to the committee under a strong guard, whilk they did, being about 400 men. The committee demand Montrose of some questions, who would give no answer nor solution, saying he would answer in parliament before his peers, and was no more obliged. The committee finding no contentment, sent him back again to the Castle, there to remain , but Stephen Boyd was discharged from being captain thereof, and another captain put in his place, because he suffered Montrose to have conference with the rest. So they want that comfort now, and are more straitly kept, so that ilk one had a page to wait upon him, and none was suffered to go in or out but by permission to speak with any of them. This was thought strict dealing, there being of Montrose's side called Banders, about 19 noblemen, linked together against the committee government, although otherwise good covenanters. p. 312

Saturday the 3d of July, the lord Sinclair returned from Edinburgh back again to Aberdeen, where he ordained his regiment lying there, of about 500 men, to live upon free quarters within the town, to the wreck of the inhabitants thereof , but they had no great loss, because they received payment for their entertainment frae commissary Farquhar, out of the tenths and twentieths, suppose this Farquhar made his own profit thereby also, by paying them with dear meal. Now there happened one called John Alexander, servitor to the earl of Seaforth, to come from Edinburgh to Aberdeen, intending to go North to his master, with letters which he had upon him; but was apprehended in Aberdeen, and sent with the letters to the committee at Edinburgh, thinking to find somewhat among the letters that would make the earl of Seaforth better known, who indeed was under vehement suspicion. How soon the earl gets word, he follows his man South, and after trial nothing was found against himself or his servant; however he bides the parliament following.

The presbytery of Aberdeen and their moderator were upon the 8th of July at the visitation of the kirk of Mary Culter, where Mr. David Lindsay parson of Belhelvie, Mr. Andrew Melvin parson of Banchory, and Mr. William Strachan minister at Old Aberdeen, were chosen commissioners for the said presbytery, to attend the next General Assembly. William Blackburn, burgess of Aberdeen, was chosen a ruling or laic elder for the said presbytery. Mr. Samuel Rutherford, minister at ———, hearing of this election, writes hastily to the presbytery, then sitting in Aberdeen, craving (as if he had not heard of the election) Mr. Andrew Cant to be chosen one of the commissioners; the matter is agitated, and the brethren thought that the election should stand unchanged, except there were found a nullity in the same, according to the order observed before in the kirk, without he who was chosen should demit; but Mr. Andrew Melvin is urged to demit, which ignorantly, contrary to his credit, he did, and upon which the said Andrew Cant is joined commissioner in his place.

Ye heard how this parliament was continued to the 15th of July, (according to the divers acts of continuation in the p. 313 second parliament of king Charles.) This day the said parliament sits down with the nobles, barons, and burgesses both, without the king, for he was not yet come down, and without a commissioner; however they begin to do such business before his majesty's coming, as they thought fit. The earl of Traquair hearing of this parliament, leaves the king (for he durst not bide behind him in England, for fear of the English parliament) and goes to sea, sailing in one of the king's ships about Holy Island and elsewhere, for security of his life, until at last he is forced to come in and set caution before the estates, or a committee of parliament, and there to abide his trials.

Well, they began first to call the absents frae this parliament both at home and abroad, but no bishop was called nor contumaced, except the pretended bishop of Ross. Now there were particularly summoned to this parliament John earl of Traquair, Sir Robert Spotswood of Dunnipace, late president, Sir John Hay of Lauds late dark register, Mr. John Maxwell pretended bishop of Ross, and Dr. Balcanquall, as incendiaries; and siklike, were summoned to this parliament, James earl of Montrose, Archibald lord Napier, Sir George Strivling of Keir, and Sir Archibald Steuart of Blackball, as plotters, devisers, and machinators of courses against the public weal, as the 34th act of the last session of said 2d parliament bears, albeit thir last named persons were all warded in the Castle of Edinburgh, as ye heard before. By and attour incendiaries and plotters, there were also summoned the marquis of Huntly, the marquis of Douglas, the earl of Roxburgh, the earl of Nithsdale, the earl of Crawford, the earl of Airth, the earl of Airly, the earl of Linlithgow, the earl of Tulliebardine, the earl of Stirling, the earl of Carnwath, the lord Semple, the lord Ogilvie, the lord Aboyne, the lord Etrick or general Ruthven, and sundry others, who were out of the kingdom; they were all summoned at the mercat cross of Edinburgh and Pier of Leith, upon sixty days warning. There were also summoned to this parliament sundry of the barons and gentlemen of the name of Gordon in this country, whereof none compeared of that name. This summons was raised by direction of the estates against thir persons, p. 314 under the pain of forfeiture, whereupon many of thir noblemen, barons, and gentlemen, came home to Edinburgh.

Ye heard before of Dr. John Forbes of Corse his deposition, whereby his place of professor was vacant, to the great grief of the youth and young students of theology, who were well instructed and taught by this learned doctor; but for remead of this, there is direct by the kirk an edict to be served and publicly read .at the kirk door of Machar kirk in Old Aberdeen, by the which the commissioners of the presbyteries of the haill diocese of Aberdeen were summoned to compear at Aberdeen, upon the last day of August next to come, for choosing in the deposed professor's place a sufficient qualified man, to serve in his room, and upon his rents.

The commissioners of the haill presbytery compeared, and none were absent except Kincardine, Deer, and Turiff; the rest who were present leeted for this place, Mr. Alexander Seyton minister at Banff, Mr. John Seyton minister at Kemnay, Mr. George Leith minister at Culsamond, Mr. William Douglas minister at Forgue; and because the haill commissioners were not present, they referred thir leeted men with eiking, paring, or changing, to the next provincial assembly to be holden at Aberdeen; and so they dissolved.

Upon Tuesday the 20th of July the General Assembly sat down in St. Andrews; Mr. Alexander Henderson, minister at Leuchars in Fife, is moderator; the committee of estates wrote to them with the earl of Cassilis, shewing that many of the commissioners to this assembly were members of the parliament, desiring them therefore to translate their place to Edinburgh, as most commodious both for parliament and them. This matter was much debated among the brethren; at last they yielded, leave St. Andrews, and come to Edinburgh, and upon the 27th of the samen July, sit down in the Gray Friar kirk thereof, where the king's commissioner, viz. earl of Weymss, presented them a letter, written frae his majesty to them, protesting to maintain religion in true piety, to pass presentations to such kirks as he was patron of, to such ministers not yet provided, as were p. 315 thought meet; to see seminaries of learning advanced, requesting the brethren to be peaceably set, and to pray for him. This favourable letter was delivered to the moderator, and read in public audience; thereafter the commissioner delivered somewhat more conform to his commission. Now this assembly sat each day before noon constantly, and the parliament ilk day afternoon. No such order seen here before, the parliament and the assembly sitting half days together. No lords nor barons, advocates, clerks, or other men of mark, had entry to this assembly, to hear and see, as was wont to be done before, so straitly were the doors kept; so the commissioners, ministers, and ruling elders had only place.

At this assembly Dr. Sibbald late minister at Aberdeen, his papers which were taken frae him were revised and sighted; some whereof smelled of Arminianism, as they thought, and whilk they kept; other some were found orthodox, whilk were delivered to Mr. Robert Petrie, agent in Edinburgh, to be sent to Doctor Sibbald, now lying in England or Ireland. Mr. John Gregory minister at Drumoak, and Mr. Andrew Logie minister at Rain, were received and reinstalled in their several kirks.

Mr. John Oswald minister at     was ordained by the assembly ta be transplanted to Aberdeen, which he very willingly obeyed.

The night family exercise, called the family of love, was there agitated and reasoned, yet (contrary to the mind of the brethren, who favoured the same as was thought) it was supprest and prohibited.

The household exercise, morning and evening prayers, were ordained to be said by ilk man, poor and rich, learned and ignorant, in his own family, under pain of kirk censure.

To this assembly Dr. Alexander Scroggie (after he is deposed, put frae his kirk, and spoiled of his goods) gives in now a supplication, (notwithstanding of his writing with the rest of the Aberdeen's doctors against the covenant,) offering to swear and subscribe the same (whilk he had refused before), and to do what further the brethren should enjoin him. The assembly heard gladly his supplication, p. 316 and referred him to the committee of the kirk at Edinburgh, ordaining him to go there and give them content, whilk he did at last, where he get some pension.

There were sundry other acts made by them, whilk is here referred to their own books. They indicted another general assembly, by their own authority, without warrant of the king, as was wont to be, to be holden at St. Andrews the third Wednesday of July 1642; and so upon the 9th of August they all dissolved.

Upon Wednesday the 21st of July Mr. John Steuart's head is striken off frae his shoulders at the cross of Edinburgh, after he was convicted by an assize, before a committee holden to that effect, within the said burgh, for speeches alledged spoken by him against the earl of Argyle, as ye heard before. This gentleman is cruelly executed for words, not before our ordinary justice or sheriff court, according to our Scottish laws, but before a new in-come court; however it is said he abode by all the speeches that he spake, and went to death therewith.

About this time John Leith of Harthill got liberty to come out of the tolbooth, where he was warded (as ye heard before) and go up and down Edinburgh, having one attending him all day, who brought him in ilk night to the tolbooth again; but this liberty lasted not long, but he was miserably handled, as ye may hereafter hear.

About the beginning of August, word came that the earl of Traquair, Sir Robert Spotswood, John pretended bishop of Ross, Sir John Hay and Mr. Walter Balcanquall, five of the incendiaries above written, were coming with the king to Scotland; whereupon the estates made proclamation at the cross of Edinburgh, forbidding all manner of men to receipt, supply, or support any of them, under great pains, and whoever could take and apprehend them, or reveal them to the estates, should be thankfully rewarded, and estimate singular good service.

Now the king, calling to mind the treaty of peace put betwixt him and his subjects of Scotland, as ye have heard before, craftily convoyed and done by his majesty's commissioners of England, whom he trusted, and the commissioners p. 317 of Scotland, wherein the Scottish prevail so much, that they get all their wills in the treaty, and much more in the subsequent parliament, as by the reading of the acts thereof plainly may appear, for the Scottish disorder and raising of arms being a mean to get a parliament indicted in England, whilk themselves could not get done, therefore whilst the parliament is made sure, they go on by all possible means to settle by treaty the king and his Scottish subjects, by granting them all their desires in church and police, and thereafter to make the king in their English parliament condescend to the like government, and that uniformity, both in religion and church government, should with the Scots be firmly established and made conform.

This great policy is unknown to the king, whereby the English lower house and our confederates were so tied to one another; however his majesty, as a most gracious ill-less prince, having no mind of such plots, addresses himself to keep the Scottish parliament continued to the 15th of July, and that day already sitten down, his majesty resolves therefore to come to Scotland to settle all matters by parliament, to the effect he might go on the more soundly with his parliament in England; at any rate to secure us, so that the Scots should not stir nor meddle in the English business; but herein was his majesty deceived; and so he leaves the Scottish commissioners at the English parliament, whom he left sitting behind him, to wit, John earl of Rothes, Charles earl of Dunfermling, John lord Loudon, sir Patrick Hepburn of Wachton, Sir William Douglas of Cavers, William Drummond of Rickarton, John Smith of Edinburgh, Mr. Alexander Wedderburn of Dundee, and Hugh Kennedy of Air, as members of the estates of parliament, to whom adjoined Mr. Alexander Henderson minister, and Mr. Archibald Johnston, clerk to the General Assembly; thir commissioners were appointed to attend the English parliament for the Scotch affairs; but the earl of Rothes, a sore enemy to the king, departed this life in England, and never returned back with the rest of the commissioners, but was buried at his own kirk of Lesly.

Now the king takes journey with a very few train, having with him his own sister's son the Palsgrave of Rhine, p. 318 the marquis of Hamilton, the earl of Morton, and some others, there came also with his majesty commissioners from the parliament of England, to attend our parliament, that nothing should go wrong; but both parliaments go on in one mind and deliberation. His majesty comes forward, and saw general Lesly's army ly at Newcastle; he received a welcome of fine fireworks; Lesly also welcomed his majesty, as became him; he invited him to dinner, with whom the king went; thereafter he had some short conference with Lesly, syne went to horse, where he had another fire-work volley, and therefrae came by post to Scotland, and upon Saturday the 14th of August he came to Holy-rood-house in at the water gate, not passing one hundred persons in his train. Sundry of our Scots nobles met him, the provost and baillies saluted his highness in their long robes, a speech was made, the keys of the town rendered, but the king somewhat melancholyous after his travel, coming all the way post by coach, gave little ear to their speech; however they convoyed him in at the water gate to his palace of Holy-rood-house.

Here it is to be noted, a wonder to all posterity, and to the haill Christian world—a monarch! a king! to come to his own subjects, to give them a parliament, having their army and regiments lying in his highway, raised against himself for their own ends, for Lesly was lying at Newcastle, major Monro lying with his men in the Merse about 1400 men; Cochran with his regiment of 1000 men lying in Lothian, and the lord Sinclair's regiment of 500 men lying in Aberdeen. Nevertheless it pleased his majesty in a peaceable manner and quiet company to come to Scotland, without regard or fear for their armies of men, raised against himself.

Well, upon the morn being Sunday the 15th of August, his majesty went to the Abbey kirk, and heard one of our sermons after the Scottish fashion, before and afternoon, without organs or prayers, as he was used with at home.

Upon Tuesday the 17th of August he came to the parliament house, where was conveened the three estates, consisting of nobles, barons and burgesses, as the game went now, to whom he made the pleasant pithy speech following: p. 319

My lords and gentlemen, there has been nothing so displeasing to me as those unlucky differences which of late have happened to be betwixt me and my subjects, and nothing that I have desired more, than to see the day wherein. I hope not only to settle these unhappy mistakings, but rightly to know and be known of my native country. I need not tell you (for I think it is well known to most) what difficulties I have passed by and overcome, to be here at this time; yet this I will say, that if love to my native country had not been a chief motive to this journey, other respects might have easily found a shift to do that by a commissioner, which I am come to perform myself. All this considered, I cannot doubt but to find some real testimonies of your affections for the maintenance of that royal power which I enjoy, after 180 descents, and which you have so often professed to maintain, and your own national oath doth oblige you, that I shall not think my pains ill bestowed.

Now the end of my coming is shortly this: to perfect whatsoever I have promised, and withal to quiet these distractions which have and may fall out against you; and this I mind not superficially, but cheerfully to do; for I assure you I can do nothing with more cheerfulness than to give my people a general satisfaction.

Wherefore, not offering to endear myself to you in words (which indeed is not my way) I desire in the first place to settle that which concerns the religion and just liberties of this my native country, before I proceed to any other act.

This royal and memorable Speech was dearly esteemed of the best, and (as his majesty desired) the parliament goes on day by day as appears in the acts of parliament; for first, there was read in the king's own audience the act made anent the oath to be given by every member of parliament, act 5. Then follows the 6th act anent ratification of articles of treaty, with a commission from the commissioners of parliament, the articles of the large treaty, an act of oblivion, with certain other propositions and answers following the same, 6 act. Then follows divers other trivial acts. In the 21st act Sir Alexander Gibson is made clerk remitter, in Sir John Hay's place, for following the king. In the 2nd act the p. 320 election of counsellors; in the 23d act the election of lords of session; in the 33d act is contained the alledged incendiaries, viz. the earl of Montrose, Archibald lord Napier, Sir George Stirling of Keir, Sir Archibald Steuart of Blackhall, and the earl of Traquair; and how the king is so much favoured as to be judge to their punishment after trial, which would appear to have duly belonged to him as king, without the subjects consent; in the 41st act the king discharges rents for the use of the public, spended against his will, and contrary himself; in the 50th act, anent a president in parliament; in the 51st act the bishops rents to be holden of the king; with a continuation of this parliament to the first Tuesday of June 1644. But in the other parliament holden before, upon the 11th of June 1640, now ratified by his majesty, ye shall find the constitution of the parliament of nobles, barons, burgesses, act 2d; the ratification of the acts of assembly, act 4th; ratification of the covenant, act 5th; the subscription of the covenant and contents thereof, appointing of parliaments once every third year; 17th act of the defence of the conclusions of this parliament, and act 39 of the continuation of this same, so that the king's intention of a parliament needed now be sought; act 29 declaring bands and conventions to be lawful, though expresly prohibited before; 16 act declaring the lord Loudon, (chief plotter against the king in this business) to be high chancellor of Scotland. Thir acts in the first and second sessions of this second parliament, for the most part conceived in favours of the covenanters, conform to the articles of treaty agreed upon before, by the subtilty of the Englishmen, and no reparation nor punishment inflicted upon the raisers of thir troubles, but rather are preferred and advanced, and the king and his loyal subjects born down and supprest. Admirable to the whole world; but the king was forced to behold.

In the mean time many of the lords who were summoned to this parliament came to Edinburgh, among whom came the marquis of Huntly from England, about the 28th of August, Sir Robert Spotswood of Dunnipace and Sir John Hay of Lauds; but thir two were shortly taken and warded in the castle of Edinburgh. p. 321

Upon their coming followed a strict proclamation at the cross of Edinburgh, expressly forbidding such nobles as were cited to approach the house of parliament to take their rooms, nor to vote among the estates, till first they swear and subscribe in the face of parliament the national covenant, together with the band of maintenance of the acts of parliament; and further to give such other obedience and satisfaction, as in the sight of this parliament should be thought most fitting, attour such other noblemen as were not yet come home, who were not as yet summoned, that they should have no place nor voice in parliament, while they do and perform the like; whereupon the nobles that were come home went not to the parliament house, but convoyed the king up and down, and beheld all. The laird of Banff, having the marquis of Hamilton's favour, came also to Edinburgh at this time.

Now the earl of Montrose is sent for; he comes to the parliament from the castle of Edinburgh by coach, well guarded and convoyed; he is accused in presence of the king upon divers matters, containing 8 sheets of paper; thereafter he is guarded back again to the castle.

Proclamations, again forbidding convocation of the king's lieges, and that no man within Edinburgh or Leith should lodge or receipt any manner of men, under great pains, except they gave up their names to the parliament.

In this month of August ane great death both in burgh and land, of young bairns in the pox, so that nine or ten children would be buried in New Aberdeen in one day, and continued a long time; all for our sins, and yet not taken to heart.

Now the king's army at York, and our Scots army at Newcastie, are both disbanded according to our treaty of peace formerly mentioned; so about the 27th of August general Lesly came with his lifeguard, and others the best of his army, about 3000, and made a brave muster in the links of Leith, syne disbanded them also. In the meantime Monro, Cochran, and the lord Sinclair, kept still their regiments of foot undisbanded, because the king's garrisons of Berwick and Carlisle were not disbanded, as was alledged; others thought they were kept of purpose while p. 322 the closure of the parliament, fearing trouble. However, there came to Leith from Newcastle divers barks with victual, sent for the army's provision, and was sold back again. The general got good payment of fourscore thousand pounds sterling before he disbanded his army, as a part of 300,000 lb. promised by the English to our estates, of brotherly assistance, and that 110,000 pounds thereof should be paid at midsummer 1642, and as meikle at midsummer 1643. Thus we wanted not good payment frae the English for our service against the king, by raising of arms in manner aforesaid, Howsoever the captains, colonels, and other officers drawn to this war from other countries received not full payment from general Lesly of their wages, which made them to cry out against him; now ilk man went sundry gates, and some went to the king, and got good service of him hereafter. At this time the town of Edinburgh gave the banquet to the king, where this general Lesly was held in great esteem and honour before any other of his majesty's subjects there, whereat many wondered.

Upon Saturday the 4th of September Mr. Andrew Cant came frae the General Assembly, holden at Edinburgh, home to Aberdeen; he began to thunder and cry out of the pulpit against anti-covenanters, papists, and excommunicated persons; he would not suffer the people to pray when he prayed at sermon, but in their hearts to follow him, saying his outward prayers was sufficient for all; he refused to baptize bairns, but after preaching or lecture; he discharged reading of scripture or saying of psalms at lyke-wakes, which bred more debauchery quietly, and prejudged the master of the song school of his commodity; on a fasting day he would not give the blessing after forenoon's sermon, but after the afternoon's sermon for all; he cried out against the magistrates of Aberdeen, for making strangers burgesses, and spending the common good upon wine, and other things, superfluously.

There came a letter to the presbytery of Aberdeen, craving solemn thanksgiving to God, as all the presbyteries of Scotland had got the like, whilk letter was read out of the pulpit in Old Aberdeen. p. 323

This letter with the act of the General Assembly came not to Aberdeen while the 11th of September, and a thanksgiving was appointed to be upon Tuesday thereafter.

Upon whilk Tuesday the people conveened for this solemn thanksgiving, in midst of harvest and excellent fair weather for winning of the country corns, doubtless against the minds of the poor labourers of the ground, to be brought into so untimely a thanksgiving, and preaching and psalm-singing in both Aberdeens, both before and afternoon, where also this act was also solemnly read, to the dispraise of the king, and praise of the covenanters; no handy-work this day in burgh or land durst be used, whereat the commons, having their corns in point of tinsell, and being fair weather, mightily grieved, like as many of the auditors hearing this act of assembly read out, bearing the covenanters to be good and loyal subjects, and whatsoever was written, said, or proclaimed contrary, to be recalled and supprest, whereof there were divers and sundry set out against them. Nevertheless now they are approven to be good subjects to the king, notwithstanding of their rebellious proceedings, and violent actions, admirable to the whole world! Thus is his majesty counselled and overthrown. But here it is to be marked, that while this day of thanksgiving was straitly kept, the weather was wonderful fair, and the poor country people rather wishing to have been at home winning their corns in such weather, than to be brought in with the crafts and commons, both of burgh and land, sometimes for giving of thanks and sometimes for fasting upon work days, and abstinence from work, whereas some poor people living frae hand to mouth, failed the day of thanks, because they durst not labour for their food. Thus through this covenant is both burgh and land holden always under daily vexation. And which is more to be noted, this day of thanksgiving being a wonderful fair day, fit for harvest, wherein they are forced to sit idle, thereafter there was nothing but tempestuous rains till the 19th of October, at least till the 10th; continuing from the 14th of September till that day, whilk was another day of fast as ye shall hear; whereby the peoples hearts were casten down, fearing the loss of their harvest by thir wicked wets. p. 324

About the same time the queen mother left England, and went over to Brussels in Flanders. The English quitted her with good will, as suspected to be most seditious in thir troublesome times.

Wednesday before Michaelmas Mr. Alexander Jaffray was chosen provost of Aberdeen for a year to come, Mr. Thomas Gray, Mr. Mathew Lumsden, George Morison, and Mr. William Mair, baillies.

The laird of Drum continues sheriff by commission of Aberdeen, for an year; and Thomas Fraser of Strachan sheriff of Inverness.

Now falls there out an excellent piece, as the report past. It happened the lord Ker, eldest son to the earl of Roxburgh, (a brave spark and loyal subject) to the king, to be sitting in company with the earl of Crawford and Sir James Hamilton, son to the earl of Haddington, in a lodging in Edinburgh; where the lord Ker alledged the marquis of Hamilton was the instrument of all thir troubles, and desired the said James to go tell the marquis that he said these words, who refused to carry such message; the earl of Crawford, a loyal subject to the king, hearing the speech, thought it was over good a purpose to want a bearer, (being of the same mind that Ker was of,) says, I will carry the message, provided you give me warrant by write, whilk the lord Ker did; whereupon he tells the marquis of Hamilton, who answered the earl of Crawford, he was not to chace such tales. No, my lord, says, I have here his write, bearing thir speeches. Then the marquis laid, he should take order therewith; whilk he did in most politick manner; to stamp it out he means himself to the parliament; the lord Ker is commanded to keep his lodging, and goes so cunningly, that on the morrow the lord Ker is brought in face of the king and parliament, and his speeches were thought to be done after a full collation; an act is made in the parliament's books upon the marquis of Hamilton's loyalty, and the lord Ker let go frae without further accusation.

Upon Sunday the l0th of October a solemn feast was kept in New Aberdeen, for three causes. 1st, The great mortality of bairns in the pox, both in burgh and land, so that p. 325 frae the month of August last there was reckoned buried in Aberdeen about the number of twelvescore bairns in this disease. 2d, For fair weather, to win the corns, in point of tinsell, who had never a fair day since the 14th of September, whilk was the day of thanksgiving, as ye have before. 3d, For a happy closure of the parliament. Mr. Andrew Cant preached, but left the pulpit without a blessing as use was, till he preached afternoon, syne gave a blessing for both sermons. After this day of humiliation it pleased God of his goodness to send in fair weather daily for winning the corns.

Upon the 3d Tuesday and 19th of September, the provincial assembly of Aberdeen conveened within the Gray Friars kirk thereof; Mr. Andrew Cant is chosen moderator for one year, at least till the next assembly; ilk minister came with his ruling elder to this provincial assembly, according to an act of the General Assembly; by and attour it is ordered thereby, that out of every kirk session of every parish there shall be chosen one of the worthiest of that number to be a laick or ruling elder, and to attend upon the presbytery where that parish lies, to concur, consult and advise with the rest of the presbytery and laick elders upon such matters as occur, and the elder to report to his own session the next Sunday what was done in the presbytery.

Right so it is ordained by the General Assembly, before the restitution of bishops, as is thought, that one, two, or three of the ablest of the ministry of ilk presbytery, with one of the ruling elders as commissioner, to attend ilk General Assembly, and every minister within the province comes with his ruling elder to ilk provincial assembly; so that of all the haill ministers of the haill parishes, and a ruling elder chosen out of each parish, must none be absent from this provincial Assembly, but be personally and precisely there (health of body serving) but all and every minister is not obliged to keep every General Assembly.

James Murray clerk depute to the General Assembly had collected to him 20s. frae ilk minister an; ilk ruling elder, not used before; by order of the General Assembly ilk provincial Assembly is holden to pay the time coming. p. 326

Dr. Scroggie came not to this provincial assembly, as was ordered before by the committee of the kirk at Edinburgh, but stayed in Edinburgh, and writes his excuse; but the moderator and brethren accepted not pleasantly thereof; however he wrought so that he had gifted to him out of Ross, eight chalders of victual during his lifetime, since his kirk was taken frae him. Mr. Alexander Innes minister at Rothemay, his goodson, who was deposed frae his kirk also, and Mr. Alexander Scroggie his son, deposed frae his regency, as ye have head, ilk ane of them got a pension from the king.

Ilk minister was ordained to give up a roll of such papists as was within his parish, except excommunicate papists. That none who had not subscribed the covenant should have the benefit of the communion, yet see Dr. Forbes and Dr. Leslie communicate, who stood still out, notwithstanding of this ordinance. No order was taken with the planting a professor in the said Dr. Forbes' place, whereby the youth all this time wanted the benefit of learning. Sundry other acts were made here at this assembly, and upon Friday the 22d of October ilk man went home.

Much about the 13th of October there fell out a great stir at Edinburgh (the king and parliament peaceably sitting) anent an alledged plot devised by the earl of Crawford, lieutenant colonel Steuart, crowner Cochran,and some others, for taking or killing the marquis of Hamilton, the earl of Argyle, and earl of Lanerk, brother to the marquis, as the chief instruments of all thir troubles. The king, never seeing, or at least mistrusting Hamilton's loyalty, who had approven himself a traitor to his king and gracious master, and that with great policy and greater secrecy, who always acquainted our covenanters of whatever his majesty spoke, or wrote, or devised against them, whereby they were put on their guard, before the king could act any purpose, and as was plainly spoken, he did what he could to fortify the covenanters against his royal master the king, who had made up his lost estate, and given him as many favours as his heart could crave, or his majesty could give. However Hamilton, Lanerk, his brother, the lord Gordon p. 326 his sister's son, and the earl of Argyle (without the king's knowledge) went quietly frae court, and rode to a place of Hamilton's mother's called Kinneil, where for a while they remained together, nearhand Linlithgow, syne went to Hamilton, and therefrae to Glasgow in sober manner, as they thought fit. This pretended plot is alledged to be revealed to general Lesly by one called captain Hume. The town of Edinburgh, understanding of their flight, suddenly goes to arms, and puts a strong guard betides the ordinary guard, and within them, nearest and about the king, so that none could win in nor out to his majesty without their knowledge. General Lesly is made captain of this guard, governor of Edinburgh, and captain of the castle thereof. At this sudden alteration the king is astonished, not knowing what it meant, till he received a letter from the marquis, excusing his sudden departure, because his enemies had devised his ruin, whereat he much more marvelled; and immediately hung a sword about his craig, whilk he never did before. The earl of Crawford, Cochran, and lieutenant Crowner Stuart are suddenly taken, and ilk ane put in a baillie's house, securely guarded till further orders should be taken. Cochran and the haill officers of his regiment is cashiered, and discharged, and general Lesly appoints other officers over the regiment, whilk stood haill unbroken, and with Monro's regiment, consisting of about 1400 men, was drawn nearer Edinburgh through this business, and the town of Edinburgh straitly watched both day and night, with about 1000 men. This sudden flight was wonderful to many, quietly speaking of Hamilton's guiltiness every where. However, the parliament sits daily; this matter is agitated before the king and parliament, where his majesty spake plainly, that his own queen with tears had oftentimes told him of the marquis' miscarriages, whilk he would never believe, and now he saw some sparks of it appear, not only miscarrying himself, but drawing on the earls of Argyle and Lanerk to his opinion; some marvelled at the king's speech in such a place. Now it falls in how thir alledged plotters should be tried, some saying it was fittest they should be tried in face of parliament, whilk also was the king's will; others more p. 328 politiquely (who were the marquis' friends, most part being all his) said it was more fit they should be carried before a committee, to be chosen for that effect, whilk last opinion prevailed, and a committee chosen. The earl of Crawford, Crowner Cochran, and lieutenant Stuart, were brought before them well guarded; they are examined and denied all, as they who in the end proved most innocent of this guise. They are sent back ilk ane with his own guard to their lodgings. There was one also captain William Stuart examined before the committee.

Now thir matters being in hand, word was hastily sent to the lords and commons of the English parliament, fervent and forward friends to the marquis of Hamilton, no doubt, as he that was their politique friend from the beginning of thir troubles, and questionless having the king's ear daily, was the more profitable to them in this covenanting cause. Well, thir lords and commons speedily sends down to their own commissioners lying here at our parliament certain instructions.

Instructions of the lords and commons of the English parliament to the committee of both houses now attending his royal majesty in Scotland.

1st, Ye shall acquaint his majesty, that by your advertisement both houses have taken notice of the examination and confession taken in the parliament of Scotland for saving a malicious design and attempt, affirmed to be undertaken by the earl of Crawford and others against the persons of the marquis of Hamilton, the earls of Argyle and Lanerk, and having taken the same to consideration, they have good cause to doubt that such evil affected persons that would disturb the peace of the kingdom are not without some malicious correspondence here, which if this wished purpose had taken effect in Scotland, would have been ready to attempt some such malicious practice as might produce distemper and confusions in this kingdom, to the hazard of the public peace; for preserving whereof they have given order for strong guards in the city of London and Westminster, and have resolved to take into their care the security of the rest of the kingdom. p. 329

2ndly, Ye shall declare unto his most excellent majesty, that the estates of this parliament here do hold it a matter of great importance to this kingdom, that the religion, liberty, and peace of the kingdom of Scotland be preserved, according to the treaty and articles agreed by his majesty, and confirmed by act of parliament, of which they are bound to be careful, not only by public faith in their treaty, but likewise by the duty they owe to his majesty, and this kingdom, because they hold it will be a great mean for preserving religion, liberty, and peace in England and Ireland, and others his majesty's dominions, and the union of all his loyal subjects; in maintaining the common good of all, it will be a sure foundation of honour, greatness, and security to his majesty's royal person, crown, and dignity; wherefore they have resolved to employ their humble and faithful advice to his majesty, the power and authority of parliament of this kingdom, for suppressing all such as by any conspiracy, practice, or other attempt shall endeavour to disturb the peace of Scotland, and to infringe the articles of the treaty made betwixt the two kingdoms.

3dly, Ye shall likewise inform the king, that whereas order was given by his majesty, with consent of parliament, for disbanding the garrisons of Carlisle and Berwick, the first part whereof is already disbanding, and all the horse and eight companies of foot sent out of Berwick, and only five remaining, which likewise should have been disbanded, at or before the 15th of this month, if they had not been stayed by his majesty's command, signified by Mr. Treasurer Vane to sir Michael Erlie lieutenant governor, according to direction in that behalf.

And whereas, by order of parliament, six ships have been sent for transporting his majesty's munition, ordinance, and other provision in that town, and in Holy Island, all which have been very great charges to the commonwealth, the commons now assembled in parliament have declared, that they intend to be at no further charges for the long stay and entertainment of these men, or for the damages of the ships, if by occasion of this direction they did keep out longer than was agreed upon.

William Lenthall, 22d October 1641. p. 330

By this it may be perceived, that the earl of Crawford is pointed at in this business, and as was reported, the committee appointed for trying of this plot went on but slowly, and when matters came to voting they would not vote publicly, according to our old Scots form, lest their voices might be revealed, and turn to their own prejudice, but ilk ane did vote privately by billets, whereby no man's voice might be known. A new form here in Scotland! and it was thought the slowness of this committee proceeded only of policy from Hamilton himself, and that he feared to be accused of his enemies upon some matters, whereof he was doubtless guilty, as favouring the country before the king in all thir troubles, and in special, when his majesty had given him orders to land 4000 men at Aberdeen or Cromarty, to the effect: they might have joined with the king's loyal subjects in the North, to suppress the covenant, and to have debursed money, for levying soldiers to that purpose; on the contrary he came to Forth, and there lies, spending and wasting the king's money in huge measure, without doing any good service, or landing the men, whereas the lord Aboyne coming by sea in his fleet, landed in Aberdeen, as ye have heard before, gathered his friends in warlike manner, assuring them of help of men and money, and that they were to land presently, wherein the marquis failed, contrary to the king's command and expectation, and to the great disturbance of thir north parts.

The marquis of Hamilton finding himself guilty in thir and divers other points, and fearing to be revealed by some sparks that knew the verity, he shows his mind to the earl of Argyle, saying, he had engaged himself so far to the covenant and country, that he knew not how to eschew danger of himself, his estate and means, craving at Argyle what would be his part, who answered, he would live and die with him. Well then, says he, I have a mind to close up some of my enemies mouths, and will make it spread, that both your life, my brothers, and my own, are plotted for by such and such persons, and in the mean time, we will convey ourselves from court, to make the matter more likely; and being spread, it will fall out, that both the p. 331 kirk and country will suspect the king to be upon the counsel of this plot (for so it was said that out of pulpit it was preached in Edinburgh, that it was plotted to bring to death thir three noblemen, chief patriots and pillars of the kirk of God) this policy stopped the mouths of such as intended to complain against the marquis of Hamilton, and his complices. The king, ignorant of thir pieces, goes daily to the parliament, and was followed by multitudes of anti-covenanters and malcontents, such as the lord Ogilvie, the lord Ker, the laird of Banff, and divers others, who daily convoyed him to and from the house during thir times.

What shall be said? the king is counselled and persuaded to send for the marquis of Hamilton, and the earls of Argyle and Lanerk, who upon his letter came; the rumour calmed, and some little business made about the trial foresaid, but all for nought. They returned to the king upon the 2d of November.

Sunday the last of October, a fast was again kept in both Aberdeens, for the pox, fair weather, and a happy closure of the parliament.

Tuesday the 2d of November our consistory or sheriff-court sat down in Aberdeen, the laird of Drum being sheriff by commission, but the session sat not down, by reason, of the sitting of the parliament, till the 4th of January 1642.

About this time the Irish fearing to be pressed with our covenant, as is the Scots, they begin to look about them and to break loose, chiefly the papists and natives of the land; they had provision out of Dunkirk and West Flanders, of ammunition, powder and ball, together with store of brave officers of fortune out of France, Germany, Sweden, Holland, West Flanders, and other countries, and had drawn to an head, whereof Sir Philem O'neil was chief.

It is said that the natives lap to arms, about 20,000 men, to whom also joined the train bands, whom the defunct deputy had drawn up in Ireland before his decease, crying out for religion, laws, and liberties, and therewith entered in blood, killing, burning, and murdering of the protestants, Scottish and English, without mercy, robbing of p. 332 their goods and lives, sparing neither man, woman nor child. It is said our Scots lords offered their service against this rebellion, but the king answered, when he went home the parliament of England would take order therewith. Thus thro' occasion of this covenant is the king again vexed with Ireland, besides the commotions of England and Scotland, which took its beginning therefrae.

It is said that the king had received a letter from the earl of Montrose (cunningly conveyed, himself being warded in the castle of Edinburgh) desiring private conference with his majesty, where he would shew matters concerning his honour, his person and crown, whereat the king is astonished, and produced this letter publicly before the parliament, which being taken to consideration, the lords, for their own reasons, refused to grant any such private conference, but that Montrose should be heard in presence of the king and a committee appointed for that effect, who being brought in presence, and questioned upon his letter, whilk he thought none knew but the king himself, did so cunningly carry himself in this perplexity, that no ground or argument could be gathered from his speeches, do what they could; and after their labour is lost, he is convoyed to the cattle of Edinburgh, there to remain.

It is here to be noted that no maws were seen in the lochs of New or Old Aberdeen since the beginning of thir troubles, and coming of soldiers to Aberdeen, who before flocked and clocked in so great abundance, that it was pleasure to behold them flying above our heads, yea and some made use of their eggs and birds; in like manner few or no corbies were seen in either Aberdeens, at the Waterside of Dee or Don, or the shore, where they wont to flock abundantly for salmon gouries.

Now the parliament of Scotland is daily sitting, and the acts thereof printed, whilk the reader may read; but mark this much, that the covenanters had all their desire, and these who followed the king simpliciter were borne down from honours, dignities, and places, and they the covenanters had got all. The confession, articles of treaty, and general assembly ratified at large; order taken anent electing p. 333 officers of state, counsellors and sessioners. See the 15th act. The lord London was chosen chancellor, act 16; Robert earl of Roxburgh lord privy seal, who worthily had it before; William earl of Lanark, the marquis of Hamilton's brother, secretary, who had it before; Sir James Carmichael treasurer depute, and Sir John Hamilton clerk, aft 20; Sir Alexander Gibson was made clerk register, in place of Sir John Hay, who followed the king, act 21; the election of the counsellors act 22; and election of lords of session act 23. All this was done in favours of the Covenanters themselves, their friends and favourites. Then see the 33d act, anent the earl of Montrose, the lord Napier, Sir George Stirling of Keir, and Sir Archibald Stewart of Blackball, four of the incendiaries, how they are handled, the king declaring in the end of the said act, that he will not prefer any of the said persons to offices or places of court and state, without consent of parliament, nor grant them access to his person. Read in like manner the 34th act, where order is given for charging of John earl of Traquair, Sir Robert Spotswood, Sir John Hay, Dr. Walter Balcanquall, and Mr. John Maxwell pretended bishop of Ross, as plotters, to compear in manner and way as set down in said act. This is to be wondered at, that .the king, by an act of oblivion and pacification made in the same parliament, dispenseth with the uptaking of his own rents employed against himself by the Covenanters, act 41. He dispenses with the troubles made against his command and proclamations; he dispenses with the tyranny, oppression, plundering, and poinding of his good subjects; he dispenses with choosing a president who was before chosen by himself, act 50. Thir orders and many other grievances, faults, and hurting of his majesty's royal prerogative his majesty buries in oblivion.

But on the other side our Covenanters, to the admiration of the whole Christian world, will grant no privilege of this act to the king's faithful subjects and followers; but they must endure all pursuit, vexation, and trouble, as if they were rebellious traitors. His majesty is forced to suffer his true servants to be borne down by his great enemies, p. 334 and could not get them helped, albeit he dispensed with their faults, as is already said, and at their desire calls down his good subjects, degrades them of honours, dignities, and places, and puts them under the censure and judgment of their mortal enemies, whereby some are warded, some are plundered in their houses, estate, and means, in their horse, nolt, cattle, silver, coined and uncoined, goods and gear, girnels, corns and victual; other some their stately towers, castles, orchards, yards, and bigging, demolished and thrown to the ground, displenished, ruined, and made desolate, others fleeing the country for their lives, and in the mean time lost their livings and rents, to be intromitted with by their enemies, the covenanters, their rooms, places, and offices filled up, and peaceably possessed by the said Covenanters; so that where his good subjects looked for help and redress at his majesty's hands, by the clean contrary they are altogether disappointed, born down, and disgraced, and the Covenanters are highly preferred and exalted to their minds; and whatsomever they craved, the king is forced to yield unto them, and leaves his true subjects wrecked in means and moyan, distressed, and under great misery, tyranny, bloodshed, and oppression, and ilk ane to do for himself.

The earl of Marischal among the rest, got for himself a fifteen years tack frae the king, of the customs of Aberdeen and Banff, being for a debt owing by umquhile King James to his goodsire George earl Marischal, for home bringing Queen Ann out of Denmark. Marischal a prime covenanter, having got this tack, sets the same customs in backset to some well-affected burgesses of Aberdeen, for yearly payment of 12,500 merks, whilk far exceeded the tack duty before uplifted, through malice, as was thought, of their own neighbours. Surely thir tacksmen had no other intention but to have paid the tack duty; and if any thing was over, the superplus to be paid, piece and piece, for freeing the town of their debts contracted in thir troubles, (above 40,000 pounds Scots, as was said) at the least for helping to pay the annual rents thereof, and to have made no profit to themselves, nor to handle the neighbour tradesmen rigorously in uplifting of thir customs; but this good p. 335 purpose was maliciously crossed by Patrick Lesly, late provost, as ye may hereafter hear.

There were sundry pensions and gifts granted besides; the bishops lands through all Scotland were disposed here and there; amongst the rest the bishops rents of Aberdeen were disposed to the colleges of both Aberdeens, the two part to the King's College, and the third part to. the college Marischal. The bishop's house, manse, and yards, &c. Doctor Guild principal of the King's College, had gifted to himself. The rents of this bishoprick altogether were estimate to be about 8000 merks.

The earl of Argyle was made marquis of Argyle, the lord Loudon was made earl of Loudon, the lord Lindsay was made earl of Lindsay, general Lesly was made earl of Leven, constable of the castle of Edinburgh, by which he had yearly forty chalders of wheat and bear, and who also for his good service had 100,000 merks granted to him. There were divers other knights made, and many pensions granted; ratifications, protections pro et contra, whilk I refer to the acts of parliament. It was also statuted, that a committee of parliament should constantly sit at Edinburgh, for ordering of what could not be overtaken at this parliament, and for examining and trying of the five incendiaries formerly spoken of, and to close that process before the first of March, as well against them as against the plotters.

Thir things and many others thus ordered, upon Wednesday the 17th of November, the king, with his estates, rode the parliament in goodly manner; the crown was carried by the marquis of Argyle in absence of the marquis of Douglas, the scepter by the earl of Sutherland, and the sword by the earl of Mar. The marquis of Douglas came not to this parliament at all; the marquis of Huntly came about the 28th of August, as is before noted, but came not to the parliament, but attended the king to and from the tolbooth, yet now he rides in his own place, and the king is conveyed to his own palace of Holy-rood-house. He frankly gives the nobility a banquet in royal and merry manner; the castle salutes the king at supper, with 32 shot of great ordnance. The same time the earl of Montrose, the lord Napier, the lands of Ker and Blackhall, four of the p. 336 five alledged incendiaries, sir Robert Spotswood president, and sir John Hay clerk register, upon caution are let at liberty out of the castle of Edinburgh. The earl of Crawford, Crowners Cochran, and Stewart, are upon caution let out of the baillies houses without more hearing. The same time the bishop of Murray is upon caution set at liberty out of the tolbooth of Edinburgh, he goes to Angus, where, with his brother the minister of Aberbrothock, he quietly remains, and never came back to Spynie.

Upon Thursday the 18th of November the king goes to coach, having in his company his own sister's son the Palsgrave or count Palatine of the Rhine, the duke of Lennox, the marquis of Hamilton, the earl of Morton, with some few company; sundry of the nobles, barons and burgesses took their leave, others some convoyed him from the town, amongst whom was the marquis of Huntly, and the castle again gives his majesty a good-night of 32 shot of guns, and so he posts hastily to Seaton, where he breakfasted, leaving all things so soundly stated both in kirk and policy, as they themselves could desire, and his majesty returned haill and sound back again to London, upon Thursday the 25th of November, where he was welcomed of his queen, nobles, and city of London, banquetted and royally and richly propyned. In respect of their joy made by the mayor, aldermen and burgesses, citizens of London, he with his queen, nobles, and others, were banquetted by the city in Guildhall, and thereafter propyned with 20,000 pounds sterling in a fair cup of gold, and five thousand pounds sterling in a golden bason given to the queen; thereafter he is conveyed to his palace at Whitehall. The king thus gone, there followed to the English parliament frae the estates of Scotland, nine commissioners, three for the nobles, three for the barons, and three for the burgesses.

Monro's regiment and Cochran's regiment (suppose himself and his officers were cashiered) standing still about Leith and Edinburgh, and in the country, and the lord Sinclair's regiment standing still in Aberdeen, all the garrisons of Carlisle and Berwick were disbanded, under pretext of wanting pay, but the contrary was spoken, saying thir p. 337 three regiments were kept up in case of any disorder, the king being removed; however they were all at last removed.

The decreet pronounced against the lord Haddo, at the instance of the lord Fraser and laird of Lesly upon 13500 merks, is ratified in parliament, and Haddo made protestation against the same.

The marquis of Huntly rode with the king to Berwick, syne returned, (after he had seen his mother the lady Dowager of Huntly) to Edinburgh; his son the lord Aboyne still remaining in England, he takes course with the marquis of Argyle, and wadsets to him the lordships of Lochaber and Badenoch for his relief of his two daughters tocher good, viz. to the earl of Perth, with lady Anna his eldest daughter, 30,000 pounds; to the lord Seaton, married with lady Henrietta, his second daughter, 40,000 merks; and to the earl of Haddington, married with lady Jean, 22,000 pounds, as was reported. This last marriage was made by Argyle in absence of the marquis of Huntly; and while the earl of Argyle got payment of this cautionry, ' and some other debts besides, he possessed the lands, uplifted the rents, and received the mails and duties thereof, whilk tended greatly to the prejudice of the marquis, with other burdens.

About the 6th of December Dr. Scroggie came back frae Edinburgh to New Aberdeen, where he carried quietly.

General Ruthven, earl of Etrick, being forfaulted for not giving over the castle of Edinburgh, is at this parliament again restored, as ye may read among the acts.

The estates having got all their wills, would at last grant one favour to the king, which was, that the haill incendiaries and plotters being tried according to the Scots law, then his majesty should be judge of the conviction or absolution. See the 33d and 34th acts of parliament made thereanent. The king having got this favour, the earl of Traquair, after his majesty's departure, came frae Holy Island home to Scotland, and bade trial before the committee of parliament.

Sunday the 12th of December a fast was kept in both Aberdeens for the troubles in Ireland betwixt the papists and protestants. Dr. Guild preached there, and brought p. 338 in a new form, which was the ringing of a bell to the afternoon sermon that day.

Sir Paul Menzies of Kinmundy, late provost of Aberdeen, departed this life in his own house in Aberdeen, upon Saturday the 18th of December, and was honourably buried upon the Monday thereafter.

Ye heard before anent the customs of Aberdeen and Banff. Patrick Lesly, late provost, envies the town of Aberdeen's good proceedings, and strives against it, drawing sir William Dick, provost of Edinburgh, to his opinion, who is so steady in furnishing money in the good cause to the estates, that hardly could they do any thing without him; like as they had given a set of the king's customs through all Scotland to him (except the customs of Aberdeen and Banff) for payment of his debts; this Sir William Dick said, he could not want the customs of Aberdeen and Banff more than the rest; it was answered, the earl Marischal had gotten them already; he said, he would pay Marischal his debt, whereupon the estates tries Marischal; he said he could not now take his sums, because he had already set in subtack these customs of Aberdeen and Banff to the town of Aberdeen, frae the whilk he could not flee, but would bide by his tack, and not dispose the same to Sir William Dick. The committee of estates of parliament travail between them for agreeance, but no settling, because it was thought if Sir William Dick had got the tack, he would have set the same to Patrick Lesly, as indeed in end it proved.

Mr. John Row, schoolmaster at Saint Johnston, by convoy of Mr. Andrew Cant is brought to Aberdeen, where he bade his trials, being but a young man, and thereafter was admitted minister in Aberdeen.

Mr. John Oswald minister at     was by order of the General Assembly appointed to be transplanted therefrae to Aberdeen, where he also came with his wife and family, to serve as a minister. Thir ministers, with the said Andrew Cant, came not by the town's seeking, or free election, as they were wont to do, but imposed upon them by assemblies one way, and moyan another, irresistibly, and whilk they durst not disobey, contrary to old life and wont. p. 331a

Friday the 25th of December, of old called Yool-day, and whereon preaching, praise, and thanksgiving to God, was given in remembrance of the birth of our blessed Saviour, and whereat friends and neighbours were merry together, and made good chear, now this day no such preachings nor such meetings with merriness, walking up and down, but on the contrary this day was commanded to be kept as a work-day, ilk burgess to keep his booth,, and ilk craftsman his work, feasting and idleness forbidden out of the pulpit, The consistory had no vacance at this yool, but had little ado. The people were otherwise inclined, but durst not disobey, yet little merchandise was sold, and as little work wrought on this day in either Aberdeen. The coleginers and other scholars kept the schools against their wills this day, but the coleginers got the play upon the 27th of December to the 3d of January, and the grammarians to the 10th of January.

Upon the same Yool-day the lord Gordon came to George Middleton's in Old Aberdeen, where he attended the marquis's coming, who shortly followed, and upon the first of January 1642, he with a few company came to Aberdeen, and lodged in Mr. Alexander Reid's house. He was not in this country since the 13th of April 1639, that he went south with the marquis of Montrose. Upon the morn being Sunday, he came over to the Oldtown, heard the devotion, both before and afternoon, dined with the laird of Cluny, and after sermons he returned back to his own lodging, and both he and his own son within two days rode to Strathboggie.

Ye heard before of the king's welcome home to England, the parliament still sitting there whileas he is here in Scotland. His majesty now keeps the parliament like a most gracious prince, where they urge him to condescend to many acts, to his great miscontentment, such as the taking away the voices of bishops, and removing the court of the star chamber. He took away the high commission; he condescends to a triennial parliament, never heard of before; he relinquishes all title of imposing duties upon merchandise; he granted a pressing of soldiers, and a continuation p. 332a to the parliament of a large time to sit; (not ordinary) he quitted tonnage and poundage, two of the most gainful customs belonging to his crown; he discharged them of ship-monies and ammunition, whilk the country bestowed on his ships royal for their maintenance, with diverse other liberties. Thus is the good king compelled to yield to such ordinances as his royal predecessors never did grant, hoping still to get their furtherance and assistance to subdue our Scottish covenant, and beat back our army from Newcastle; but herein was he much deceived, they never minding any such matter, but craftily drew us in arms, that thereby they might get a parliament indicted to bear down bishops and church government, as was secretly covenanted betwixt us and them, and to clip the king's wings of his own royal prerogative: so that in place of raising of arms against us, our army was well entertained upon their expences during their abode in England, and by their draught we disbanded our army first; the king next by a treaty of peace; then in face of parliament we got all our desires in church and policy that we could crave. The king thinking to have settled us in peace, went back to his English parliament, who laboured still to have the same sort of church government and political government frae his majesty, whether he would or not, and to have the samen also established in Ireland, to the king's great grief.

Ye heard before how John Leith of Harthill was warded in the tolbooth of Edinburgh for a high-cause, and how he was set at liberty. Patrick Lesly, his mortal enemy, and provost of Aberdeen, gets him warded again, because he would not set caution that the burgh of Aberdeen should be harmless, and skaithless of him, under the pain of forfeiture of his estate, which he would not do, and so he remained fast.

About this time father Philip, the queen's chief confessor, was taken in London, and warded, to her great grief, and against the privilege of her contract of marriage.

Anno 1642.

The lord marquis of Huntly, with his son the lord Gordon, upon the 7th of January ,1642 rides from Aberdeen to p. 333a Strathboggie, conveens his friends, and by their advice lays down a course for settling of his distressed estate, to pay his debt, and provide his bairns. After consideration they found the burden grievous, for the lordships of Lochaber and Badenoch were impignorate, as ye have heard before, and he had no rents there during the not redemption. The lordship of the Enzie had the lady dowager to be life-rentrix thereof; besides the whilk, the marquis had feued out the same for great sums of money, keeping the old rental to be only and yearly paid. This noble marquis, through his prodigious spending in his youth, and other crosses, by his misfortune is brought to renounce his haill estate to the lord Gordon, for payment of his debt and provision to his bairns, reserving only to himself the sum of ten thousand merks of yearly rent, during his lifetime, and the house of Strathboggie and house of Old Aberdeen to dwell in, whilk was the most his great estate could now bear; but this bargain betwixt him and the lord Gordon came never to full perfection, because the marquis kept still possession.

Upon Sunday the 9th of January there was universally through all Scotland, and both Aberdeens, preaching and thanksgiving to God for the happy and peaceable closure of our parliament, with singing of psalms within the church, but not through the streets, as was used in elder time.

Our sovereign lord's session sat not down while the fourth, of January, because of some other business depending upon the preceeding parliament.

Ye heard before of the king's departure, and the manner thereof, where it is to be observed he gave out many gifts and pensions before his going, among which l00 l. sterling was granted to the late deposed bishop of Aberdeen (now lying in England) yearly, but another man's name was borrowed thereto. The king's provision came to Holy-rood-house from England, and yet before he went, his householding and other expences drew up to 700,000 merks, wared and bestowed. by the estates, which was to be payed out of the king's rents in Scotland. Diverse thought this was an account of extraordinary charges, seeing he had provision out of England during his abode here. p. 334a

The committee of estates of parliament daily sitting at Edinburgh, thought it not fit that any person should be paid while the king's own debt of 700,000 merks was paid, and whatsomever gift or pension granted by him might be controlled by them and the lords of exchequer.

Sir James Douglas, brother to the lord marquis of Douglas, by patent had power to levy out of Scotland 2000 soldiers, who voluntarily would go with him to France. Captain Robert Keith, brother to the earl Marischal, and captain Gordon of Tulloch were employed, and raised some soldiers in this country, to that service.

Ye heard before anent the customs of Aberdeen and Banff. The earl of Marischal stands to his gift, ratified in parliament; Aberdeen having a subtack frae him, sends over their commissioners to Edinburgh to back the same. Marischal himself rides over; Patrick Lesly also; the matter is agitated before the committee of estates of parliament. Sir William Dick craved the customs of Aberdeen and Banff as due to him, as well as the rest of the customs of Scotland, (by information and instigation of the said Patrick Lesly, as was largely spoken) otherwise he would advance no more monies to the public. The earl Marischal answers, in presence of the committee, that he had gotten a gift for payment of 5000 l. sterling resting to his good sire, a true debt ratified in parliament, whilk is the most the laws of Scotland may do for his security; and if they will bring back the king's gift, orderly past and ratified by parliament, he has no more assurance for all his lands and estate, but they may be taken frae him, as well as their customs, whereof he had already set a subtack to the town of Aberdeen, whilk with his honour he could not quit, but bide by the same. The committee of estates heard the earl, but he received no satisfactory answer; whereupon he went, to the door malecontent. Now it is here to be remembered, that this committee of estates appointed to sit daily in Edinburgh, in place of parliament, for ruling of such business as could -not be expede in face of full parliament, consisted of nobles, barons, and burgesses, whilk are the three estates, and that of the primest and choicest covenanters. This Patrick Lesly being one of the first, he p. 335a was thereby one of the committee, who sat with them as a burgess, he had thereby the favours of that estate, and for William Dick, who was working in his name this work, he had the moyan of the marquis of Argyle, the earl of Rothes' friends, the earl of Lindsay, general Lesly earl of Leven, and what they could do for Patrick Lesly; so that in the end he overbalanced the earl, do what he could, and wan his point, contrary to law, equity, and reason, to the great grief of Aberdeen (except his own faction therein) who as is said had sent him over as their commissioner, to have gotten a gift of a tack of their own customs, and had allowed him 4000 merks for his onwaiting charges and expences; but while as the town of Aberdeen looked that he was dealing for them, it was thought he dealt for himself, whereby the earl Marischal was preferred before him to the customs foresaid, whereupon this Patrick Lesly took this course, to cross this noble earl in his just acquired right. Thus they contended for the same most wilfully, the town of Aberdeen doing what they could by their commissioner Mr. Matthew Lumsden, to back the earl against the said Patrick Lesly, who had mightily wronged them, and consumed their means, as is already said.

Now great tumults and uproars in London anent episcopacy, the house of commons pretending to have them abolished, others again of the upper house against the same. The apprentices of London rise in arms, crying, Down with episcopacy! the king's own guard and trained soldiers meddle with them, and kills some of thir apprentices. In end this treacherous tumult is pacified, whereupon followed a new covenant among some of the nobles and bishops and others, concluding to defend the liberties of bishops, according to the laws, against the house of commons, inventers and devisers of this business. It is sworn and subscribed, as was reported, but the marquis of Hamilton and the earl of Lanerk his brother being urged to subscribe the same, refused, because they had already subscribed the Scots covenant. It was answered, he was earl of Cambridge in England, and so one of their nobles, who should concur and assist them; he still refused, whereby he is daily more and more well known to be the country's but not the king's p. 336a man, as his majesty trusted, and as himself outwardly professed, and thereby daily and justly drawn in suspicion, and at last leaves the king, and keeps the parliament.

Now printed papers daily coming from London, called Diurnal Occurrences, declaring what is done and acted in parliament, upper and lower houses, which is tedious here to insert. It was reported that the king commanded Sir William Balfour, captain of the Tower of London, to be removed, Whilk was obeyed (but before he came out, the haill cannon of the tower were dismounted and made unserviceable) and the king puts in his place a Frenchman called colonel Biron, at least to be lieutenant of the Tower. The apprentices, doubtless by instigation, still of the lower house, again get up in London, crying out, and craving colonel Linford, with some other commanders, to be removed out of the Tower, being the king's loyal men, whilk the king granted to settle this tumult. There were some more of the like stirs of the apprentices, to the king's high anger, who now begins to go and come with a strong guard for his own safety.

About the l0th of January 1642, the baillies of Old Aberdeen, John Forbes and Thomas Mercer, by tolerance of Dr. Guild principal, caused masons throw down to the ground the bishop's dove-coat (whilk indeed was ruinous and unprofitable) to be stones to the bigging of a songschool, whilk by some was not thought sacreligious, but yet was evil done as others thought.

About the 20th of January there came to the parliament 12 English bishops with a petition, declaring according to the English law the bishops should conveen in parliament and possess their own places; but to this parliament they could not come nor resort, for fear of their life, and therefore in presence of the king,the lords and peers, protested solemnly, that what was acted in this parliament since the 27th of December should be null and of none avail, or what should be done thereafter in their absence should be likewise null, because they durst not come to the house of commons for fear of their lives, being by multitudes of unknown people daily boasted and menaced in their coming to that honourable house of parliament, to perform their service. After this petition and protestation was read, the bishops were removed, p. 337a who went to their lodgings; the upper house sent down the same to the house of commons, who took this lawful petition and pregnant protestation (working to turn all their travel to nought) so highly, that incontinent without more advice of the king or upper house, they sent out the black rod, who took and apprehended every one of thir 12 bishops, out of their lodgings, and brought them before the house of commons, who, as the form is, were all set down upon their knees at the bar. After some speeches, the learned and well beloved bishop of Durham, with another bishop of great note, were committed to the Black Rod, and the other ten were committed to the Tower; they are daily accused in face of his majesty and both houses of parliament, upon this petition and protestation; they made their own apologies in defence thereof, whilk was little thought of; they desire to be put to liberty, which is denied and refused by the house of commons. In the end they are forfeited in their haill goods, gear, and possessions, and degraded from their offices and dignities, eight whereof had some competent means to sustain their lives, and other four more, evil exposed, had less.

Great cruelty in Ireland, and meikle blood spilt of the English and Scottish puritan protestants; fire and sword went almost through the haill land without mercy to sex or kind, young or old, man, woman, or child, all put to death, and their goods spoilzied; they rage at our covenant, compelled thereto by their own Irish parliament, holden by the king's commissioners of England (for their parliament is sub-delegate to the English parliament, and whatever is enacted or done in this Irish parliament is by the English commissioners, and by direction, and at command of the council and parliament of England) who now had given warrant against the natives and others, to swear and subscribe the covenant, minding to bring the king's haill dominions under one covenant, whilk bred meikle sorrow and trouble among the Irishes, and vexation and trouble to the Scottish and English, as is hereafter noted.

Captain Forbes, alias Kaird, of whom ye heard before, by moyan of some friends, is, after long imprisonment, about the 22d of January, set to liberty out of the tolbooth of Edinburgh. p. 338a

Saturday the 22d of January the lord Sinclair returned back from Edinburgh to Aberdeen, to his soldiers.

Now the committee of estates of parliament goes on upon the trial of James earl of Montrose, Archibald lord Napier, Sir George Stirling of Keir, and Sir Archibald Stuart of Blackball, as alledged incendiaries; John earl of Traquair, Sir Robert Spotswood of Dunnipace, and Sir John Hay late clerk register, Dr. Walter Balcanquall and John sometime bishop of Ross, being fugitives and absent, as having been plotters, devisers, and machinators of courses against the public weal, as it is set down in the 33d and 34th acts of King Charles' second parliament. What was done and tried against them, or either of them, was not revealed, but kept secret; yet it was reported that Traquair was convicted in five capital points, but his sentence is referred to the king.

Sir Phelim O'niel, now general of the Irish, as ye heard before, grows now daily more and more great in forces, and without resistance makes havock of all his enemies; and, as report parted, had the haill country near conquered.

The king sent to the house of commons two of his own domestic servants, called Sir William Fleming, and Mungo Murray, desiring some five of their number to be imprisoned, for treason committed by them against his majesty, whilk was not obeyed. The king quickly directed to cause seal the trunks of these five persons, that none should be opened, while they were sighted; the lower house again, at their own hand, in misregard of the king, violently brake up their trunks, to his high displeasure and dishonour. The names of thir five is Pyme, Hampden, Stroud, Hollis, and Haslerig. His majesty, seeing his authority thus abused, resolved to quit the parliament, and rides frae Westminster to one of his own houses at Southampton, having with him his queen, prince palatine, his sister's son, the duke of Lenox, with some others, and his own trained band, consisting of 500 men. Thus with grief and miscontentment he leaves the parliament. It is said the marquis of Hamilton made choice to attend the parliament, and left the king, as he that was no great courtier. p. 339

Sunday the 23d of January there rose a high and mighty wind, which blew over the corps-du-guard, bigged at the cross of Aberdeen, and hurt and bruised some five or six of Sinclair's soldiers lying therein, upon the night, where, by their fire the timber was kindled and had almost put the town on fire, but the town's men quickly gathered, drowned out the fire, and relieved the soldiers. It is said, the same corps-de-guard was blown from the place whereon it stood to the earl Marischal's yett, whilk appears to be William Scot's mansion, for it was bigged all of his timber, himself being out of the country. In this month of January there were heard very unusual high winds, whilk doubtless did great skaith by sea, amongst which the merchants of Aberdeen lost 100 tuns of wine in a French ship.

Friday the 28th of January, the lord Aboyne now came from England home to Edinburgh, after he had bidden a long time out of the country.

The 2d of February at midnight, there arose an extraordinary high wind here in Aberdeen, with fireslaught and rain. The rivers of Dee and Ythan, through high flood, overflowed their wonted limits, both in this month and January. Dee surpassed in speat the key-head, and Ythan grew so great, that it drowned out the fires in some men's houses dwelling in Ellon and Newburgh, far beyond the wonted course; many thinking thir to be prodigious tokens. Besides in Mart, about that part called Banka Fair, the country people heard nightly tucking of drums, beginning about the sky going to, and continuing till eight hours at even; the noise was fearful, for they would hear marches perfectly tucked, as if there had been an army in order. This was not well thought of by honest peaceable men, as it over-well proved, to the overthrow of the house of Drum.

Ye heard before of the lord Sinclair's coming back to Aberdeen. Mr. Robert Farquhar paid the town's people in old mitey meal for his soldiers entertainment, who had continued there a long time. Now they raised four fieldpieces, whilk they had Handing at the cross, and Sinclair drew up his soldiers, consisting of but about 260 men, and p. 340 upon Wednesday the 9th of February he began with bag and baggage to march South, leaving Aberdeen not well paid, for this Farquhar outed his mitey meal upon the honest people of the town at an high price, for the good entertainment they had furnished out of their purses.

This regiment grew less and less daily, and was no more but about 260 soldiers at their departure; they did no good, but meikle evil daily, debauching, drinking, whoring, night walking, combating, swearing, and brought sundry honest. women-servants to great misery, whose bodies they had abused; some of whom followed the camp out of the town, others went out to the Crabestone, and returned back again to Aberdeen; but they and such others as was guilty, were cruelly handled for their whoredom; for some were warded in the Pittie-vault, some set caution to remove from the town, after they had compted and reckoned for their tavernry with their mistresses; other some were taken and warded in the tolbooth, whereof there were 12 taken, and with tows bound two and two together, and convoyed by the hangman through the streets out of the town, ordained to be banished perpetually, and none hereafter to receipt them under the pain of 40 lb. toties quoties. It is said there were delated and tried, about 65 of thir poor women, whereof some fled, some banished, some set caution in manner foresaid, and all and every one brought under shame and great misery, whereof no doubt were honest men's wives and maids at last called in great suspicion.—O! woeful Aberdeen, by thy sins this heavy scourge is laid upon thee, by all the burghs of Scotland much to be lamented. Thus this ribband regiment heaped up sin to our own numberless sins, and did no more good, lying idle and consuming honest men's livings.

About this time we heard how the duke of Lenox was called in some question by the English parliament, wrought by the malice of the marquis of Hamilton, as was said; but it turned to nought; for the duke bade constantly with the king, and the other (being over-well thought of both in Scotland and England) keeps full the parliament.

Monday the 14th of February the lord Aboyne came frae Edinburgh home to Strathboggie, and heard of his father's affair, as ye may read before. p. 341

About the 24th of February Mr. William Blackball, one of the regents of the college Marischal, a prompt scholar, bred, born, and brought up in Aberdeen, and never yet out of the country, refused to subscribe the country covenant, as the rest did; whereupon he was deposed of his regency, thereafter he lived simply in sober manner within the town. He is called in suspicion of popery; he is conveened before the session of Aberdeen, and at last brought before the presbytery upon the foresaid 24th of February, the samen then sitting within the College kirk of Old Aberdeen, Mr. David Lindsay, parson of Belhelvie, moderator. He is accused of what religion he was, and of what kirk he was; after some answers at last he plainly and avowedly declared he was a Roman Catholic, and would bide by the same, to the astonishment of the haill hearers, being of another profession as appears, and so pertly (now in the hottest time of persecution of papists in this land) to manifest himself so. After some dealing with him by the ministry and brethren, at last he is excommunicate and charged to conform, or leave the country.

Upon Monday the 21st of February the queen's majesty, upon certain reasons moving her, took her leave of the king, and shipped at Dover, syne sailed to Holland to see her daughter lady Mary, princess of Orange, at the Hague; .she was honourably convoyed by the king's royal ships, and royally received at the Hague both by the prince of Orange elder and the young prince also, her own grandson.

Strait proclamations were made in England, charging all papists, jesuits, and seminary priests to remove forthwith out of the kingdom, under the pains contained in the acts of parliament made in Q. Elizabeth's time.

Upon Sunday the 27th of February, a declaration was read out of the Oldtown pulpit, by our minister Mr. William Strahan, shewing the state of the protestants in Ireland, and how their wives and bairns were miserably banished, and forced to flee into the west parts of Scotland for refuge, and the land not able to sustain them. It was found expedient, that ilk parish within the kingdom should receive a collection of ilk man's charity, for their help and p. 342 support, whereupon was collected of this poor parish fourscore pounds.

The archbishop of Canterbury is now begun upon, and trial taken of his disorder, and the rest of the bishops was all continued to a general assembly, confiding both of bishops and ministers, for settling the distractions of their own kirk of England.

Pitiful it is to hear or see our royal king to be so abused by written pamphlets, and whereof himself oftentimes complains , and to let the reader know one despiteful pamphlet, I have let it down in this place, verbatim.

Change thy place, Charles, put on Pyme's gown,
Whilst in the upper house he wears thy crown.
Let him be king a while, and be you Pyme,
They will adore thee, as they now do him;
Hang up thy bishops that so proudly strive,
T'advance their own and thy prerogative;
And be content, since some of them are Romans,
To have some traitors in the house of commons.
Let us do what we list, and you shall see,
We'll all be kings, as well as Pyme or ye.
We fasted first, and prayed, that wars would cease,
When fasting would not do't, we paid for peace,
And 'glad we had it so; then gave God thanks,
Which makes the Irish play the Scottish pranks.

Let the good reader consider this pamphlet, and see how his royal majesty is used. This Pyme indeed was master speaker in the lower house, who was no great friend to the king, but did his best for the liberties of the subject, misregarding the royal prerogative. He is accused by the king of treason, but he got no remead.



Abercorn, master of, marries Lady Jean Gordon 19
    town of, prepares to resist the Covenanters, 102, 111
    is fined 40,000 merks for standing out against the covenant, 139
    oppressed by the covenanting army, 141, 158, 159
    fined in 6000 merks, 176
    in 600 merks, 212
    in 6000 merks, 208
Aboyne, viscount of, with five others, burnt in the house of Frendraught 10
Aboyne, Lord,
    raises forces against the Covenanters, 142
    disbands them, and goes to the King, 148
    returns to Aberdeen, 164
    made lieutenant of the north during his father's captivity, 168
    raises forces, 169
    plunders Hallforest and Fintray, 171
    marches against Earl Marischal, but is beat back, 172
    fortifies the bridge of Dee, which is taken by the covenanters, 173
    goes to Berwick, 177
Airly, earl of, his houses plundered, 228
Angus, earl of, Marries Lady Mary Gordon, 18
Band between the Scotch and English malignants, 55
Banff, laird of, his house and lands plundered, 248, 252
Bishops deposed by the General Assembly, 93
Bishop's palace in Old Aberdeen plundered, 157
Bon-accord, articles of, 214
Cant, Andrew,
    minister at Pitsligo, translated to Newbottle, 112
    and to Aberdeen, 245
Canterbury, Laud archbishop of, the Scottish commissioners charge against him 275
Charles. I.
    comes to Edinburgh, 20
    his coronation, 23
    holds a parliament, 25
    thirty five of his domestics drowned, 28
    leaves Edinburgh, and goes to England, 28
    his letters to the Magistrates, &c. of Aberdeen, 74
    sends down articles for reformation, 77
    sends a fleet to the Firth of Forth, 147
    raises an army and comes to Berwick, 165
    pacification between him and the covenanters army, 178
    disbands his army, 182
    goes to arms again, 252
    comes to York, 262
    to Edinburgh, 318
    his speech to the Scotch parliament, 319
    leaves Edinburgh, 336
Christmas, or Yool-day, prohibited to be kept, 287, 331
    rise in arms, and plunder the country, 3
    intercommuned, and such as harboured them, punished, 6
Committee of Estates, resolve to make the Marquis of Huntly, subscribe the covenant, 102
Common Prayer book,
    the reading of it in Edinburgh disturbed by a mob, 57
    in Brechin, and the bishop forced to flee, 60
    proclamation for using it, 62
    protested .against, 63
    destroyed in the Channery-kirk of Ross, and the bishop flees, 64
    prohibited by his Majesty's proclamation, 79, 83
Confession of Faith, and Band of Maintenance,
    ratified by the King, and ordained to be signed, 79
    protested against by the Covenanters, 85
Covenant signed at Aberdeen, 69
first so called, 66
    their commissioners come to Aberdeen, 68
    hold a committee at Turriff, 106
    their army comes to Aberdeen, 122
    routed at Turriff, 157
Drum, house of, taken, 220
Drummond, Lord, married to Lady Anne Gordon, 198
Dumbarton, cattle of, taken by the covenanters, 257
Dunglass, castle of, blown up with 8 persons in it, 258
Edinburgh Castle,
    attacked by the citizens, 214, 235
    surrendered, 260
Elgin, Cathedral of, its ornaments defaced, 288
Fetternear, house of, taken and destroyed, 221
Forbes, William,
    translated from Aberdeen, and made bishop of Edinburgh, 31
Forbes, Dr. of Corse deposed, 296
Forbes, Patrick, bishop of Aberdeen, dies, 88
Frendraught, laird of
    house of, burnt, 9
     kills Gordon of Rothemay, 8
     his grounds plundered by the Gordons, 33
Galloway, bishop of, fines Gordon for indecent behaviour, 56
General Assembly, sits at Glasgow, 89
Gilderoy, seven of his followers hanged, 49
Glasgow, Lindsay archbishop of, flees to the king, 202
Gordon of Dunkyntie and his son, murdered by Highlanders, 29
Gordon, John of Haddo,
    accused of plundering Lord Fraser and Forbes of Lesly's grounds, and fined in 13,500 merks, 304
Gregory, John, minister of Drumoak, fined in 1000 merks for no subscribing the covenant, 219
Guild, Dr William,
    chosen Principal of King's College, in room of the deposed Dr Lesly, 250
    causes the walls of the Snow Kirk (ecclesia S. Mariæ in Nivibus) to be pulled down. 267
Haddington, earl of, marries Lady Jean Gordon, 202
    blown up in the Castle of Dunglas, 258
Huntly, marquis of,
    accused by Frendraught offending the Gordons to plunder his grounds, 35
    is obliged to go to Edinburgh, and is imprisoned, 48
    released, 50
    dies 1636, 51
Huntly, George, marquis of,
    comes from France to Scotland, 54
    his lady dies, 67
    raises forces to disperse the covenanters committee at Turriff, 107
    receives arms from the king, 114
    his proclamation as lieutenant, 114
    disbands his army, 118
    is had to Edinburgh by the covenanters, 138
    imprisoned in the Castle, 143
    his reply to certain noblemen, 145
    set at liberty, 181
    his lands of Strathboggie plundered, 247
Huntly, dowager lady, obliged to leave Scotland on account of her religion, and go to France, 310
Lesly, felt-marshal,
    comes from Germany, 101
    commands the covenanters army, 122
    again chosen general, 217
    marches to Dunse, 252
    passes Newburn-ford, and takes Newcastle, 256
    created Earl of Leven, 335
Meldrum, John, tried for the fire at Frendraught, and executed, 29
Monster, seen in Don, 45
Montrose, marquis of,
    comes to Aberdeen, as commissioner for the covenanters, 68
    comes as general of the Covenanters to Aberdeen, 158
    takes 10,000 merks from Aberdeen, 170
    joins Earl Marischal, 173
    quarrels with Argyle, 305
    confined in Edinburgh Castle, 311
    writes to the King, 332
    is set at liberty, 335
Marischal College, east quarter of it burnt, 194
Marischal, earl of, causes Aberdeen subscribe the covenant, 210
St Machar's (the cathedral of Aberdeen) ornaments pulled down and destroyed, 346
Orange, prince of, married to princess Mary, 298
Rain, a great one in Murray, 59
Storm, a great one, 20, 339
Ships, four lost on the sands at Aberdeen, and 92 soldiers lost, 59
St. Andrews, Archbishop of, flees to England, 73
Seaton, lord, married to Lady Henrietta Gordon, 199
Spynie Castle, taken, 239
Sinclair's regiment, their debauched behaviour in Aberdeen, 340